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[操作系统]Linux_磁盘管理


一、linux磁盘管理

  1. 命令:fdisk -l
  2. brwx-rw--- 其中b(占位符)代表block,块设备文件
  3. sda,sdb... --> 硬盘 其中sda1,sda2..sdb1,sdb2...-->硬盘分区 (s:硬盘接口;d:disk)
    • 了解硬盘接口:stata,sas --> 服务器借口
    •          scsi,ide   --> 个人电脑接口
    • fdisk -l 后有个  cylinder     : 磁柱
      • 起始与结束
      • 查看硬盘是否分区
  4. 虚拟机添加新硬盘(单个文件),重新启动,分区
    1. 概念:主分区(格式化后直接使用),扩展分区(格式化后还要进行逻辑分区才能使用),逻辑分区(与主分区类似,但非系统分区)
    2. 利用fdisk /dev/sdb来对sdb(新加的硬盘)进行分区
    3. 分区步骤:分一个10G的主分区,剩下的为扩展分区,再从扩展分区中分出两块逻辑分区,结构为2+1
    4. 分区保存后,重启使分区文件加载生效
    5. 格式化:mkfs.文件系统(ext1,ext2,ext3,ext4,centos 7 使用的文件系统xfs) 例:mkfs.ext4 /dev/sdb6
    6. 格式化完毕,还需要挂载磁盘(mount临时的,用法mount /dev/sdb6 /mnt/(一般挂载点)),才能使用
    7. 若要永久挂载,需要写入配置文件/etc/fstab
    8. 取消挂载 umount /mnt/
    9. 查看挂载信息,容量等信息(df -h)

二、实际操作

[root@hadoop09-linux ~]# fdisk /dev/sdbDevice contains neither a valid DOS partition table, nor Sun, SGI or OSF disklabelBuilding a new DOS disklabel with disk identifier 0x2859532e.Changes will remain in memory only, until you decide to write them.After that, of course, the previous content won't be recoverable.Warning: invalid flag 0x0000 of partition table 4 will be corrected by w(rite)WARNING: DOS-compatible mode is deprecated. It's strongly recommended to     switch off the mode (command 'c') and change display units to     sectors (command 'u').Command (m for help): mCommand action  a  toggle a bootable flag  b  edit bsd disklabel  c  toggle the dos compatibility flag  d  delete a partition  l  list known partition types  m  print this menu  n  add a new partition  o  create a new empty DOS partition table  p  print the partition table  q  quit without saving changes  s  create a new empty Sun disklabel  t  change a partition's system id  u  change display/entry units  v  verify the partition table  w  write table to disk and exit  x  extra functionality (experts only)Command (m for help): nCommand action  e  extended  p  primary partition (1-4)pPartition number (1-4): 1First cylinder (1-2610, default 1): Using default value 1Last cylinder, +cylinders or +size{K,M,G} (1-2610, default 2610): +10GCommand (m for help): pDisk /dev/sdb: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylindersUnits = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytesSector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytesI/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytesDisk identifier: 0x2859532e  Device Boot   Start     End   Blocks  Id System/dev/sdb1        1    1306  10490413+ 83 LinuxCommand (m for help): nCommand action  e  extended  p  primary partition (1-4)ePartition number (1-4): 2First cylinder (1307-2610, default 1307): Using default value 1307Last cylinder, +cylinders or +size{K,M,G} (1307-2610, default 2610): Using default value 2610Command (m for help): pDisk /dev/sdb: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylindersUnits = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytesSector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytesI/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytesDisk identifier: 0x2859532e  Device Boot   Start     End   Blocks  Id System/dev/sdb1        1    1306  10490413+ 83 Linux/dev/sdb2      1307    2610  10474380  5 ExtendedCommand (m for help): nCommand action  l  logical (5 or over)  p  primary partition (1-4)lFirst cylinder (1307-2610, default 1307): Using default value 1307Last cylinder, +cylinders or +size{K,M,G} (1307-2610, default 2610): +4GCommand (m for help): pDisk /dev/sdb: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylindersUnits = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytesSector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytesI/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytesDisk identifier: 0x2859532e  Device Boot   Start     End   Blocks  Id System/dev/sdb1        1    1306  10490413+ 83 Linux/dev/sdb2      1307    2610  10474380  5 Extended/dev/sdb5      1307    1829   4200966  83 LinuxCommand (m for help): nCommand action  l  logical (5 or over)  p  primary partition (1-4)lFirst cylinder (1830-2610, default 1830): Using default value 1830Last cylinder, +cylinders or +size{K,M,G} (1830-2610, default 2610): +4GCommand (m for help): pDisk /dev/sdb: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylindersUnits = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytesSector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytesI/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytesDisk identifier: 0x2859532e  Device Boot   Start     End   Blocks  Id System/dev/sdb1        1    1306  10490413+ 83 Linux/dev/sdb2      1307    2610  10474380  5 Extended/dev/sdb5      1307    1829   4200966  83 Linux/dev/sdb6      1830    2352   4200966  83 LinuxCommand (m for help): mCommand action  a  toggle a bootable flag  b  edit bsd disklabel  c  toggle the dos compatibility flag  d  delete a partition  l  list known partition types  m  print this menu  n  add a new partition  o  create a new empty DOS partition table  p  print the partition table  q  quit without saving changes  s  create a new empty Sun disklabel  t  change a partition's system id  u  change display/entry units  v  verify the partition table  w  write table to disk and exit  x  extra functionality (experts only)Command (m for help): wThe partition table has been altered!Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.Syncing disks.[root@hadoop09-linux ~]# fdisk -lDisk /dev/sda: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylindersUnits = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytesSector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytesI/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytesDisk identifier: 0x00062208  Device Boot   Start     End   Blocks  Id System/dev/sda1  *      1     39   307200  83 LinuxPartition 1 does not end on cylinder boundary./dev/sda2       39    2358  18631680  83 Linux/dev/sda3      2358    2611   2031616  82 Linux swap / SolarisDisk /dev/sdb: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylindersUnits = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytesSector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytesI/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytesDisk identifier: 0x2859532e  Device Boot   Start     End   Blocks  Id System/dev/sdb1        1    1306  10490413+ 83 Linux/dev/sdb2      1307    2610  10474380  5 Extended/dev/sdb5      1307    1829   4200966  83 Linux/dev/sdb6      1830    2352   4200966  83 Linux[root@hadoop09-linux ~]# rebootBroadcast message from root@hadoop09-linux.ibeifeng.com	(/dev/pts/0) at 8:51 ...The system is going down for reboot NOW![root@hadoop09-linux ~]# Connection closed by foreign host.Disconnected from remote host(CentOs_64) at 23:52:01.Type `help' to learn how to use Xshell prompt.[d:\~]$ Connecting to 192.168.0.108:22...Connection established.To escape to local shell, press 'Ctrl+Alt+]'.Last login: Wed Sep 7 08:27:29 2016 from 192.168.0.105[root@hadoop09-linux ~]# fdisk -lDisk /dev/sda: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylindersUnits = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytesSector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytesI/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytesDisk identifier: 0x00062208  Device Boot   Start     End   Blocks  Id System/dev/sda1  *      1     39   307200  83 LinuxPartition 1 does not end on cylinder boundary./dev/sda2       39    2358  18631680  83 Linux/dev/sda3      2358    2611   2031616  82 Linux swap / SolarisDisk /dev/sdb: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylindersUnits = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytesSector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytesI/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytesDisk identifier: 0x2859532e  Device Boot   Start     End   Blocks  Id System/dev/sdb1        1    1306  10490413+ 83 Linux/dev/sdb2      1307    2610  10474380  5 Extended/dev/sdb5      1307    1829   4200966  83 Linux/dev/sdb6      1830    2352   4200966  83 Linux[root@hadoop09-linux ~]# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sdb6mke2fs 1.41.12 (17-May-2010)Filesystem label=OS type: LinuxBlock size=4096 (log=2)Fragment size=4096 (log=2)Stride=0 blocks, Stripe width=0 blocks262944 inodes, 1050241 blocks52512 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super userFirst data block=0Maximum filesystem blocks=107793612833 block groups32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group7968 inodes per groupSuperblock backups stored on blocks: 	32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736Writing inode tables: done              Creating journal (32768 blocks): doneWriting superblocks and filesystem accounting information: doneThis filesystem will be automatically checked every 34 mounts or180 days, whichever comes first. Use tune2fs -c or -i to override.[root@hadoop09-linux ~]# mount /dev/sdb6 /mnt/[root@hadoop09-linux ~]# df -hFilesystem      Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on/dev/sda2       18G 2.5G  15G 15% /tmpfs         495M  72K 495M  1% /dev/shm/dev/sda1       291M  33M 243M 12% /boot/dev/sdb6       4.0G 137M 3.7G  4% /mnt

  永久挂载

[root@hadoop09-linux ~]# vi /etc/fstab ## /etc/fstab# Created by anaconda on Fri Sep 2 08:10:36 2016## Accessible filesystems, by reference, are maintained under '/dev/disk'# See man pages fstab(5), findfs(8), mount(8) and/or blkid(8) for more info#UUID=517d46c1-d4c6-41ba-94f7-b0cac93f178b /            ext4  defaults    1 1UUID=75090abd-0581-411d-863a-73d735fb90df /boot          ext4  defaults    1 2UUID=25865ffd-404c-49c2-afba-374d7a5a81df swap          swap  defaults    0 0tmpfs          /dev/shm        tmpfs  defaults    0 0devpts         /dev/pts        devpts gid=5,mode=620 0 0sysfs          /sys          sysfs  defaults    0 0proc          /proc          proc  defaults    0 0/etc/sdb6        /mnt          ext4  defaults    0 0