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[ASP.net教程]WCF学习之旅—实现支持REST服务端应用(二十三)

        在上一篇(WCF学习之旅—实现REST服务(二十二))文章中简单介绍了一下RestFul与WCF支持RestFul所提供的方法,本文讲解一下如何创建一个支持REST的WCF服务端程序。

 

四、在WCF中创建REST服务

1. 在SCF.Contracts 在创建一个服务契约IBookRestService.

       这里提供两个方法,分别采用GET和POST方式访问。

       我们可以看到,与普通WCF服务契约不同的是,需要额外用WebGet或者WebInvoke指定REST访问的方式。另外还要指定消息包装样式和消息格式,默认的消息请求和响应格式为

        UriTemplate用来将方法映射到具体的Uri上,但如果不指定映射,将映射到默认的Uri。比如采用Get访问的GetBook方法,默认映射是:/ GetBook?BookId={BookId}。

         在编写代码的过程中,会出现如下图中1的错误,请引用下图2处的

         

 

using SCF.Model;using System;using System.Collections.Generic;using System.Linq;using System.ServiceModel;using System.ServiceModel.Web;using System.Text;using System.Threading.Tasks; namespace SCF.Contracts{  [DataContractFormat]  [ServiceContract]  public interface IBookRestService  {    //[WebGet(UriTemplate = "/Books/Get/{BookId}/{categroy}", BodyStyle = WebMessageBodyStyle.Bare, ResponseFormat = WebMessageFormat.Json)]    [WebGet(UriTemplate = "/Books/Get/{BookId}", BodyStyle = WebMessageBodyStyle.Bare)]     [OperationContract]     List<Books> GetBook(string BookId);    //[WebInvoke(Method = "POST", UriTemplate = "/Books/Create", BodyStyle = WebMessageBodyStyle.Bare, ResponseFormat = WebMessageFormat.Json, RequestFormat = WebMessageFormat.Json)]    [WebInvoke(Method = "POST", UriTemplate = "/Books/Add", BodyStyle = WebMessageBodyStyle.Bare)]     [OperationContract]     Result AddBook(Books book);   } } 

 

 

     2. 在项目SCF.Model中创建一个实体对象Books与一个返回对象Result,用作数据传输的载体,下面是Books.cs的内容

namespace SCF.Model{  using System;  using System.Collections.Generic;  using System.ComponentModel.DataAnnotations;  using System.ComponentModel.DataAnnotations.Schema;  using System.Data.Entity.Spatial;using System.Runtime.Serialization; ///DataContract 数据契约:服务端和客户端之间要传送的自定义数据类型   [DataContract(Namespace = "http://tempuri.org/")]  public partial class Books{ /// <summary> /// 在数据传送过程中,只有成员变量可以被传送而成员方法不可以。 /// 并且只有当成员变量加上DataMember时才可以被序列进行数据传输, /// 如果不加DataMember,客户端将无法获得该属性的任何信息 /// </summary>     [DataMember]    [Key]    public int BookID { get; set; }    [DataMember]    [Required]    public string Category { get; set; }    [DataMember]    [Required]    public string Name { get; set; }    [DataMember]    public int Numberofcopies { get; set; }    [DataMember]    public int AuthorID { get; set; }    [DataMember]    public decimal Price { get; set; }    [DataMember]    public DateTime PublishDate { get; set; }    [StringLength(5)]    [DataMember]    public string Rating { get; set; }  }}  using System;using System.Collections.Generic;using System.Linq;using System.Runtime.Serialization;using System.Text;using System.Threading.Tasks; namespace SCF.Model{  [DataContract(Namespace = "http://tempuri.org/")]  public class Result  {    [DataMember]    public string Message    { get; set; }  }}

 

 

     3. SCF.WcfService项目中实现在SCF.Contracts项目中定义的服务契约。这里最简单的实现GetBook和AddBook两个方法的逻辑。

using SCF.Contracts;using System;using System.Collections.Generic;using System.Linq;using System.Runtime.Serialization;using System.ServiceModel;using System.Text;using SCF.Model;using SCF.Common; namespace SCF.WcfService{  // 注意: 使用“重构”菜单上的“重命名”命令,可以同时更改代码、svc 和配置文件中的类名“BookRestService”。  // 注意: 为了启动 WCF 测试客户端以测试此服务,请在解决方案资源管理器中选择 BookRestService.svc 或 BookRestService.svc.cs,然后开始调试。  public class BookRestService : IBookRestService  {     Entities db = new Entities();    public Result AddBook(Books book)    {      Result result = new Result();      try      {                db.Books.Add(book);        db.SaveChanges();        result.Message = string.Format("书名:{0} 已经添加!",book.Name);             }      catch (Exception ex)      {        result.Message =ex.Message;      }      return result;    }     public List<Books> GetBook(string BookId)    {      var cateLst = new List<string>();      var cateQry = from d in db.Books             orderby d.Category             select d.Category;      cateLst.AddRange(cateQry.Distinct());       var books = from m in db.Books            select m;       if (!String.IsNullOrEmpty(BookId))      {        books = books.Where(s => s.Name.Contains(BookId));      }      List<Books> list = null;       list = books.ToList<Books>();      return list;        }   }}

 

  

   

4. 在配置文件在中配置我们的Rest服务,必须使用WebHttpBehavior对服务的终结点进行配置。

 

<??><configuration> <configSections>  <!-- For more information on Entity Framework configuration, visit http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=237468 -->  <section name="entityFramework" type="System.Data.Entity.Internal.ConfigFile.EntityFrameworkSection, EntityFramework, 
Version=6.0.0.0, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=b77a5c561934e089" requirePermission="false" /> </configSections> <entityFramework> <defaultConnectionFactory type="System.Data.Entity.Infrastructure.SqlConnectionFactory, EntityFramework" /> <providers> <provider invariantName="System.Data.SqlClient" type="System.Data.Entity.SqlServer.SqlProviderServices, EntityFramework.SqlServer" /> </providers> </entityFramework> <system.serviceModel> <bindings> <webHttpBinding> <binding name="RestWebBinding"> </binding> </webHttpBinding> </bindings> <behaviors> <serviceBehaviors> <behavior name="metadataBehavior"> <serviceMetadata httpGetEnabled="true" httpGetUrl="http://127.0.0.1:8888/BookService/metadata" /> <serviceDebug includeExceptionDetailInFaults="True" /> </behavior> <behavior name="RestServiceBehavior"> </behavior> </serviceBehaviors> <endpointBehaviors> <behavior name="RestWebBehavior"> <!--这里必须设置--> <webHttp /> </behavior> </endpointBehaviors> </behaviors> <services> <service behaviorConfiguration="metadataBehavior" name="SCF.WcfService.BookService"> <endpoint address="http://127.0.0.1:8888/BookService" binding="wsHttpBinding" contract="SCF.Contracts.IBookService" /> </service> <service name="SCF.WcfService.BookRestService" behaviorConfiguration="RestServiceBehavior"> <endpoint address="http://127.0.0.1:8888/" behaviorConfiguration="RestWebBehavior" binding="webHttpBinding" bindingConfiguration="RestWebBinding" contract="SCF.Contracts.IBookRestService"> </endpoint> </service> </services> </system.serviceModel> <startup> <supportedRuntime version="v4.0" sku=".NETFramework,Version=v4.5.2" /> </startup> <connectionStrings> <add name="Entities" connectionString="metadata=res://*/BookModel.csdl|res://*/BookModel.ssdl|res://*/BookModel.msl;
provider=System.Data.SqlClient;provider connection string=&quot;data source=.\SQLEXPRESS;initial catalog=Test;
integrated security=SSPI;MultipleActiveResultSets=True;App=EntityFramework&quot;" providerName="System.Data.EntityClient" /> </connectionStrings> </configuration>