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[Java教程]nginx反向代理配置及优化


nginx反向代理配置及优化

前言:
     由于服务器apache抗不住目前的并发.加上前端squid配置后,问题依然无法解决.而页面程序大部分是动态.无法使用fastcgi来处理.因此想使用nginx做为反向代理apache.整个配置安装过程很简单.在考虑高并发的情况下,在安装前就做了些优化.目前配置能抗住3000以上并发.好像不是特别大哦?呵~~ 但足以~~ 只是还有少量499问题..期待有人跟我讨论解决
 
第1部分:安装
1 建立用户及组

/usr/sbin/groupadd www
/usr/sbin/useradd -g www www



2 安装pcre 让nginx支持rewrite 方便以后所需

wget ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-7.8.tar.gz
tar zxvf pcre-7.8.tar.gz
cd pcre-7.8/
./configure
make && make install



3 安装nginx

wget http://sysoev.ru/nginx/nginx-0.7.58.tar.gz
tar zxvf nginx-0.7.58.tar.gz
cd nginx-0.7.58/
./configure --user=www --group=www --prefix=/usr/local/webserver/nginx --with-http_stub_status_module --with-http_ssl_module --with-cc-opt='-O2' --with-cpu-opt=opteron
make && make install



#注意上文中的--with-cc-opt='-O2' --with-cpu-opt=opteron 这是编译器优化,目前最常用的是-02 而不是3.后面对应CPU的型号,可参照:http://wiki.gentoo.tw/index.php/HOWTO_CFLAG

第2部分:配置及优化配置文件
1 nginx.conf 配置文件:

user    www www;
worker_processes 4;

# [ debug | info | notice | warn | error | crit ]
error_log    /usr/local/webserver/nginx/logs/nginx_error.log    crit;
pid                /usr/local/webserver/nginx/nginx.pid;
#Specifies the value for maximum file descriptors that can be opened by this process.
worker_rlimit_nofile 51200;
events
{
         use epoll;
         worker_connections 51200;
}

http
{
         include             mime.types;
         default_type    application/octet-stream;
         source_charset GB2312;
         server_names_hash_bucket_size 256;
         client_header_buffer_size 256k;
         large_client_header_buffers 4 256k;

         #size limits
         client_max_body_size             50m;
         client_body_buffer_size        256k;
         client_header_timeout     3m;
         client_body_timeout 3m;
         send_timeout             3m;
#参数都有所调整.目的是解决代理过程中出现的一些502 499错误    
         sendfile on;
         tcp_nopush         on;
         keepalive_timeout 120; #参数加大,以解决做代理时502错误
         tcp_nodelay on;
        
         include                    vhosts/upstream.conf;
         include                    vhosts/bbs.linuxtone.conf;

}



2 upstream.conf 配置文件(这也是做负载的配置方法)

upstream.conf
            upstream bbs.linuxtone.com {
                 server 192.168.1.4:8099;
             }



3 站点配置文件

bbs.linuxtone.conf
server
     {
            listen             80;
            server_name    bbs.linuxtone.conf;
            charset GB2312;
            index index.html index.htm;
            root    /date/wwwroot/linuxtone/;

                location ~ ^/NginxStatus/ {
                        stub_status on;
                        access_log off;
                 }

         location / {
             root    /date/wwwroot/linuxtone/;
             proxy_redirect off ;
             proxy_set_header Host $host;
             proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
             proxy_set_header REMOTE-HOST $remote_addr;
             proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
             client_max_body_size 50m;
             client_body_buffer_size 256k;
             proxy_connect_timeout 30;
             proxy_send_timeout 30;
             proxy_read_timeout 60;
             proxy_buffer_size 256k;
             proxy_buffers 4 256k;
             proxy_busy_buffers_size 256k;
             proxy_temp_file_write_size 256k;
             proxy_next_upstream error timeout invalid_header http_500 http_503 http_404;
             proxy_max_temp_file_size 128m;
             proxy_pass    http://bbs.linuxtone.com;
            }



#参数都有所调整.目的是解决代理过程中出现的一些502 499错误   

#Add expires header for static content
     location ~* \.(jpg|jpeg|gif|png|swf)$ {
         if (-f $request_filename) {
             root /date/wwwroot/linuxtone/;
             expires            1d;
             break;
            }
     }

         log_format    access    '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
                                                 '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
                                                 '"$http_user_agent" $http_x_forwarded_for';
        access_log    /exp/nginxlogs/bbs.linuxtone_access.log    access;
    
}



注:第二种代理方式
nginx 处理下图片,html等静态的东西.其它动态由apache处理.因此apache也需要做一些参数调整.
设置图片等过期时间.缓解请求.

如果源与nginx在同一台机器建议使用如下方法:

                 location / {
                            proxy_pass    http://192.168.1.4:8099/;
                            proxy_redirect default ;
                 }



针对不同的目录进行代理把下面的配置放到根目录代理的上面

                location /linuxtone/ {
                            proxy_pass    http://192.168.1.4:8099/linuxtone/;
                            proxy_redirect default ;
                 }



4 源配置

<VirtualHost 192.168.1.4:8099>
        ServerAdmin liuyu105#gmail.com
        DocumentRoot /date/wwwroot/linuxtone
        ServerName bbs.linuxtone.com
        ErrorLog logs/linuxtone_error_log
     CustomLog "|/usr/local/sbin/cronolog logs/linuxtone_access_log.%Y%m%d" combined
</VirtualHost>


 
第3部分:源的优化
1 apache-mpm.conf

<IfModule mpm_prefork_module>
        StartServers                    15
        MinSpareServers             15
        MaxSpareServers            30
        ServerLimit                 2536
        MaxClients                    2048
        MaxRequestsPerChild     1500
</IfModule>


2 apache-keepalive
Timeout 120   #与nginx的保持一至
KeepAlive On
MaxKeepAliveRequests 400
KeepAliveTimeout 7


第4部分:PHP的优化
优化一:将PHP由之前的xcache换成eaccelerator
1 安装

wget http://bart.eaccelerator.net/source/0.9.5.3/eaccelerator-0.9.5.3.tar.bz2
tar jxvf eaccelerator-0.9.5.3.tar.bz2
cd eaccelerator-0.9.5.3/
/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize
./configure --enable-eaccelerator=shared --with-php-config=/usr/local/php5/bin/php-config
make
make install


注:PHP路径以安装为准!

2 配置

sed -i 's#extension_dir = "./"#extension_dir = "/usr/local/php5/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/"\nextension = "memcache.so"\n#' /etc/php.ini
sed -i 's#output_buffering = Off#output_buffering = On#' /etc/php.ini
sed -i "s#; always_populate_raw_post_data = On#always_populate_raw_post_data = On#g" /etc/php.ini



配置eAccelerator加速PHP:
mkdir -p /usr/local/webserver/eaccelerator_cache
vi /etc/php.ini

按shift+g键跳到配置文件的最末尾,加上以下配置信息:

[eaccelerator]
zend_extension="/usr/local/php5/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/eaccelerator.so"
eaccelerator.shm_size="128"
eaccelerator.cache_dir="/usr/local/webserver/eaccelerator_cache"
eaccelerator.enable="1"
eaccelerator.optimizer="1"
eaccelerator.check_mtime="1"
eaccelerator.debug="0"
eaccelerator.filter=""
eaccelerator.shm_max="0"
eaccelerator.shm_ttl="300"
eaccelerator.shm_prune_period="120"
eaccelerator.shm_only="0"
eaccelerator.compress="1"
eaccelerator.compress_level="9"



优化二:联系开发重新编译php减少php的模块.以减少php进程所占用内存数.这块尽管影响不大,但也有一定的作用.编译前也可以参照nginx的编译器优化方式安装.

第5部分:测试并启动nginx
ulimit -SHn 51200
/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx -t
/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx

第6部分:nginx日志切割脚本

#!/bin/bash
# This script run at 00:00

# The Nginx logs path
logs_path="/exp/nginxlogs/"

mkdir -p ${logs_path}$(date -d "yesterday" +"%Y")/$(date -d "yesterday" +"%m")/
mv ${logs_path}bbs.linuxtone_access.log ${logs_path}$(date -d "yesterday" +"%Y")/$(date -d "yesterday" +"%m")/bbs.linuxtone_access_$(date -d "yesterday" +"%Y%m%d").log
kill -USR1 `cat /usr/local/webserver/nginx/nginx.pid`



crontab -e