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[操作系统]你真的了解UITextField吗?


一:首先查看一下关于UITextField的定义

NS_CLASS_AVAILABLE_IOS(2_0) @interface UITextField : UIControl <UITextInput, NSCoding> @property(nullable, nonatomic,copy)  NSString        *text;    //值     @property(nullable, nonatomic,copy)  NSAttributedString   *attributedText NS_AVAILABLE_IOS(6_0); //富文本的值@property(nullable, nonatomic,strong) UIColor        *textColor;      // 文字色@property(nullable, nonatomic,strong) UIFont         *font;         // 字体@property(nonatomic)    NSTextAlignment     textAlignment;    // 默认值 NSLeftTextAlignment 排版@property(nonatomic)    UITextBorderStyle    borderStyle;     // 默认值 UITextBorderStyleNone 边框的样式@property(nonatomic,copy)  NSDictionary<NSString *, id>      *defaultTextAttributes NS_AVAILABLE_IOS(7_0); // 文本属性 用字典填充@property(nullable, nonatomic,copy)  NSString        *placeholder;     // 空值时的提示文字@property(nullable, nonatomic,copy)  NSAttributedString   *attributedPlaceholder NS_AVAILABLE_IOS(6_0); // 富文本的空值提示文字@property(nonatomic)    BOOL          clearsOnBeginEditing; // 默认值 NO 如果设为YES 再次编辑就清空@property(nonatomic)    BOOL          adjustsFontSizeToFitWidth; // 默认值NO,若设为YES 当文字超出文本框宽度时,自动调整文字大小@property(nonatomic)    CGFloat         minimumFontSize;   // 默认值 0.0.最小可缩小的字号和adjustsFontSizeToFitWidth一起使用@property(nullable, nonatomic,weak)  id<UITextFieldDelegate> delegate;     //代理  @property(nullable, nonatomic,strong) UIImage        *background;      //设置背景 注意只有UITextBorderStyleNone的时候改属性有效@property(nullable, nonatomic,strong) UIImage        *disabledBackground;  //禁用的背景@property(nonatomic,readonly,getter=isEditing) BOOL editing; //是否被编辑@property(nonatomic) BOOL allowsEditingTextAttributes NS_AVAILABLE_IOS(6_0); // 默认值 NO@property(nullable, nonatomic,copy) NSDictionary<NSString *, id> *typingAttributes NS_AVAILABLE_IOS(6_0); @property(nonatomic)    UITextFieldViewMode clearButtonMode; // 输入框中是否有个叉号 设置清除 何时显示@property(nullable, nonatomic,strong) UIView       *leftView;    // 左边视图@property(nonatomic)    UITextFieldViewMode leftViewMode;  // 在什么状态下显示 默认值 UITextFieldViewModeNever@property(nullable, nonatomic,strong) UIView       *rightView;    // 右边视图@property(nonatomic)    UITextFieldViewMode rightViewMode;  // 默认值 UITextFieldViewModeNever//界面重写绘制行为////重写来重置边缘区域- (CGRect)borderRectForBounds:(CGRect)bounds;//重写来重置文字区域- (CGRect)textRectForBounds:(CGRect)bounds;//重写来重置占位符区域- (CGRect)placeholderRectForBounds:(CGRect)bounds;//重写来重置编辑区域- (CGRect)editingRectForBounds:(CGRect)bounds;//重写来重置clearButton位置,改变size可能导致button的图片失真- (CGRect)clearButtonRectForBounds:(CGRect)bounds;- (CGRect)leftViewRectForBounds:(CGRect)bounds;- (CGRect)rightViewRectForBounds:(CGRect)bounds;//改变绘文字属性.重写时调用super可以按默认图形属性绘制,若自己完全重写绘制函数,就不用调用super了.- (void)drawTextInRect:(CGRect)rect;//重写改变绘制占位符属性.重写时调用super可以按默认图形属性绘制,若自己完全重写绘制函数,就不用调用super了.- (void)drawPlaceholderInRect:(CGRect)rect;@property (nullable, readwrite, strong) UIView *inputView;   //代替标准的系统键盘    @property (nullable, readwrite, strong) UIView *inputAccessoryView; //编辑时显示在系统键盘或用户自定义的inputView上面的视图@property(nonatomic) BOOL clearsOnInsertion NS_AVAILABLE_IOS(6_0); // 默认值NO@end

UITextField是继承于UIControl,并且遵循NSCoding及UITextInput的协议;UITextInput的协议作用是用来辅助键盘输入得协议,在需要用到键盘输入得地方都需要实现这个协议;

知识点1:UITextBorderStyle的枚举内容

typedef NS_ENUM(NSInteger, UITextBorderStyle) {  UITextBorderStyleNone,/无任何边框  UITextBorderStyleLine,//黑色线框  UITextBorderStyleBezel,//边线+阴影  UITextBorderStyleRoundedRect //浅色带圆弧线框};

知识点2:UITextFieldViewMode的枚举内容

typedef NS_ENUM(NSInteger, UITextFieldViewMode) {  UITextFieldViewModeNever,//无清除按钮  UITextFieldViewModeWhileEditing,//编辑时出现清除按钮  UITextFieldViewModeUnlessEditing,//编辑时不出现,编辑后才出现清除按钮  UITextFieldViewModeAlways //一直显示清除按钮};

知识点3:关于NSTextAlignment的说明,UITextAlignmentLeft (水平右对齐),UITextAlignmentCenter(水平居中对齐),UITextAlignmentRight (水平右对齐);

知识点4:修改UITextField中关于Placeholder的着色

[self.myTextField setValue:[UIColor grayColor] forKeyPath:@"_placeholderLabel.textColor"];当然也可以采用另外一种方式: NSMutableAttributedString *attrString = [[NSMutableAttributedString alloc]initWithString:@"水印提示文字"]; [attrString addAttribute:NSForegroundColorAttributeNam           value:[UIColor redColor]           range:NSMakeRange(0, 2)]; myTextFieldattributedPlaceholder = attrString;

知识点5:关于leftView跟leftViewMode的运用

      _relayTextField = [[UITextField alloc] initWithFrame:CGRectMake(0, 0, 0, 0)];      _relayTextField.backgroundColor = [UIColor whiteColor];      _relayTextField.font = [UIFont fontWithName:@"OpenSans" size:15.0];      _relayTextField.delegate = self;      _relayTextField.layer.cornerRadius = 5.0f;      _relayTextField.layer.masksToBounds = YES;      _relayTextField.clearButtonMode = UITextFieldViewModeWhileEditing;      _relayTextField.autocorrectionType = UITextAutocorrectionTypeNo;      _relayTextField.autocapitalizationType = UITextAutocapitalizationTypeNone;      _relayTextField.returnKeyType=UIReturnKeySend;      UILabel *label = [[UILabel alloc]initWithFrame:CGRectMake(0, 10, 70, 37)];      label.font = [UIFont boldSystemFontOfSize:15];      label.adjustsFontSizeToFitWidth = YES;      label.textColor = COLOR_WORD_GRAY_2;      _relayTextField.leftView = label;      _relayTextField.leftViewMode = UITextFieldViewModeAlways;      [self addSubview:_relayTextField];设置显示的值:-(void)configuerWithName:(NSString*)name messageId:(NSString*)message_id{  _name = name;  _messageId = message_id;  if ([_relayTextField.leftView isKindOfClass:[UILabel class]]) {    ((UILabel*)_relayTextField.leftView).text = [NSString stringWithFormat:@"回复%@ :",name];    ((UILabel*)_relayTextField.leftView).textColor = COLOR_WORD_GRAY_2;  }}

知识点6:inputView跟inputAccessoryView 默认是系统的键盘,比如有自定义的键盘就可以把它赋值给inputView;当然也可以是其它效果的视图,比如弹出选择器等;实例如下:

//自定义键盘,将原有的键盘隐藏,显示当前自定义视图UIView *keyBoardContent = [[UIView alloc]initWithFrame:CGRectMake(0, 0, [UIScreen mainScreen].bounds.size.width, 100)];keyBoardContent.backgroundColor = [UIColor darkGrayColor];myTextField.inputView = keyBoardContent;UIView *subView = [[UIView alloc] initWithFrame:CGRectMake(0, 0, self.view.bounds.size.width, 80)];subView.backgroundColor = [UIColor greenColor];myTextField.inputAccessoryView = subView;

二:UITextInputTraits的相关内容,UITextField遵循这个协议,用来辅助键盘输入得协议,在需要用到键盘输入得地方都需要实现这个协议

@protocol UITextInputTraits <NSObject>@optional@property(nonatomic) UITextAutocapitalizationType autocapitalizationType; // default is UITextAutocapitalizationTypeSentences@property(nonatomic) UITextAutocorrectionType autocorrectionType;     //是否纠错 默认值 UITextAutocorrectionTypeDefault@property(nonatomic) UITextSpellCheckingType spellCheckingType NS_AVAILABLE_IOS(5_0); // default is UITextSpellCheckingTypeDefault;@property(nonatomic) UIKeyboardType keyboardType;             // 键盘类型 默认值UIKeyboardTypeDefault@property(nonatomic) UIKeyboardAppearance keyboardAppearance;       // 设定键盘显示风格 默认值 UIKeyboardAppearanceDefault@property(nonatomic) UIReturnKeyType returnKeyType;            // default is UIReturnKeyDefault (See note under UIReturnKeyType enum)@property(nonatomic) BOOL enablesReturnKeyAutomatically;         // 设定当文本框没有输入内容时键盘得返回键是否可用@property(nonatomic,getter=isSecureTextEntry) BOOL secureTextEntry;    // 设定输入文本是否要受到隐藏保护,默认为NO不保护,设定为YES,则文本输入后为密码风格得保护@end

知识点7:secureTextEntry是设置是否显示成密码的形式,此属性并不在UITextField里面

知识点8:UIReturnKeyType(UITextInputTraits中)的枚举内容如下

  UIReturnKeyDefault   ;//默认灰色按钮,标有Return  UIReturnKeyGo      ;//标有Go的蓝色按钮  UIReturnKeyGoogle    ;//标有Google的蓝色按钮,用语搜索  UIReturnKeyJoin     ;//标有Join的蓝色按钮  UIReturnKeyNext     ;//标有Next的蓝色按钮  UIReturnKeyRoute    ;//标有Route的蓝色按钮  UIReturnKeySearch    ;//标有Search的蓝色按钮  UIReturnKeySend     ;//标有Send的蓝色按钮  UIReturnKeyYahoo    ;//标有Yahoo的蓝色按钮  UIReturnKeyYahoo    ;//标有Yahoo的蓝色按钮  UIReturnKeyEmergencyCall;//紧急呼叫按钮

知识点9:autocapitalizationType(UITextInputTraits中)首字母是否大写

  UITextAutocapitalizationTypeNone     ;//不自动大写  UITextAutocapitalizationTypeWords    ;//单词首字母大写  UITextAutocapitalizationTypeSentences  ;//句子的首字母大写  UITextAutocapitalizationTypeAllCharacters;//所有字母都大写

知识点10:keyboardAppearance(UITextInputTraits中)键盘外观

  UIKeyboardAppearanceDefault ;//默认外观,浅灰色  UIKeyboardAppearanceAlert  ;//深灰石墨色

知识点11:autocorrectionType(UITextInputTraits中)是否纠错

  UITextAutocorrectionTypeDefault ;  //默认  UITextAutocorrectionTypeNo   ;  //不自动纠错  UITextAutocorrectionTypeYes   ;  //自动纠错

知识点12:使文本框在界面打开时就获取焦点,并弹出输入键盘:[myTextField becomeFirstResponder]; 使文本框失去焦点,并收回键盘[myTextFieldresignfirstresponder]

键盘收起其它方式//方式 1:[[[UIApplication sharedApplication]keyWindow] endEditing:YES];//方式 2:[[UIApplication sharedApplication]sendAction:@selector(resignFirstResponder) to:nil from:nil forEvent:nil];//方式 3:[self.view endEditing:YES];

知识点13:因为UITextFiled是继承于UIControl,所以它也是有增加事件addTaget的效果

[myTextField addTarget:self     action:@selector(textFieldDidChange:)//私有方法forControlEvents:UIControlEventEditingChanged];- (void)textFieldDidChange:(UITextField*)textField{//类似UIButton addTag..监听方法  NSLog(@"输入框内容 = %@",textField.text);}

知识点14:关于UITextFiled的NotificaitonCenter监听

   UITextFieldTextDidBeginEditingNotification ;//监听开始编辑   UITextFieldTextDidChangeNotification    ;//监听正在编辑   UITextFieldTextDidEndEditingNotification  ;//监听结束编辑

实例:NSNotificationCenter *center = [NSNotificationCenter defaultCenter];    [center addObserver:self          selector:@selector(texfFieldNotification:)            name:UITextFieldTextDidChangeNotification object:nil];- (void)texfFieldNotification:(NSNotification*)noti{//私有方法  NSLog(@"输入款变化了");}当然记得在用后时移除通知;

知识点15:监听键盘出现,知晓键盘CGRect

- (void)efObserverKeyBoardShowAndHidde{  //注册键盘出现  [[NSNotificationCenter defaultCenter] addObserver:self                       selector:@selector(keyBoardWasShow:)                         name:UIKeyboardWillShowNotification                        object:nil];  [[NSNotificationCenter defaultCenter] addObserver:self                       selector:@selector(keyBoardWillBeHidden:)                         name:UIKeyboardWillHideNotification                        object:nil];}- (void)keyBoardWasShow:(NSNotification*)aNotification{  NSLog(@"键盘出现");  //键盘高度  //CGRect keyBoardFrame = [[[aNotification userInfo] objectForKey:UIKeyboardFrameEndUserInfoKey] CGRectValue];}-(void)keyBoardWillBeHidden:(NSNotification*)aNotification{  NSLog(@"键盘消失");}- (void)removeObserver{//移除所有通知  [[NSNotificationCenter defaultCenter]removeObserver:self];}

三:UITextField定义的协议UITextFieldDelegate内容

@protocol UITextFieldDelegate <NSObject>@optional- (BOOL)textFieldShouldBeginEditing:(UITextField *)textField;    // 返回一个BOOL值,指定是否循序文本字段开始编辑- (void)textFieldDidBeginEditing:(UITextField *)textField;      // 开始编辑时触发,获得焦点时- (BOOL)textFieldShouldEndEditing:(UITextField *)textField;     // 返回BOOL值,指定是否允许文本字段结束编辑,当编辑结束后- (void)textFieldDidEndEditing:(UITextField *)textField;       // 结束编辑- (BOOL)textField:(UITextField *)textField shouldChangeCharactersInRange:(NSRange)range replacementString:(NSString *)string;  // 用户不段的输入,可以控制达到某些条件,禁止输入- (BOOL)textFieldShouldClear:(UITextField *)textField;        // 返回一个BOOL值指明是否满足什么条件清除内容- (BOOL)textFieldShouldReturn:(UITextField *)textField;       // 返回一个BOOL值,指明是否允许在按下回车键时结束编辑@end

知识点1:运用实例

//限定输入条件- (BOOL)textField:(UITextField *)textField shouldChangeCharactersInRange:(NSRange)range replacementString:(NSString *)string{  //得到输入框的内容  NSString * textString = [textField.text stringByReplacingCharactersInRange:range withString:string];  if ([string isEqualToString:@"\n"]) {    NSLog(@"回车");  }  if ([string isEqualToString:@""]) {    NSLog(@"后退");  }  if ([string isEqualToString:@" "]) {    NSLog(@"空格");    //return NO;//禁止空格输入  }  if (textString.length>4) {    NSLog(@"输入超过5位数");  }  //打印当前键盘输入模式,en-US,zh-Hans....  NSString *lang = [[UITextInputMode currentInputMode]primaryLanguage];  //ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789  //限制输入已知的字符  NSCharacterSet *cs = [[NSCharacterSet characterSetWithCharactersInString:@"0123456789\n"]invertedSet];  //按cs分离出数组,数组按@""分离出字符串  NSString *filtered = [[string componentsSeparatedByCharactersInSet:cs]componentsJoinedByString:@""];   BOOL canChange = [string isEqualToString:filtered];  return YES;}- (BOOL)textFieldShouldReturn:(UITextField *)textField{//辞去职务  //主要是[receiver resignFirstResponder]在哪调用就能把receiver对应的键盘往下收  [textField resignFirstResponder];  return YES;}