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[数据库]Oracle 11g 单实例安装文档


这里介绍在Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server release 5.7 (Tikanga)下安装ORACLE 11.2.0.1.0的过程,本文仅仅是为了写这样安装指导文档而整理在此。仅供参考!

 

1:下载对应平台的ORACLE 11g安装介质

安装ORACLE,首先要获取安装介质,大部分情况手头都有相关版本的安装介质。如果你手头没有安装介质,那么可以从下面链接获取对应平台的ORACLE安装介质。

http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/enterprise-edition/downloads/index.html

 

强烈建议在安装ORACLE之前,先看一遍Linux Installation Guides 文档,毕竟这是最权威、最全面的资料。这样可以避免你在安装过程中遇到各类奇奇怪怪的问题,下载链接如下所示:

http://docs.oracle.com/cd/E11882_01/nav/portal_11.htm

 

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2:检查硬件配置是否满足要求

 

2.1:内存大小要求

官方文档中,要求物理内存至少需要1G,推荐2G或以上配置,如果是服务器的话,配置肯定比这个高。查看系统内存配置,可以使用下面命令:

检查物理内存

[root@DB-Server ~]# grep MemTotal /proc/meminfo
MemTotal:      3968144 kB
[root@DB-Server ~]# free -m
             total       used       free     shared    buffers     cached
Mem:          3875        710       3164          0         85        317
-/+ buffers/cache:        307       3567
Swap:         5887          0       5887
[root@DB-Server ~]# 


Note: On Linux, the HugePages feature allocates non-swappable memory for large page tables using memory-mapped files. If you enable HugePages, then you should deduct the memory allocated to HugePages from the available RAM before calculating swap space

 

Linux Swap大小要求(这是一个指导值,最好根据Linux版本供应商的文档设置。如果不太清楚这些,尽量按照下面要求设置)

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检查交换空间(Swap)大小(free命令亦可)

[root@DB-Server ~]# grep SwapTotal /proc/meminfo
 
SwapTotal: 6029304 kB


 

Automatic Memory Management

从Oracle Database 11g开始,自动内存管理(Automatic Memory Management)要求更多的共享内存(/dev/shm)和文件描述符(file descriptors),共享内存的大小应该只是比MEMROY_MAX_TARGET 和MEMROY_TARGET大。

查看共享内存大小

 

[root@DB-Server ~]# df -h /dev/shm
Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
tmpfs                 1.9G  927M 1012M  48% /dev/shm
[root@DB-Server ~]# 


Starting with Oracle Database 11g, the Automatic Memory Management feature  requires more shared memory (/dev/shm)and file descriptors. The size of the shared  memory must be at least the greater of the MEMORY_MAX_TARGET and MEMORY_TARGET  parameters for each Oracle instance on the computer. If the MEMORY_MAX_TARGET  parameter or the MEMORY_TARGET parameter is set to a nonzero value, and an incorrect  size is assigned to the shared memory, it results in an ORA-00845 error at startup. On  Linux systems, if the operating system /dev/shm mount size is too small for the Oracle  system global area (SGA) and program global area (PGA), it results in an ORA-00845  error.

The number of file descriptors for each Oracle instance must be at least  512*PROCESSES. The limit of descriptors for each process must be at least 512. If file  descriptors are not sized correctly, you see an ORA-27123 error from various Oracle  processes and potentially Linux Error EMFILE (Too many open files)in non-Oracle  processes.

注意:MEMORY_MAX_TARGET and MEMORY_TARGET cannot be used when LOCK_SGA is enabled or with HugePages on Linux.

 

2.2:系统架构要求

 

检查系统架构是否符合软件安装要求。如果是x86的架构,肯定不能运行64位的ORACLE软件。检查系统架构使用下面命令:

[root@DB-Server ~]# uname -m
 
x86_64


 

2.3:磁盘空间要求

At least 1 GB of disk space in the /tmp directory

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检查/tmp目录大小

#df -h /tmp

检查磁盘空间:

#df –h

 

3:Checking the Software Requirements

 

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 and Oracle Linux 5 on Linux x86 and Linux x86-64 require Update 2.

3.1:操作系统要求

Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) 要求安装在下面版本的操作系统或后续版本中。安装Oracle数据库是必须检查目前操作系统版本是否支持。

■ Asianux Server 3 SP2

■ Asianux Server 4 SP3

■ Oracle Linux 4 Update 7

■ Oracle Linux 5 Update 2 (with Red Hat Compatible Kernel)

■ Oracle Linux 5 Update 5

■ Oracle Linux 6

■ Oracle Linux 6 (with Red Hat Compatible Kernel)

■ Oracle Linux 7

■ Oracle Linux 7 (with the Red Hat Compatible Kernel)

■ Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 Update 7

■ Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Update 2

■ Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6

■ Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7

■ SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 SP2

■ SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11

■ SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 SP1

■ NeoKylin Linux Advanced Server 6

 

3.2 操作系统内核要求

 

下面仅仅列举了部分内容,更多请见官方文档

■On Oracle Linux 4 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4

2.6.9 or later

■ On Oracle Linux 5 Update 2 with Red Hat Compatible Kernel

2.6.18 or later

■ On Oracle Linux 5 Update 5 with Red Hat Compatible Kernel

2.6.18 or later

■ On Oracle Linux 5 Update 5 with Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel

2.6.32-100.0.19 or later

■ On Oracle Linux 6

2.6.32-100.28.5.el6.x86_64 or later

■ On Oracle Linux 6 with Red Hat Compatible Kernel

2.6.32-71.el6.x86_64 or later

■ On Oracle Linux 7

3.8.13-33.el7uek.x86_64 or later

■ On Oracle Linux 7 with Red Hat Compatible Kernel

3.10.0-54.0.1.el7.x86_64 or later

■ On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Update 2

2.6.18 or later

■ On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Update 5

2.6.18 or later

■ On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6

2.6.32-71.el6.x86_64 or later

■ On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7

3.10.0-54.0.1.el7.x86_64 or later

■ On Asianux Server 3

2.6.18 or later

■ On Asianux Server 4

2.6.32-71.el6.x86_64 or later

 

查看操作系统内部版本,可以使用下面命令,如下所示,内部版本满足要求。

[root@DB-Server ~]# cat /proc/version
Linux version 2.6.18-274.el5 (mockbuild@x86-002.build.bos.redhat.com) (gcc version 4.1.2 20080704 (Red Hat 4.1.2-51)) #1 SMP Fri Jul 8 17:36:59 EDT 2011
[root@DB-Server ~]# uname -r
2.6.18-274.el5


 

 

3.3:ORACLE软件所要求或依赖的一些包

rpm -q --qf '%{NAME}-%{VERSION}-%{RELEASE} (%{ARCH})\n' binutils \
compat-libstdc++-33 \
elfutils-libelf \
elfutils-libelf-devel \
gcc \
gcc-c++ \
glibc \
glibc-common \
glibc-devel \
glibc-headers \
ksh  \
libaio \
libaio \
libaio-devel \
libgcc \
libstdc++ \
libstdc++-devel \
make \
sysstat


[root@DB-Server ~]# rpm -q --qf '%{NAME}-%{VERSION}-%{RELEASE} (%{ARCH})\n' binutils \
> compat-libstdc++-33 \
> elfutils-libelf \
> elfutils-libelf-devel \
> gcc \
> gcc-c++ \
> glibc \
> glibc-common \
> glibc-devel \
> glibc-headers \
> ksh  \
> libaio \
> libaio \
> libaio-devel \
> libgcc \
> libstdc++ \
> libstdc++-devel \
> make \
> sysstat
binutils-2.17.50.0.6-14.el5 (x86_64)
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-61 (x86_64)
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-61 (i386)
elfutils-libelf-0.137-3.el5 (x86_64)
elfutils-libelf-0.137-3.el5 (i386)
elfutils-libelf-devel-0.137-3.el5 (x86_64)
gcc-4.1.2-51.el5 (x86_64)
gcc-c++-4.1.2-51.el5 (x86_64)
glibc-2.5-65 (x86_64)
glibc-2.5-65 (i686)
glibc-common-2.5-65 (x86_64)
glibc-devel-2.5-65 (x86_64)
glibc-devel-2.5-65 (i386)
glibc-headers-2.5-65 (x86_64)
ksh-20100202-1.el5_6.6 (x86_64)
libaio-0.3.106-5 (x86_64)
libaio-0.3.106-5 (i386)
libaio-0.3.106-5 (x86_64)
libaio-0.3.106-5 (i386)
package libaio-devel is not installed
libgcc-4.1.2-51.el5 (x86_64)
libgcc-4.1.2-51.el5 (i386)
libstdc++-4.1.2-51.el5 (x86_64)
libstdc++-4.1.2-51.el5 (i386)
libstdc++-devel-4.1.2-51.el5 (x86_64)
make-3.81-3.el5 (x86_64)
package sysstat is not installed


 

如上检测所示,我们需要安装这些缺少的包:

[root@DB-Server Server]# rpm -ivh  libaio-devel*
warning: libaio-devel-0.3.106-5.i386.rpm: Header V3 DSA signature: NOKEY, key ID 37017186
Preparing...                ########################################### [100%]
   1:libaio-devel           ########################################### [ 50%]
   2:libaio-devel           ########################################### [100%]
[root@DB-Server Server]# rpm -ivh sysstat*
warning: sysstat-7.0.2-11.el5.x86_64.rpm: Header V3 DSA signature: NOKEY, key ID 37017186
Preparing...                ########################################### [100%]
   1:sysstat                ########################################### [100%]
[root@DB-Server Server]# 


 

3.4 Compiler Requirements

Intel C++ Compiler 10.1 or later and the version of GNU C and C++ compilers listed under "Package Requirements" are supported with these products

 

3.5 其它软件要求(Additional Software Requirements)

 

这部分建立参考安装文档(里面内容较详细,有些是特殊要求),这里仅仅涉及Oracle ODBC相关驱动。

在 Oracle Linux 5, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5, and Asianux Server 3中,需要下面3个包的版本

- unixODBC-2.2.11 (32-bit) or later

- unixODBC-devel-2.2.11 (64-bit) or later

- unixODBC-2.2.11 (64-bit) or later

 

[root@DB-Server Server]# rpm -ivh unixODBC-2.2.11-7.1.i386.rpm
warning: unixODBC-2.2.11-7.1.i386.rpm: Header V3 DSA signature: NOKEY, key ID 37017186
Preparing...                ########################################### [100%]
   1:unixODBC               ########################################### [100%]
[root@DB-Server Server]# rpm -ivh unixODBC-2.2.11-7.1.x86_64.rpm
warning: unixODBC-2.2.11-7.1.x86_64.rpm: Header V3 DSA signature: NOKEY, key ID 37017186
Preparing...                ########################################### [100%]
   1:unixODBC               ########################################### [100%]
[root@DB-Server Server]# rpm -ivh unixODBC-devel-2.2.11-7.1.i386.rpm
warning: unixODBC-devel-2.2.11-7.1.i386.rpm: Header V3 DSA signature: NOKEY, key ID 37017186
Preparing...                ########################################### [100%]
   1:unixODBC-devel         ########################################### [100%]
[root@DB-Server Server]# rpm -ivh unixODBC-devel-2.2.11-7.1.x86_64.rpm 
warning: unixODBC-devel-2.2.11-7.1.x86_64.rpm: Header V3 DSA signature: NOKEY, key ID 37017186
Preparing...                ########################################### [100%]
   1:unixODBC-devel         ########################################### [100%]
[root@DB-Server Server]# 


 

 

4 Configuring Kernel Parameters and Resource Limits

 

在修改内核参数前,我们先检查、查看这些内核参数的配置值

[root@DB-Server ~]# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep sem
kernel.sem = 250        32000   32      128
[root@DB-Server ~]# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep shm
vm.hugetlb_shm_group = 0
kernel.shmmni = 4096
kernel.shmall = 4294967296
kernel.shmmax = 68719476736
[root@DB-Server ~]# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep file-max
fs.file-max = 358778
[root@DB-Server ~]# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep ip_local_port_range
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 32768    61000
[root@DB-Server ~]# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep rmem_default
net.core.rmem_default = 129024
[root@DB-Server ~]# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep rmem_max
net.core.rmem_max = 131071
[root@DB-Server ~]# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep wmem_default
net.core.wmem_default = 129024
[root@DB-Server ~]# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep wmem_max
net.core.wmem_max = 131071
[root@DB-Server ~]# 


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官方文档关于内核参数的推荐值如下截图所示,如果系统里面的配置大于这个值,那么就使用默认的值,不需要修改该参数值。

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注意:If the current value of any parameter is higher than the value listed in this table, then do not change the value of that parameter.

 

在 /etc/sysctl.conf中添加如下参数的设置值,如果这一步设置有误,也没有关系,后面安装过程会检测系统参数,提示参数设置有误,不能通过。需要你重新配置。

fs.file-max = 6815744
net.core.rmem_default = 262144
net.core.rmem_max = 4194304
net.core.wmem_default = 262144
net.core.wmem_max = 1048576
fs.aio-max-nr = 1048576
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 9000    65500
kernel.sem = 250        32000   100      128


 

 

设置完成后执行/sbin/sysctl -p 使之理解生效,从而不用重启系统。Oracle 11g新增了fixup脚本,在安装过程中,安装程序将会检查推荐的操作系统内核参数设置以及必须的软件包,对于不符合要求的部分将会自动生成runfixup.sh,只需要手动以root用户执行该脚本即可,不需要手动调整配置了。所以这一块即使一些内核参数配置不正确,也可以在后面环境快速处理、验证。

 

5:创建系统账号和用户组

 

一般要检查是否存在oracle以及dba、oinstall用户组,如果是新环境,可以直接跳过,如果以前安装过Oracle数据库,那么就必须检查一下。

[root@DB-Server ~]# more /etc/oraInst.loc
/etc/oraInst.loc: No such file or directory
[root@DB-Server ~]# grep oinstall /etc/group
 
 
[root@DB-Server ~]# grep dba /etc/group
[root@DB-Server ~]# 


 

创建用户组dba、oinstall

# /usr/sbin/groupadd oinstall

# /usr/sbin/groupadd dba

 

创建用户oracle

[root@DB-Server ~]# id oracle
id: oracle: No such user
[root@DB-Server ~]# /usr/sbin/useradd -g oinstall -G dba oracle
[root@DB-Server ~]# id oracle
uid=500(oracle) gid=500(oinstall) groups=500(oinstall),501(dba) context=root:system_r:unconfined_t:SystemLow-SystemHigh
[root@DB-Server ~]# 


设置账号密码:

[root@DB-Server ~]# passwd oracle
Changing password for user oracle.
New UNIX password: 
BAD PASSWORD: it is too simplistic/systematic
Retype new UNIX password: 
passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully.
[root@DB-Server ~]# 


 

6:修改用户资源限制

 

[root@DB-Server ~]# ulimit -Sn
1024
[root@DB-Server ~]# ulimit -Hn
1024
[root@DB-Server ~]# ulimit -Su
36848
[root@DB-Server ~]# ulimit -Hu
36848
[root@DB-Server ~]# ulimit -Ss
10240
[root@DB-Server ~]# ulimit -Hs
unlimited
[root@DB-Server ~]# 


在配置文件/etc/security/limits.conf 里面设置

oracle soft nproc 2047

oracle hard nproc 16384

oracle soft nofile 1024

oracle hard nofile 65536

 

修改用户验证选项

在/etc/pam.d/login配置文件里面加上下面配置,如果已经存在的,就忽略这些。

session required pam_selinux.so

session required /lib/security/pam_limits.so

 

7:修改用户配置文件

 

root用户下:修改/etc/profile文件加入如下参数

if [ $USER = "oracle" ]; then
        if [ $SHELL = "/bin/ksh" ]; then
              ulimit -p 16384
              ulimit -n 65536
        else
              ulimit -u 16384 -n 65536
        fi
fi


 

或是在oracle用户下,修改.bash_profile

 

if [ $USER = "oracle" ]; then
  if [ $SHELL = "/bin/ksh" ]; then
       ulimit -p 16384
       ulimit -n 65536
  else
 
       ulimit -u 16384 -n 65536
  fi
 
fi


 

8:安装目录配置

[root@DB-Server ~]# mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle
[root@DB-Server ~]# chown -R oracle:oinstall /u01/app/oracle
[root@DB-Server ~]# chmod -R 775 /u01/app/oracle
 
[root@DB-Server ~]# mkdir -p /u01/app/oraInventory
[root@DB-Server ~]# chown -R oracle:oinstall /u01/app/oraInventory/
[root@DB-Server ~]# chmod -R 775 /u01/app/oraInventory/
[root@DB-Server ~]# 


 

 

9:修改用户bash shell

 

以oracle账号登录,修改.bash_profile参数文件

[oracle@DB-Server ~]$ vi .bash_profile 
 
export ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle
export ORACLE_HOME=$ORACLE_BASE/product/11.1.0/dbhome_1
export ORACLE_SID=gsp
export PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/bin:$PATH:$HOME/bin


 

10:配置VNC

[root@DB-Server ~]# rpm -qa | grep vnc
vnc-server-4.1.2-14.el5_6.6
[root@DB-Server ~]# vi /etc/sysconfig/vncservers 
 
VNCSERVERS="1:root"
VNCSERVERARGS[1]="-geometry 800x600 -nolisten tcp -nohttpd -localhost"
VNCSERVERS="2:oracle"
VNCSERVERARGS[2]="-geometry 800x600 -nolisten tcp -nohttpd -localhost"
 
[root@DB-Server ~]# su - oracle
[oracle@DB-Server ~]$ vncserver :2
 
You will require a password to access your desktops.
 
Password:
Verify:
xauth:  creating new authority file /home/oracle/.Xauthority
xauth: (stdin):1:  bad display name "DB-Server.localdomain:2" in "add" command
 
New 'DB-Server.localdomain:2 (oracle)' desktop is DB-Server.localdomain:2
 
Creating default startup script /home/oracle/.vnc/xstartup
Starting applications specified in /home/oracle/.vnc/xstartup
Log file is /home/oracle/.vnc/DB-Server.localdomain:2.log


 

在root用户下,设置iptables,添加

-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -p tcp -m tcp --dport 5901 -j ACCEPT
 
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -p tcp -m tcp --dport 5902 -j ACCEPT
 
-A RH-Firewall-1-INPUT -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p tcp --dport 1521 -j ACCEPT


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ORACLE 11g图形化安装步骤

 

将安装介质解压到/tmp/database下,然后按照下面步骤安装

$ ./runInstaller

如果没有Oracle Support账号或不想设置,取消勾选选项。

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勾选Server Class

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我们勾选“Advanced install”

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此处设置字符集,SGA Target等。

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Qwe123456

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[root@DB-Server Server]# /u01/oraInventory/orainstRoot.sh 
Changing permissions of /u01/oraInventory.
Adding read,write permissions for group.
Removing read,write,execute permissions for world.
 
Changing groupname of /u01/oraInventory to oinstall.
The execution of the script is complete.
[root@DB-Server Server]# /u01/app/root.sh 
Running Oracle 11g root.sh script...
 
The following environment variables are set as:
    ORACLE_OWNER= oracle
    ORACLE_HOME=  /u01/app
 
Enter the full pathname of the local bin directory: [/usr/local/bin]: 
   Copying dbhome to /usr/local/bin ...
   Copying oraenv to /usr/local/bin ...
   Copying coraenv to /usr/local/bin ...
 
 
Creating /etc/oratab file...
Entries will be added to the /etc/oratab file as needed by
Database Configuration Assistant when a database is created
Finished running generic part of root.sh script.
Now product-specific root actions will be performed.
Finished product-specific root actions.
[root@DB-Server Server]# 


 

至此安装完成,然后测试验证,必要的话,关闭VNC服务,修改iptables设置。