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[数据库]搭建高可用的redis集群,避免standalone模式带给你的苦难


  现在项目上用redis的话,很少说不用集群的情况,毕竟如果生产上只有一台redis会有极大的风险,比如机器挂掉,或者内存爆掉,就比如我们生产环境

曾今也遭遇到这种情况,导致redis内存不够挂掉的情况,当然这些都是我们及其不能容忍的,第一个必须要做到高可靠,其次才是高性能,好了,下面我来

逐一搭建一下。

 

一:Redis集群搭建

1. 下载

   首先去官网下载较新的3.2.0版本,下载方式还是非常简单的,比如官网介绍的这样。

$ wget http://download.redis.io/releases/redis-3.2.0.tar.gz$ tar xzf redis-3.2.0.tar.gz$ cd redis-3.2.0$ make

 

2. redis配置

 由于我们要做集群,而且还要redis自带的redis-trib.rb 能正常运行,我们需要在集群中开启三台master,三台slave,所以这里我需要建立6个文件

夹,而且文件夹的名称就使用端口地址的名字,比如:6389. 6380....6384。

3. config配置。

   现在directory的分布情况大致如上图,接下来要做的事情就是配置redis.conf了,在这里需要配置四个选项。。。

 

<1> port  端口地址,比如6380文件夹下面的port就是6380,

# Accept connections on the specified port, default is 6379 (IANA #815344).# If port 0 is specified Redis will not listen on a TCP socket.port 6379

 

<2> cluster-enabled 和 cluster-config-file

       这个顾名思义,首先需要开启redis的cluster模式,然后配置一个cluster-config-file文件,这个文件用于存放redis的实时信息,redis会动态追加和修

改这个conf下面的内容信息,不过要记住,这个nodes-6379.conf 可以根据 端口文件夹依次配置,比如6380文件夹可以改成nodes-6380.conf这样。。。

# Normal Redis instances can't be part of a Redis Cluster; only nodes that are# started as cluster nodes can. In order to start a Redis instance as a# cluster node enable the cluster support uncommenting the following:#cluster-enabled yes# Every cluster node has a cluster configuration file. This file is not# intended to be edited by hand. It is created and updated by Redis nodes.# Every Redis Cluster node requires a different cluster configuration file.# Make sure that instances running in the same system do not have# overlapping cluster configuration file names.#cluster-config-file nodes-6379.conf

 

<3> directory

      为了方便管理,我这里配置的root目录取决于在哪个文件夹,比如6380下面我的dir就是: dir ./6380/

# Note that you must specify a directory here, not a file name.dir ./6379/

 

<4> protected-mode

      这个是redis 3.2 才追加的一个功能,从功能注释中,我们就可以发现,这个默认就是不让外界可以访问redis,所以这里我们就改为no,可以远程访问。

# By default protected mode is enabled. You should disable it only if# you are sure you want clients from other hosts to connect to Redis# even if no authentication is configured, nor a specific set of interfaces# are explicitly listed using the "bind" directive.protected-mode no

 

ok,到现在为止,我们的config就修改完毕了,其他端口的文件夹也可以依次配置之~

 

二:开启redis

    到现在为止,各个端口文件夹都配置成功了,接下来准备开启了,真的好么么哒~~~,窗口太多,有点萌萌的。

 

 

接下来我们可以看一下,在6379下面是不是有生成node-6379.conf文件,比如下面:

 

三:配置redis-trib.rb

   因为redis-trib.rb是ruby写的,而我们的电脑肯定是没有ruby和一些配置依赖项,不过没关系,有强大的yum安装,一切都不是问题。

 

1. 执行replicas命令

[jack@localhost ~]$ cluster/redis-trib.rb create --replicas 1 192.168.161.133:6379 192.168.161.133:6380 192.168.161.133:6381 192.168.161.133:6382 192.168.161.133:6383 192.168.161.133:6384/usr/bin/env: ruby: No such file or directory[jack@localhost ~]$ 

   可以看到ruby是没有安装的,所以下一步我们要安装ruby了。。。

 

2. 安装ruby 【一定要是管理员权限哦】

[jack@localhost ~]$ sudousage: sudo [-D level] -h | -K | -k | -Vusage: sudo -v [-AknS] [-D level] [-g groupname|#gid] [-p prompt] [-u user      name|#uid]usage: sudo -l[l] [-AknS] [-D level] [-g groupname|#gid] [-p prompt] [-U user      name] [-u user name|#uid] [-g groupname|#gid] [command]usage: sudo [-AbEHknPS] [-r role] [-t type] [-C fd] [-D level] [-g      groupname|#gid] [-p prompt] [-u user name|#uid] [-g groupname|#gid]      [VAR=value] [-i|-s] [<command>]usage: sudo -e [-AknS] [-r role] [-t type] [-C fd] [-D level] [-g      groupname|#gid] [-p prompt] [-u user name|#uid] file ...[jack@localhost ~]$ suPassword: jacsu: incorrect password[jack@localhost ~]$ yum install rubyLoaded plugins: fastestmirror, refresh-packagekit, securityYou need to be root to perform this command.[jack@localhost ~]$ jackbash: jack: command not found[jack@localhost ~]$ suPassword: [root@localhost jack]# yum install rubyLoaded plugins: fastestmirror, refresh-packagekit, securityLoading mirror speeds from cached hostfile * base: mirror.bit.edu.cn * extras: mirror.bit.edu.cn * updates: mirror.bit.edu.cnSetting up Install ProcessResolving Dependencies--> Running transaction check---> Package ruby.x86_64 0:1.8.7.374-4.el6_6 will be installed--> Processing Dependency: ruby-libs = 1.8.7.374-4.el6_6 for package: ruby-1.8.7.374-4.el6_6.x86_64--> Processing Dependency: libruby.so.1.8()(64bit) for package: ruby-1.8.7.374-4.el6_6.x86_64--> Running transaction check---> Package ruby-libs.x86_64 0:1.8.7.374-4.el6_6 will be installed--> Processing Dependency: libreadline.so.5()(64bit) for package: ruby-libs-1.8.7.374-4.el6_6.x86_64--> Running transaction check---> Package compat-readline5.x86_64 0:5.2-17.1.el6 will be installed--> Finished Dependency ResolutionDependencies Resolved================================================================================ Package        Arch     Version          Repository Size================================================================================Installing: ruby          x86_64    1.8.7.374-4.el6_6     base    538 kInstalling for dependencies: compat-readline5    x86_64    5.2-17.1.el6       base    130 k ruby-libs       x86_64    1.8.7.374-4.el6_6     base    1.7 MTransaction Summary================================================================================Install    3 Package(s)Total download size: 2.3 MInstalled size: 7.8 MIs this ok [y/N]: yDownloading Packages:(1/3): compat-readline5-5.2-17.1.el6.x86_64.rpm     | 130 kB   00:00   (2/3): ruby-1.8.7.374-4.el6_6.x86_64.rpm         | 538 kB   00:00   (3/3): ruby-libs-1.8.7.374-4.el6_6.x86_64.rpm      | 1.7 MB   00:02   --------------------------------------------------------------------------------Total                      747 kB/s | 2.3 MB   00:03   warning: rpmts_HdrFromFdno: Header V3 RSA/SHA256 Signature, key ID c105b9de: NOKEYRetrieving key from file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6Importing GPG key 0xC105B9DE: Userid : CentOS-6 Key (CentOS 6 Official Signing Key) <centos-6-key@centos.org> Package: centos-release-6-5.el6.centos.11.1.x86_64 (@anaconda-CentOS-201311272149.x86_64/6.5) From  : /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6Is this ok [y/N]: yRunning rpm_check_debugRunning Transaction TestTransaction Test SucceededRunning Transaction Installing : compat-readline5-5.2-17.1.el6.x86_64             1/3  Installing : ruby-libs-1.8.7.374-4.el6_6.x86_64              2/3  Installing : ruby-1.8.7.374-4.el6_6.x86_64                3/3  Verifying : compat-readline5-5.2-17.1.el6.x86_64             1/3  Verifying : ruby-libs-1.8.7.374-4.el6_6.x86_64              2/3  Verifying : ruby-1.8.7.374-4.el6_6.x86_64                3/3 Installed: ruby.x86_64 0:1.8.7.374-4.el6_6                        Dependency Installed: compat-readline5.x86_64 0:5.2-17.1.el6 ruby-libs.x86_64 0:1.8.7.374-4.el6_6 Complete![root@localhost jack]# 

 

3. 安装rubygems

     接着我们再次运行 replicas命令,看看会怎么样。。。 

[root@localhost jack]# cluster/redis-trib.rb create --replicas 1 192.168.161.133:6379 192.168.161.133:6380 192.168.161.133:6381 192.168.161.133:6382 192.168.161.133:6383 192.168.161.133:6384cluster/redis-trib.rb:24:in `require': no such file to load -- rubygems (LoadError)  from cluster/redis-trib.rb:24[root@localhost jack]# 

     结果苦逼了,还是报错,看提示貌似是少了一个rubygems,这次我们还是通过yum安装。

[root@localhost jack]# yum install -y rubygemsLoaded plugins: fastestmirror, refresh-packagekit, securityLoading mirror speeds from cached hostfile * base: mirror.bit.edu.cn * extras: mirror.bit.edu.cn * updates: mirror.bit.edu.cnSetting up Install ProcessResolving Dependencies--> Running transaction check---> Package rubygems.noarch 0:1.3.7-5.el6 will be installed--> Processing Dependency: ruby-rdoc for package: rubygems-1.3.7-5.el6.noarch--> Running transaction check---> Package ruby-rdoc.x86_64 0:1.8.7.374-4.el6_6 will be installed--> Processing Dependency: ruby-irb = 1.8.7.374-4.el6_6 for package: ruby-rdoc-1.8.7.374-4.el6_6.x86_64--> Running transaction check---> Package ruby-irb.x86_64 0:1.8.7.374-4.el6_6 will be installed--> Finished Dependency ResolutionDependencies Resolved================================================================================ Package      Arch      Version          Repository  Size================================================================================Installing: rubygems     noarch     1.3.7-5.el6        base     207 kInstalling for dependencies: ruby-irb     x86_64     1.8.7.374-4.el6_6     base     317 k ruby-rdoc     x86_64     1.8.7.374-4.el6_6     base     381 kTransaction Summary================================================================================Install    3 Package(s)Total download size: 905 kInstalled size: 3.0 MDownloading Packages:(1/3): ruby-irb-1.8.7.374-4.el6_6.x86_64.rpm       | 317 kB   00:00   (2/3): ruby-rdoc-1.8.7.374-4.el6_6.x86_64.rpm      | 381 kB   00:00   (3/3): rubygems-1.3.7-5.el6.noarch.rpm          | 207 kB   00:00   --------------------------------------------------------------------------------Total                      625 kB/s | 905 kB   00:01   Running rpm_check_debugRunning Transaction TestTransaction Test SucceededRunning Transaction Installing : ruby-irb-1.8.7.374-4.el6_6.x86_64              1/3  Installing : ruby-rdoc-1.8.7.374-4.el6_6.x86_64              2/3  Installing : rubygems-1.3.7-5.el6.noarch                 3/3  Verifying : ruby-rdoc-1.8.7.374-4.el6_6.x86_64              1/3  Verifying : ruby-irb-1.8.7.374-4.el6_6.x86_64              2/3  Verifying : rubygems-1.3.7-5.el6.noarch                 3/3 Installed: rubygems.noarch 0:1.3.7-5.el6                         Dependency Installed: ruby-irb.x86_64 0:1.8.7.374-4.el6_6  ruby-rdoc.x86_64 0:1.8.7.374-4.el6_6  Complete![root@localhost jack]# 

 

4. 安装redis驱动

 

   还是继续不死心,我们继续运行replicas命令命令。

[root@localhost jack]# cluster/redis-trib.rb create --replicas 1 192.168.161.133:6379 192.168.161.133:6380 192.168.161.133:6381 192.168.161.133:6382 192.168.161.133:6383 192.168.161.133:6384/usr/lib/ruby/site_ruby/1.8/rubygems/custom_require.rb:31:in `gem_original_require': no such file to load -- redis (LoadError)  from /usr/lib/ruby/site_ruby/1.8/rubygems/custom_require.rb:31:in `require'  from cluster/redis-trib.rb:25[root@localhost jack]# 

 

卧槽,还是有问题,这次貌似是一个gem_original_require没有安装,当然这个一般是说ruby版本太老了,所以现在亲要么升级ruby版本,要么直接安装

ruby的redis驱动。

[root@localhost jack]# gem install redisSuccessfully installed redis-3.3.01 gem installedInstalling ri documentation for redis-3.3.0...Installing RDoc documentation for redis-3.3.0...

 

6. 运行replicas命令

   终于貌似所有的依赖我们都解决了,接下来就可以真的执行了,真实一把辛酸泪啊。。。操。。。

[root@localhost jack]# cluster/redis-trib.rb create --replicas 1 192.168.161.133:6379 192.168.161.133:6380 192.168.161.133:6381 192.168.161.133:6382 192.168.161.133:6383 192.168.161.133:6384>>> Creating cluster>>> Performing hash slots allocation on 6 nodes...Using 3 masters:192.168.161.133:6379192.168.161.133:6380192.168.161.133:6381Adding replica 192.168.161.133:6382 to 192.168.161.133:6379Adding replica 192.168.161.133:6383 to 192.168.161.133:6380Adding replica 192.168.161.133:6384 to 192.168.161.133:6381M: fdae457e803e2e04a7c549c69b44a2beefdae3bc 192.168.161.133:6379  slots:0-5460 (5461 slots) masterM: 74285cee0fa65e64b443ecc630e447a8a65ee9f8 192.168.161.133:6380  slots:5461-10922 (5462 slots) masterM: 14ed067a1b85044325d5800fa8479a6b4e41a10c 192.168.161.133:6381  slots:10923-16383 (5461 slots) masterS: c50b1ff1fe3a00b16703f3b5705d2dafe046240b 192.168.161.133:6382  replicates fdae457e803e2e04a7c549c69b44a2beefdae3bcS: 8f7bd92f7ffb48e327820693a5820b5be7ea5556 192.168.161.133:6383  replicates 74285cee0fa65e64b443ecc630e447a8a65ee9f8S: 4a85ed078b4c99afad7f3a9a8df09082c681a649 192.168.161.133:6384  replicates 14ed067a1b85044325d5800fa8479a6b4e41a10cCan I set the above configuration? (type 'yes' to accept): yes>>> Nodes configuration updated>>> Assign a different config epoch to each node>>> Sending CLUSTER MEET messages to join the clusterWaiting for the cluster to join....>>> Performing Cluster Check (using node 192.168.161.133:6379)M: fdae457e803e2e04a7c549c69b44a2beefdae3bc 192.168.161.133:6379  slots:0-5460 (5461 slots) masterM: 74285cee0fa65e64b443ecc630e447a8a65ee9f8 192.168.161.133:6380  slots:5461-10922 (5462 slots) masterM: 14ed067a1b85044325d5800fa8479a6b4e41a10c 192.168.161.133:6381  slots:10923-16383 (5461 slots) masterM: c50b1ff1fe3a00b16703f3b5705d2dafe046240b 192.168.161.133:6382  slots: (0 slots) master  replicates fdae457e803e2e04a7c549c69b44a2beefdae3bcM: 8f7bd92f7ffb48e327820693a5820b5be7ea5556 192.168.161.133:6383  slots: (0 slots) master  replicates 74285cee0fa65e64b443ecc630e447a8a65ee9f8M: 4a85ed078b4c99afad7f3a9a8df09082c681a649 192.168.161.133:6384  slots: (0 slots) master  replicates 14ed067a1b85044325d5800fa8479a6b4e41a10c[OK] All nodes agree about slots configuration.>>> Check for open slots...>>> Check slots coverage...[OK] All 16384 slots covered.[root@localhost jack]# 

从上面可以看到,trib程序告知我们是否用 6379,6380,6381 作为主, 6382,6383,6384作为从。。然后我就恩准了。。就这样我们的集群

就创建好了,好了,这篇就讲到这里,也不是特别复杂吧~~~