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[数据库]mongodb driver c#语法


Definitions and Builders
The driver has introduced a number of types related to the specification of filters, updates, projections, sorts, and index keys. These types are used throughout the API.

Most of the definitions also have builders to aid in their creation. Each builder has a generic type parameter TDocument which represents the type of document with which you are working. It will almost always match the generic TDocument parameter used in an IMongoCollection<TDocument>.

Fields
FieldDefinition<TDocument> and FieldDefinition<TDocument, TField> define how to get a field name. They are implicitly convertible from a string, so that you can simply pass the field name you’d like. For instance, to use the field named “fn” with a TDocument of BsonDocument, do the following:

FieldDefinition<BsonDocument> field = "fn";
However, if you are working with a mapped class, then we are able to translate a string that equals the property name. For instance, given the below Person class:

class Person
{
    [BsonElement("fn")]
    public string FirstName { get; set; }

    [BsonElement("ln")]
    public string LastName { get; set; }
}
Since we know the type is Person, we can provide the property name, FirstName, from the class and “fn” will still be used.

FieldDefinition<Person> field = "FirstName";
NOTE
We don’t validate that the provided string exists as a mapped field, so it is still possible to provide a field that hasn’t been mapped:

FieldDefinition<Person> field = "fn";
And the output field name of this will be just “fn”.

Filters
FilterDefinition<TDocument> defines a filter. It is implicity convertible from both a JSON string as well as a BsonDocument.

FilterDefinition<BsonDocument> filter = "{ x: 1 }";

// or

FilterDefinition<BsonDocument> filter = new BsonDocument("x", 1);
Both of these will render the filter { x: 1 }.

Filter Definition Builder
See the tests for examples.

The FilterDefinitionBuilder<TDocument> provides a type-safe API for building up both simple and complex MongoDB queries.

For example, to build up the filter { x: 10, y: { $lt: 20 } }, the following calls are all equivalent.

var builder = Builders<BsonDocument>.Filter;
var filter = builder.Eq("x", 10) & builder.Lt("y", 20);
NOTE
The & operator is overloaded. Other overloaded operators include the | operator for “or” and the ! operator for “not”.
Given the following class:

class Widget
{
    [BsonElement("x")]
    public int X { get; set; }

    [BsonElement("y")]
    public int Y { get; set; }
}
You can achieve the same result in the typed variant:

var builder = Builders<Widget>.Filter;
var filter = builder.Eq(widget => widget.X, 10) & builder.Lt(widget => widget.Y, 20);
The benefits to this form is the compile-time safety inherent in using types. In addition, your IDE can provide refactoring support.

Alternatively, you can elect to use a string-based field name instead.

var filter = builder.Eq("X", 10) & builder.Lt("Y", 20);

// or

var filter = builder.Eq("x", 10) & builder.Lt("y", 20);
For more information on valid lambda expressions, see the expressions documentation.

Array Operators
When using entities with properties or fields that serialize to arrays, you can use the methods prefixed with “Any” to compare the entire array against a single item.

Given the following class:

public class Post
{
    public IEnumerable<string> Tags { get; set; }
}
To see if any of the tags equals “mongodb”:

var filter = Builders<Post>.Filter.AnyEq(x => x.Tags, "mongodb");

// This will NOT compile:
// var filter = Builders<Post>.Filter.Eq(x => x.Tags, "mongodb");
Pipelines
A pipeline definition defines an entire aggregation pipeline. It is implicitly convertible from a List<BsonDocument>, a BsonDocument, a List<IPipelineStageDefinition> , and a IPipelineStageDefinition[].

For example:

PipelineDefinition pipeline = new BsonDocument[]
{
    new BsonDocument { { "$match", new BsonDocument("x", 1) } },
    new BsonDocument { { "$sort", new BsonDocument("y", 1) } }
};
NOTE
There is no builder for a PipelineDefinition. In most cases, the IAggregateFluent<TDocument> interface would be used which is returned from the IMongoCollection<TDocument>.Aggregate method.

Projections
There are two forms of a projection definition: one where the type of the projection is known, ProjectionDefinition<TDocument, TProjection>, and one where the type of the projection is not yet known, ProjectionDefinition<TDocument>. The latter, while implicitly convertible to the first, is merely used as a building block. The high-level APIs that take a projection will always take the former. This is because, when determining how to handle a projection client-side, it is not enough to know what fields and transformations will take place. It also requires that we know how to interpret the projected shape as a .NET type. Since the driver allows you to work with custom classes, it is imperative that any projection also include the “interpretation instructions” for projecting into a custom class.

Each projection definition is implicity convertible from both a JSON string as well as a BsonDocument.

ProjectionDefinition<BsonDocument> projection = "{ x: 1 }";

// or

ProjectionDefinition<BsonDocument> projection = new BsonDocument("x", 1);
Both of these will render the projection { x: 1 }.

Projection Definition Builder
See the tests for examples.

The ProjectionDefinitionBuilder<TDocument> exists to make it easier to build up projections in MongoDB’s syntax. For the projection { x: 1, y: 1, _id: 0 }:

var projection = Builders<BsonDocument>.Projection.Include("x").Include("y").Exclude("_id");
Using the Widget class:

class Widget
{
    public ObjectId Id { get; set; }

    [BsonElement("x")]
    public int X { get; set; }

    [BsonElement("y")]
    public int Y { get; set; }
}
We can render the same projection in a couple of ways:

var projection = Builders<Widget>.Projection.Include("X").Include("Y").Exclude("Id");

// or

var projection = Builders<Widget>.Projection.Include("x").Include("y").Exclude("_id");

// or

var projection = Builders<Widget>.Projection.Include(x => x.X).Include(x => x.Y).Exclude(x => x.Id);

// or

var projection = Builders<Widget>.Projection.Expression(x => new { X = x.X, Y = x.Y });
This last projection where we’ve used the Expression method is subtly different as is explained below, and its return type is a (ProjectionDefinition<TDocument, TProjection>) as opposed to the others which return a (ProjectionDefinition<TDocument>).

Lambda Expressions
The driver supports using expression trees to render projections. The same expression tree will sometimes render differently when used in a Find operation versus when used in an Aggregate operation. Inherently, a lambda expression contains all the information necessary to form both the projection on the server as well as the client-side result and requires no further information.

Find
See the tests for examples.

When a Find projection is defined using a lambda expression, it is run client-side. The driver inspects the lambda expression to determine which fields are referenced and automatically constructs a server-side projection to return only those fields.

Given the following class:

class Widget
{
    public ObjectId Id { get; set; }

    [BsonElement("x")]
    public int X { get; set; }

    [BsonElement("y")]
    public int Y { get; set; }
}
The following lambda expressions will all result in the projection { x: 1, y: 1, _id: 0 }. This is because we inspect the expression tree to discover all the fields that are used and tell the server to include them. We then run the lambda expression client-side. As such, Find projections support virtually the entire breadth of the C# language.

var projection = Builders<Widget>.Projection.Expression(x => new { X = x.X, Y = x.Y });

var projection = Builders<Widget>.Projection.Expression(x => new { Sum = x.X + x.Y });

var projection = Builders<Widget>.Projection.Expression(x => new { Avg = (x.X + x.Y) / 2 });

var projection = Builders<Widget>.Projection.Expression(x => (x.X + x.Y) / 2);
The _id field is excluded automatically when we know for certain that it isn’t necessary, as is the case in all the above examples.

Aggregate
See the tests for examples.

When an aggregate projection is defined using a lambda expression, a majority of the aggregation expression operators are supported and translated. Unlike a project for Find, no part of the lambda expression is run client-side. This means that all expressions in a projection for the Aggregation Framework must be expressible on the server.

Grouping
See the tests for examples.

A projection is also used when performing grouping in the Aggregation Framework. In addition to the expression operators used in an aggregate projection, the aggregation accumulator operators are also supported.

Sorts
SortDefinition<TDocument> defines how to render a valid sort document. It is implicity convertible from both a JSON string as well as a BsonDocument.

SortDefinition<BsonDocument> sort = "{ x: 1 }";

// or

SortDefinition<BsonDocument> sort = new BsonDocument("x", 1);
Both of these will render the sort { x: 1 }.

Sort Definition Builder
See the tests for examples.

The SortDefinitionBuilder<TDocument> provides a type-safe API for building up MongoDB sort syntax.

For example, to build up the sort { x: 1, y: -1 }, do the following:

var builder = Builders<BsonDocument>.Sort;
var sort = builder.Ascending("x").Descending("y");
Given the following class:

class Widget
{
    [BsonElement("x")]
    public int X { get; set; }

    [BsonElement("y")]
    public int Y { get; set; }
}
We can achieve the same result in the typed variant:

var builder = Builders<Widget>.Sort;
var sort = builder.Ascending(x => x.X).Descending(x => x.Y);

// or

var sort = builder.Ascending("X").Descending("Y");

// or

var sort = builder.Ascending("x").Descending("y");
Updates
UpdateDefinition<TDocument> defines how to render a valid update document. It is implicity convertible from both a JSON string as well as a BsonDocument.

// invocation
UpdateDefinition<BsonDocument> update = "{ $set: { x: 1 } }";

// or

UpdateDefinition<BsonDocument> update = new BsonDocument("$set", new BsonDocument("x", 1));
Both of these will render the update { $set: { x: 1 } }.

Update Definition Builder
See the tests for examples.

The UpdateDefinitionBuilder<TDocument> provides a type-safe API for building the MongoDB update specification.

For example, to build up the update { $set: { x: 1, y: 3 }, $inc: { z: 1 } }, do the following:

var builder = Builders<BsonDocument>.Update;
var update = builder.Set("x", 1).Set("y", 3).Inc("z", 1);
Given the following class:

class Widget
{
    [BsonElement("x")]
    public int X { get; set; }

    [BsonElement("y")]
    public int Y { get; set; }

    [BsonElement("z")]
    public int Z { get; set; }
}
We can achieve the same result in a typed variant:

var builder = Builders<Widget>.Update;
var update = builder.Set(widget => widget.X, 1).Set(widget => widget.Y, 3).Inc(widget => widget.Z, 1);

// or

var update = builder.Set("X", 1).Set("Y", 3).Inc("Z", 1);

// or

var update = builder.Set("x", 1).Set("y", 3).Inc("z", 1);
Index Keys
IndexKeysDefinition<TDocument> defines the keys for index. It is implicity convertible from both a JSON string as well as a BsonDocument.

IndexKeysDefinition<BsonDocument> keys = "{ x: 1 }";

// or

IndexKeysDefinition<BsonDocument> keys = new BsonDocument("x", 1);
Both of these will render the keys { x: 1 }.

Index Keys Definition Builder
See the tests for examples.

The IndexKeysDefinitionBuilder<TDocument> provides a type-safe API to build an index keys definition.

For example, to build up the keys { x: 1, y: -1 }, do the following:

var builder = Builders<BsonDocument>.IndexKeys;
var keys = builder.Ascending("x").Descending("y");
Given the following class:

class Widget
{
    [BsonElement("x")]
    public int X { get; set; }

    [BsonElement("y")]
    public int Y { get; set; }
}
We can achieve the same result in the typed variant:

var builder = Builders<Widget>.IndexKeys;
var keys = builder.Ascending(x => x.X).Descending(x => x.Y);

// or

var keys = builder.Ascending("X").Descending("Y");

// or

var keys = builder.Ascending("x").Descending("y");