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[数据库]数据库 关键字


介绍

为了避免在数据库表结构设计过程中使用系统保留关键字我们必须知道数据库存在哪些关键字,接下来会列出mysql、oracle、sqlserver三个数据库各自的保留关键字。 

 

Mysql

http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.7/en/keywords.html

ACCESSIBLE (R)ACCOUNT[a]ACTION
ADD (R)AFTERAGAINST
AGGREGATEALGORITHMALL (R)
ALTER (R)ALWAYS[b]ANALYSE
ANALYZE (R)AND (R)ANY
AS (R)ASC (R)ASCII
ASENSITIVE (R)ATAUTOEXTEND_SIZE
AUTO_INCREMENTAVGAVG_ROW_LENGTH
BACKUPBEFORE (R)BEGIN
BETWEEN (R)BIGINT (R)BINARY (R)
BINLOGBITBLOB (R)
BLOCKBOOLBOOLEAN
BOTH (R)BTREEBY (R)
BYTECACHECALL (R)
CASCADE (R)CASCADEDCASE (R)
CATALOG_NAMECHAINCHANGE (R)
CHANGEDCHANNEL[c]CHAR (R)
CHARACTER (R)CHARSETCHECK (R)
CHECKSUMCIPHERCLASS_ORIGIN
CLIENTCLOSECOALESCE
CODECOLLATE (R)COLLATION
COLUMN (R)COLUMNSCOLUMN_FORMAT
COLUMN_NAMECOMMENTCOMMIT
COMMITTEDCOMPACTCOMPLETION
COMPRESSEDCOMPRESSION[d]CONCURRENT
CONDITION (R)CONNECTIONCONSISTENT
CONSTRAINT (R)CONSTRAINT_CATALOGCONSTRAINT_NAME
CONSTRAINT_SCHEMACONTAINSCONTEXT
CONTINUE (R)CONVERT (R)CPU
CREATE (R)CROSS (R)CUBE
CURRENTCURRENT_DATE (R)CURRENT_TIME (R)
CURRENT_TIMESTAMP (R)CURRENT_USER (R)CURSOR (R)
CURSOR_NAMEDATADATABASE (R)
DATABASES (R)DATAFILEDATE
DATETIMEDAYDAY_HOUR (R)
DAY_MICROSECOND (R)DAY_MINUTE (R)DAY_SECOND (R)
DEALLOCATEDEC (R)DECIMAL (R)
DECLARE (R)DEFAULT (R)DEFAULT_AUTH
DEFINERDELAYED (R)DELAY_KEY_WRITE
DELETE (R)DESC (R)DESCRIBE (R)
DES_KEY_FILEDETERMINISTIC (R)DIAGNOSTICS
DIRECTORYDISABLEDISCARD
DISKDISTINCT (R)DISTINCTROW (R)
DIV (R)DODOUBLE (R)
DROP (R)DUAL (R)DUMPFILE
DUPLICATEDYNAMICEACH (R)
ELSE (R)ELSEIF (R)ENABLE
ENCLOSED (R)ENCRYPTION[e]END
ENDSENGINEENGINES
ENUMERRORERRORS
ESCAPEESCAPED (R)EVENT
EVENTSEVERYEXCHANGE
EXECUTEEXISTS (R)EXIT (R)
EXPANSIONEXPIREEXPLAIN (R)
EXPORTEXTENDEDEXTENT_SIZE
FALSE (R)FASTFAULTS
FETCH (R)FIELDSFILE
FILE_BLOCK_SIZE[f]FILTER[g]FIRST
FIXEDFLOAT (R)FLOAT4 (R)
FLOAT8 (R)FLUSHFOLLOWS[h]
FOR (R)FORCE (R)FOREIGN (R)
FORMATFOUNDFROM (R)
FULLFULLTEXT (R)FUNCTION
GENERALGENERATED[i] (R)GEOMETRY
GEOMETRYCOLLECTIONGET (R)GET_FORMAT
GLOBALGRANT (R)GRANTS
GROUP (R)GROUP_REPLICATION[j]HANDLER
HASHHAVING (R)HELP
HIGH_PRIORITY (R)HOSTHOSTS
HOURHOUR_MICROSECOND (R)HOUR_MINUTE (R)
HOUR_SECOND (R)IDENTIFIEDIF (R)
IGNORE (R)IGNORE_SERVER_IDSIMPORT
IN (R)INDEX (R)INDEXES
INFILE (R)INITIAL_SIZEINNER (R)
INOUT (R)INSENSITIVE (R)INSERT (R)
INSERT_METHODINSTALLINSTANCE[k]
INT (R)INT1 (R)INT2 (R)
INT3 (R)INT4 (R)INT8 (R)
INTEGER (R)INTERVAL (R)INTO (R)
INVOKERIOIO_AFTER_GTIDS (R)
IO_BEFORE_GTIDS (R)IO_THREADIPC
IS (R)ISOLATIONISSUER
ITERATE (R)JOIN (R)JSON[l]
KEY (R)KEYS (R)KEY_BLOCK_SIZE
KILL (R)LANGUAGELAST
LEADING (R)LEAVE (R)LEAVES
LEFT (R)LESSLEVEL
LIKE (R)LIMIT (R)LINEAR (R)
LINES (R)LINESTRINGLIST
LOAD (R)LOCALLOCALTIME (R)
LOCALTIMESTAMP (R)LOCK (R)LOCKS
LOGFILELOGSLONG (R)
LONGBLOB (R)LONGTEXT (R)LOOP (R)
LOW_PRIORITY (R)MASTERMASTER_AUTO_POSITION
MASTER_BIND (R)MASTER_CONNECT_RETRYMASTER_DELAY
MASTER_HEARTBEAT_PERIODMASTER_HOSTMASTER_LOG_FILE
MASTER_LOG_POSMASTER_PASSWORDMASTER_PORT
MASTER_RETRY_COUNTMASTER_SERVER_IDMASTER_SSL
MASTER_SSL_CAMASTER_SSL_CAPATHMASTER_SSL_CERT
MASTER_SSL_CIPHERMASTER_SSL_CRLMASTER_SSL_CRLPATH
MASTER_SSL_KEYMASTER_SSL_VERIFY_SERVER_CERT (R)MASTER_TLS_VERSION[m]
MASTER_USERMATCH (R)MAXVALUE (R)
MAX_CONNECTIONS_PER_HOURMAX_QUERIES_PER_HOURMAX_ROWS
MAX_SIZEMAX_STATEMENT_TIME[n]MAX_UPDATES_PER_HOUR
MAX_USER_CONNECTIONSMEDIUMMEDIUMBLOB (R)
MEDIUMINT (R)MEDIUMTEXT (R)MEMORY
MERGEMESSAGE_TEXTMICROSECOND
MIDDLEINT (R)MIGRATEMINUTE
MINUTE_MICROSECOND (R)MINUTE_SECOND (R)MIN_ROWS
MOD (R)MODEMODIFIES (R)
MODIFYMONTHMULTILINESTRING
MULTIPOINTMULTIPOLYGONMUTEX
MYSQL_ERRNONAMENAMES
NATIONALNATURAL (R)NCHAR
NDBNDBCLUSTERNEVER[o]
NEWNEXTNO
NODEGROUPNONBLOCKING[p]NONE
NOT (R)NO_WAITNO_WRITE_TO_BINLOG (R)
NULL (R)NUMBERNUMERIC (R)
NVARCHAROFFSETOLD_PASSWORD[q]
ON (R)ONEONLY
OPENOPTIMIZE (R)OPTIMIZER_COSTS[r] (R)
OPTION (R)OPTIONALLY (R)OPTIONS
OR (R)ORDER (R)OUT (R)
OUTER (R)OUTFILE (R)OWNER
PACK_KEYSPAGEPARSER
PARSE_GCOL_EXPR[s]PARTIALPARTITION (R)
PARTITIONINGPARTITIONSPASSWORD
PHASEPLUGINPLUGINS
PLUGIN_DIRPOINTPOLYGON
PORTPRECEDES[t]PRECISION (R)
PREPAREPRESERVEPREV
PRIMARY (R)PRIVILEGESPROCEDURE (R)
PROCESSLISTPROFILEPROFILES
PROXYPURGE (R)QUARTER
QUERYQUICKRANGE (R)
READ (R)READS (R)READ_ONLY
READ_WRITE (R)REAL (R)REBUILD
RECOVERREDOFILEREDO_BUFFER_SIZE
REDUNDANTREFERENCES (R)REGEXP (R)
RELAYRELAYLOGRELAY_LOG_FILE
RELAY_LOG_POSRELAY_THREADRELEASE (R)
RELOADREMOVERENAME (R)
REORGANIZEREPAIRREPEAT (R)
REPEATABLEREPLACE (R)REPLICATE_DO_DB[u]
REPLICATE_DO_TABLE[v]REPLICATE_IGNORE_DB[w]REPLICATE_IGNORE_TABLE[x]
REPLICATE_REWRITE_DB[y]REPLICATE_WILD_DO_TABLE[z]REPLICATE_WILD_IGNORE_TABLE[aa]
REPLICATIONREQUIRE (R)RESET
RESIGNAL (R)RESTORERESTRICT (R)
RESUMERETURN (R)RETURNED_SQLSTATE
RETURNSREVERSEREVOKE (R)
RIGHT (R)RLIKE (R)ROLLBACK
ROLLUPROTATE[ab]ROUTINE
ROWROWSROW_COUNT
ROW_FORMATRTREESAVEPOINT
SCHEDULESCHEMA (R)SCHEMAS (R)
SCHEMA_NAMESECONDSECOND_MICROSECOND (R)
SECURITYSELECT (R)SENSITIVE (R)
SEPARATOR (R)SERIALSERIALIZABLE
SERVERSESSIONSET (R)
SHARESHOW (R)SHUTDOWN
SIGNAL (R)SIGNEDSIMPLE
SLAVESLOWSMALLINT (R)
SNAPSHOTSOCKETSOME
SONAMESOUNDSSOURCE
SPATIAL (R)SPECIFIC (R)SQL (R)
SQLEXCEPTION (R)SQLSTATE (R)SQLWARNING (R)
SQL_AFTER_GTIDSSQL_AFTER_MTS_GAPSSQL_BEFORE_GTIDS
SQL_BIG_RESULT (R)SQL_BUFFER_RESULTSQL_CACHE
SQL_CALC_FOUND_ROWS (R)SQL_NO_CACHESQL_SMALL_RESULT (R)
SQL_THREADSQL_TSI_DAYSQL_TSI_HOUR
SQL_TSI_MINUTESQL_TSI_MONTHSQL_TSI_QUARTER
SQL_TSI_SECONDSQL_TSI_WEEKSQL_TSI_YEAR
SSL (R)STACKEDSTART
STARTING (R)STARTSSTATS_AUTO_RECALC
STATS_PERSISTENTSTATS_SAMPLE_PAGESSTATUS
STOPSTORAGESTORED[ac] (R)
STRAIGHT_JOIN (R)STRINGSUBCLASS_ORIGIN
SUBJECTSUBPARTITIONSUBPARTITIONS
SUPERSUSPENDSWAPS
SWITCHESTABLE (R)TABLES
TABLESPACETABLE_CHECKSUMTABLE_NAME
TEMPORARYTEMPTABLETERMINATED (R)
TEXTTHANTHEN (R)
TIMETIMESTAMPTIMESTAMPADD
TIMESTAMPDIFFTINYBLOB (R)TINYINT (R)
TINYTEXT (R)TO (R)TRAILING (R)
TRANSACTIONTRIGGER (R)TRIGGERS
TRUE (R)TRUNCATETYPE
TYPESUNCOMMITTEDUNDEFINED
UNDO (R)UNDOFILEUNDO_BUFFER_SIZE
UNICODEUNINSTALLUNION (R)
UNIQUE (R)UNKNOWNUNLOCK (R)
UNSIGNED (R)UNTILUPDATE (R)
UPGRADEUSAGE (R)USE (R)
USERUSER_RESOURCESUSE_FRM
USING (R)UTC_DATE (R)UTC_TIME (R)
UTC_TIMESTAMP (R)VALIDATION[ad]VALUE
VALUES (R)VARBINARY (R)VARCHAR (R)
VARCHARACTER (R)VARIABLESVARYING (R)
VIEWVIRTUAL[ae] (R)WAIT
WARNINGSWEEKWEIGHT_STRING
WHEN (R)WHERE (R)WHILE (R)
WITH (R)WITHOUT[af]WORK
WRAPPERWRITE (R)X509
XAXID[ag]
XOR (R)YEARYEAR_MONTH (R)
ZEROFILL (R)  

 

Oracle

select * from v$reserved_words order by keyword asc 

!!=&()*+,-./:;<<<<===>>>=@AABORTABSACCESSACCESSEDACCOUNTACOSACTIVATEACTIVE_COMPONENTACTIVE_FUNCTIONACTIVE_TAGADDADD_COLUMNADD_GROUPADD_MONTHSADJ_DATEADMINADMINISTERADMINISTRATORADVISEADVISORAFTERALIASALLALLOCATEALLOWALL_ROWSALTERALWAYSANALYZEANCILLARYANDAND_EQUALANTIJOINANYANYSCHEMAAPPENDAPPENDCHILD

 

SQLServer

https://msdn.microsoft.com/zh-cn/library/ms189822

下表列出了 SQL Server 保留关键字。

add

EXTERNAL

PROCEDURE

ALL

FETCH

PUBLIC

ALTER

FILE

RAISERROR

And

FILLFACTOR

READ

ANY

FOR

READTEXT

As

FOREIGN

RECONFIGURE

ASC

FREETEXT

REFERENCES

AUTHORIZATION

FREETEXTTABLE

REPLICATION

BACKUP

from

RESTORE

BEGIN

FULL

RESTRICT

BETWEEN

FUNCTION

RETURN

BREAK

GOTO

REVERT

BROWSE

GRANT

REVOKE

BULK

GROUP

RIGHT

BY

HAVING

ROLLBACK

CASCADE

HOLDLOCK

ROWCOUNT

Case

IDENTITY

ROWGUIDCOL

CHECK

IDENTITY_INSERT

RULE

CHECKPOINT

IDENTITYCOL

SAVE

close

IF

SCHEMA

CLUSTERED

IN

SECURITYAUDIT

COALESCE

INDEX

SELECT

COLLATE

INNER

SEMANTICKEYPHRASETABLE

COLUMN

INSERT

SEMANTICSIMILARITYDETAILSTABLE

COMMIT

INTERSECT

SEMANTICSIMILARITYTABLE

COMPUTE

INTO

SESSION_USER

CONSTRAINT

is

SET

CONTAINS

JOIN

SETUSER

CONTAINSTABLE

KEY

SHUTDOWN

CONTINUE

KILL

SOME

CONVERT

LEFT

STATISTICS

CREATE

LIKE

SYSTEM_USER

CROSS

LINENO

TABLE

CURRENT

LOAD

TABLESAMPLE

CURRENT_DATE

MERGE

TEXTSIZE

CURRENT_TIME

NATIONAL

THEN

CURRENT_TIMESTAMP

NOCHECK

目标

CURRENT_USER

NONCLUSTERED

TOP

CURSOR

NOT

TRAN

DATABASE

NULL

TRANSACTION

DBCC

NULLIF

Trigger

DEALLOCATE

OF

TRUNCATE

DECLARE

OFF

TRY_CONVERT

DEFAULT

OFFSETS

TSEQUAL

delete

ON

UNION

DENY

OPEN

UNIQUE

DESC

OPENDATASOURCE

UNPIVOT

DISK

OPENQUERY

UPDATE

DISTINCT

OPENROWSET

UPDATETEXT

DISTRIBUTED

OPEN

USE

DOUBLE

OPTION

USER

DROP

OR

VALUES

DUMP

ORDER

VARYING

Else

OUTER

View

END

OVER

WAITFOR

ERRLVL

PERCENT

WHEN

ESCAPE

PIVOT

WHERE

EXCEPT

PLAN

WHILE

EXEC

PRECISION

WITH

EXECUTE

PRIMARY

WITHIN GROUP

EXISTS

PRINT

WRITETEXT

EXIT

PROC

 

此外,ISO 标准定义了保留关键字列表。 不要使用 ISO 保留关键字作为对象名和标识符。 ODBC 保留关键字列表(如下表所示)与 ISO 保留关键字列表相同。

System_CAPS_note注意

ISO 标准保留关键字有时可能比 SQL Server 限制更多,有时则更少。 例如,ISO 保留关键字列表包含 INT。 SQL Server 不必将此区分为保留关键字。



Transact-SQL 保留关键字可用作数据库或数据库对象(如表、列、视图等)的标识符或名称。 使用带引号的标识符或分隔标识符。 不限制将保留关键字用作变量和存储过程参数的名

ODBC 保留关键字

保留了下列关键字以用于 ODBC 函数调用。这些关键字根本不约束 SQL 语法;然而,为确保与支持核心 SQL 语法的驱动程序兼容,应用程序应避免使用这些关键字。

下面是当前的 ODBC 保留关键字列表。


ABSOLUTE

EXEC

OVERLAPS

ACTION

EXECUTE

PAD

ADA

EXISTS

PARTIAL

ADD

EXTERNAL

PASCAL

ALL

EXTRACT

POSITION

ALLOCATE

FALSE

PRECISION

ALTER

FETCH

PREPARE

AND

FIRST

PRESERVE

ANY

FLOAT

PRIMARY

ARE

FOR

PRIOR

AS

FOREIGN

PRIVILEGES

ASC

FORTRAN

PROCEDURE

ASSERTION

FOUND

PUBLIC

AT

FROM

READ

AUTHORIZATION

FULL

REAL

AVG

GET

REFERENCES

BEGIN

GLOBAL

RELATIVE

BETWEEN

GO

RESTRICT

BIT

GOTO

REVOKE

BIT_LENGTH

GRANT

RIGHT

BOTH

GROUP

ROLLBACK

BY

HAVING

ROWS

CASCADE

HOUR

SCHEMA

CASCADED

IDENTITY

SCROLL

CASE

IMMEDIATE

SECOND

CAST

IN

SECTION

CATALOG

INCLUDE

SELECT

CHAR

INDEX

SESSION

CHAR_LENGTH

INDICATOR

SESSION_USER

CHARACTER

INITIALLY

SET

CHARACTER_LENGTH

INNER

SIZE

CHECK

INPUT

SMALLINT

CLOSE

INSENSITIVE

SOME

COALESCE

INSERT

SPACE

COLLATE

INT

SQL

COLLATION

INTEGER

SQLCA

COLUMN

INTERSECT

SQLCODE

COMMIT

INTERVAL

SQLERROR

CONNECT

INTO

SQLSTATE

CONNECTION

IS

SQLWARNING

CONSTRAINT

ISOLATION

SUBSTRING

CONSTRAINTS

JOIN

SUM

CONTINUE

KEY

SYSTEM_USER

CONVERT

LANGUAGE

TABLE

CORRESPONDING

LAST

TEMPORARY

COUNT

LEADING

THEN

CREATE

LEFT

TIME

CROSS

LEVEL

TIMESTAMP

CURRENT

LIKE

TIMEZONE_HOUR

CURRENT_DATE

LOCAL

TIMEZONE_MINUTE

CURRENT_TIME

LOWER

TO

CURRENT_TIMESTAMP

MATCH

TRAILING

CURRENT_USER

MAX

TRANSACTION

CURSOR

MIN

TRANSLATE

DATE

MINUTE

TRANSLATION

DAY

MODULE

TRIM

DEALLOCATE

MONTH

TRUE

DEC

NAMES

UNION

DECIMAL

NATIONAL

UNIQUE

DECLARE

NATURAL

UNKNOWN

DEFAULT

NCHAR

UPDATE

DEFERRABLE

NEXT

UPPER

DEFERRED

NO

USAGE

DELETE

NONE

USER

DESC

NOT

USING

DESCRIBE

NULL

VALUE

DESCRIPTOR

NULLIF

VALUES

DIAGNOSTICS

NUMERIC

VARCHAR

DISCONNECT

OCTET_LENGTH

VARYING

DISTINCT

OF

VIEW

DOMAIN

ON

WHEN

DOUBLE

ONLY

WHENEVER

DROP

OPEN

WHERE

ELSE

OPTION

WITH

END

OR

WORK

END-EXEC

ORDER

WRITE

ESCAPE

OUTER

YEAR

EXCEPT

OUTPUT

ZONE

EXCEPTION

 

 

将来的关键字

下列关键字可能会在将来的 SQL Server 版本中保留使用,作为将来要实现的新功能。注意,不要使用这些关键字作为标识符。

ABSOLUTE

HOST

RELATIVE

ACTION

HOUR

RELEASE

ADMIN

IGNORE

RESULT

AFTER

IMMEDIATE

RETURNS

AGGREGATE

INDICATOR

ROLE

ALIAS

INITIALIZE

ROLLUP

ALLOCATE

INITIALLY

ROUTINE

ARE

INOUT

ROW

ARRAY

INPUT

ROWS

ASENSITIVE

INT

SAVEPOINT

ASSERTION

INTEGER

SCROLL

ASYMMETRIC

INTERSECTION

SCOPE

AT

INTERVAL

SEARCH

ATOMIC

ISOLATION

SECOND

BEFORE

ITERATE

SECTION

BINARY

LANGUAGE

SENSITIVE

BIT

LARGE

SEQUENCE

BLOB

LAST

SESSION

BOOLEAN

LATERAL

SETS

BOTH

LEADING

SIMILAR

BREADTH

LESS

SIZE

CALL

LEVEL

SMALLINT

CALLED

LIKE_REGEX

SPACE

CARDINALITY

LIMIT

SPECIFIC

CASCADED

LN

SPECIFICTYPE

CAST

LOCAL

SQL

CATALOG

LOCALTIME

SQLEXCEPTION

CHAR

LOCALTIMESTAMP

SQLSTATE

CHARACTER

LOCATOR

SQLWARNING

CLASS

MAP

START

CLOB

MATCH

STATE

COLLATION

MEMBER

STATEMENT

COLLECT

METHOD

STATIC

COMPLETION

MINUTE

STDDEV_POP

CONDITION

MOD

STDDEV_SAMP

CONNECT

MODIFIES

STRUCTURE

CONNECTION

MODIFY

SUBMULTISET

CONSTRAINTS

MODULE

SUBSTRING_REGEX

CONSTRUCTOR

MONTH

SYMMETRIC

CORR

MULTISET

SYSTEM

CORRESPONDING

NAMES

TEMPORARY

COVAR_POP

NATURAL

TERMINATE

COVAR_SAMP

NCHAR

THAN

CUBE

NCLOB

TIME

CUME_DIST

NEW

TIMESTAMP

CURRENT_CATALOG

NEXT

TIMEZONE_HOUR

CURRENT_DEFAULT_TRANSFORM_GROUP

NO

TIMEZONE_MINUTE

CURRENT_PATH

NONE

TRAILING

CURRENT_ROLE

NORMALIZE

TRANSLATE_REGEX

CURRENT_SCHEMA

NUMERIC

TRANSLATION

CURRENT_TRANSFORM_GROUP_FOR_TYPE

OBJECT

TREAT

CYCLE

OCCURRENCES_REGEX

TRUE

DATA

OLD

UESCAPE

DATE

ONLY

UNDER

DAY

OPERATION

UNKNOWN

DEC

ORDINALITY

UNNEST

DECIMAL

OUT

USAGE

DEFERRABLE

OVERLAY

USING

DEFERRED

OUTPUT

VALUE

DEPTH

PAD

VAR_POP

DEREF

PARAMETER

VAR_SAMP

DESCRIBE

PARAMETERS

VARCHAR

DESCRIPTOR

PARTIAL

VARIABLE

DESTROY

PARTITION

WHENEVER

DESTRUCTOR

PATH

WIDTH_BUCKET

DETERMINISTIC

POSTFIX

WITHOUT

DICTIONARY

PREFIX

WINDOW

DIAGNOSTICS

PREORDER

WITHIN

DISCONNECT

PREPARE

WORK

DOMAIN

PERCENT_RANK

WRITE

DYNAMIC

PERCENTILE_CONT

EACH

PERCENTILE_DISC

ELEMENT

POSITION_REGEX

END-EXEC

PRESERVE

EQUALS

PRIOR

EVERY

PRIVILEGES

EXCEPTION

RANGE

FALSE

READS

FILTER

REAL

FIRST

RECURSIVE

FLOAT

REF

FOUND

REFERENCING

FREE

REGR_AVGX

FULLTEXTTABLE

REGR_AVGY

FUSION

REGR_COUNT

GENERAL

REGR_INTERCEPT

GET

REGR_R2

GLOBAL

REGR_SLOPE

GO

REGR_SXX

GROUPING

REGR_SXY

YEAR

HOLD

REGR_SYY

ZONE


 

总结

 

 

 

备注:

    作者:pursuer.chen

    博客:http://www.cnblogs.com/chenmh

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