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[数据库]ELK——Logstash 2.2 date 插件【翻译+实践】


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本文内容

  • 语法
  • 测试数据
  • 可配置选项
  • 参考资料

date 插件是日期插件,这个插件,常用而重要。

如果不用 date 插件,那么 Logstash 将处理时间作为时间戳。时间戳字段是 Logstash 自己添加的内置字段 @timestamp,在ES中关于时间的相关查询,必须使用该字段,你当然也可以修改该字段的值。

语法


该插件必须是用 date 包裹,如下所示:

date {}

可用的配置选项如下表所示:

设置 输入类型 是否为必填 默认值
add_field hash No {}
add_tag array No []
locale string No  
match array No []
periodic_flush boolean No false
remove_field array No []
remove_tag array No []
tag_on_failure array No ["_dateparsefailure"]
target string No "@timestamp"
timezone string No  

其中,add_field、remove_field、add_tag、remove_tag 是所有 Logstash 插件都有。它们在插件过滤成功后生效。这四个选项不多说。参见 ELK——Logstash 2.2 mutate 插件。

测试数据


假设有 Tomcat access 日志:

192.168.6.25 - - [24/Apr/2016:01:25:53 +0800] GET "/goLogin" "" 8080 200 1692 23 "http://10.1.8.193:8080/goMain" "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64; rv:46.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/46.0"
192.168.6.25 - - [24/Apr/2016:01:25:53 +0800] GET "/js/common/jquery-1.10.2.min.js" "" 8080 304 - 67 "http://10.1.8.193:8080/goLogin" "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64; rv:46.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/46.0"
192.168.6.25 - - [24/Apr/2016:01:25:53 +0800] GET "/css/common/login.css" "" 8080 304 - 75 "http://10.1.8.193:8080/goLogin" "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64; rv:46.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/46.0"
192.168.6.25 - - [24/Apr/2016:01:25:53 +0800] GET "/js/system/login.js" "" 8080 304 - 53 "http://10.1.8.193:8080/goLogin" "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64; rv:46.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/46.0"


它是按如下 Tomcat 配置产生的:

<Valve className="org.apache.catalina.valves.AccessLogValve" directory="logs"
        prefix="localhost_access_log." suffix=".txt"
        pattern="%h %l %u %t %m &quot;%U&quot; &quot;%q&quot; %p %s %b %D &quot;%{Referer}i&quot; &quot;%{User-Agent}i&quot;" />


若用如下 Grok 表达式解析该日志:

%{IPORHOST:clientip} %{NOTSPACE:identd} %{NOTSPACE:auth} \[%{HTTPDATE:timestamp}\] %{WORD:http_method} %{NOTSPACE:request} %{NOTSPACE:request_query|-} %{NUMBER:port} %{NUMBER:statusCode} (%{NOTSPACE:bytes}|-) %{NUMBER:reqTime} %{QS:referer} %{QS:userAgent}


会得到如下结果:

{
     "message" => "192.168.6.25 - - [24/Apr/2016:01:25:53 +0800] GET \"/goLogin\" \"\" 8080 200 1692 23 \"http://10.1.8.193:8080/goMain\" \"Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64; rv:46.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/46.0\"",
     "@version" => "1",
    "@timestamp" => "2016-05-17T08:26:07.794Z",
       "host" => "vcyber",
     "clientip" => "192.168.6.25",
      "identd" => "-",
       "auth" => "-",
    "timestamp" => "24/Apr/2016:01:25:53 +0800",
   "http_method" => "GET",
     "request" => "\"/goLogin\"",
  "request_query" => "\"\"",
       "port" => "8080",
    "statusCode" => "200",
      "bytes" => "1692",
     "reqTime" => "23",
     "referer" => "\"http://10.1.8.193:8080/goMain\"",
    "userAgent" => "\"Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64; rv:46.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/46.0\""
}


注意,简单起见,日志拆分到各个字段后的数据类型全是字符串。

可配置选项


match

  • 值是数组 array
  • 默认值为 []

The date formats allowed are anything allowed by Joda-Time (java time library). You can see the docs for this format here:

joda.time.format.DateTimeFormat

An array with field name first, and format patterns following, [ field, formats... ]

如果你的时间字段可能有多个格式,则可指定多个可能的日期格式:

match => [ "timestamp", "MMM dd YYY HH:mm:ss", "MMM d YYY HH:mm:ss", "ISO8601" ]


Logstash 支持四种日期格式:

  • ISO8601 - should parse any valid ISO8601 timestamp, such as 2011-04-19T03:44:01.103Z
  • UNIX - will parse float or int value expressing unix time in seconds since epoch like 1326149001.132 as well as 1326149001
  • UNIX_MS - will parse int value expressing unix time in milliseconds since epoch like 1366125117000
  • TAI64N - will parse tai64n time values

例如,如果你有时间字段 timestamp,可能是 Aug 13 2010 00:03:44,你应该使用如下配置:

filter {
 date {
  match => [ "logdate", "MMM dd YYYY HH:mm:ss" ]
 }
}


如果字段是嵌套结构,那么你可以使用嵌套语法(nested syntax) [foo][bar] 来匹配值。更多信息,参考 the section called “Field Referencesedit”

periodic_flush

  • 值是 boolean
  • 默认值为 false

Call the filter flush method at regular interval. Optional.

tag_on_failure

  • 值是 array
  • 默认值为 ["_dateparsefailure"]

Append values to the tags field when there has been no successful match

target

  • 值是 string
  • 默认值为 "@timestamp"

把 match 的时间字段保存到指定字段。若为指定,默认更新到 @timestamp。

示例:

input {
    stdin {
    }
}
filter {
    grok {
        match=>["message","%{IPORHOST:clientip} %{NOTSPACE:identd} %{NOTSPACE:auth} \[%{HTTPDATE:timestamp}\] %{WORD:http_method} %{NOTSPACE:request} %{NOTSPACE:request_query|-} %{NUMBER:port} %{NUMBER:statusCode} (%{NOTSPACE:bytes}|-) %{NUMBER:reqTime} %{QS:referer} %{QS:userAgent}"]
    }
    date {
        match=>["timestamp","dd/MMM/yyyy:HH:mm:ss Z"]
        target=>"@timestamp"
    }
}
output{
    stdout{
        codec=>rubydebug
    }
}


得到如下结果:

{
     "message" => "}192.168.6.25 - - [24/Apr/2016:01:25:53 +0800] GET \"/goLogin\" \"\" 8080 200 1692 23 \"http://10.1.8.193:8080/goMain\" \"Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64; rv:46.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/46.0\"",
     "@version" => "1",
    "@timestamp" => "2016-04-23T17:25:53.000Z",
       "host" => "vcyber",
     "clientip" => "192.168.6.25",
      "identd" => "-",
       "auth" => "-",
    "timestamp" => "24/Apr/2016:01:25:53 +0800",
   "http_method" => "GET",
     "request" => "\"/goLogin\"",
  "request_query" => "\"\"",
       "port" => "8080",
    "statusCode" => "200",
      "bytes" => "1692",
     "reqTime" => "23",
     "referer" => "\"http://10.1.8.193:8080/goMain\"",
    "userAgent" => "\"Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64; rv:46.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/46.0\""
}


timezone

  • 值是 string
  • 无默认值

Specify a time zone canonical ID to be used for date parsing. The valid IDs are listed on the Joda.org available time zones page. This is useful in case the time zone cannot be extracted from the value, and is not the platform default. If this is not specified the platform default will be used. Canonical ID is good as it takes care of daylight saving time for you For example, America/Los_Angeles or Europe/Paris are valid IDs. This field can be dynamic and include parts of the event using the %{field} syntax