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[网页设计]CSS三列布局


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目录
两侧定宽中间自适应 两列定宽一侧自适应 中间定宽两侧自适应一侧定宽两列自适应三列自适应总结

前面的话

  前面已经介绍过单列定宽单列自适应和两列自适应的两列布局。本文介绍三列布局,分为两侧定宽中间自适应、两列定宽一侧自适应、中间定宽两侧自适应、一侧定宽两列自适应和三列自适应这五种情况

 

两侧定宽中间自适应布局

思路一:  float

【1】float + margin + calc

<style>p{margin: 0;}.parent{overflow: hidden;}.left,.right{float: left;width: 100px;}.center{float: left; width:calc(100% - 240px);margin: 0 20px;}</style>

<div class="parent" style="background-color: lightgrey;">  <div class="left" style="background-color: lightblue;">    <p>left</p>  </div>    <div class="center" style="background-color: pink;">    <p>center</p>    <p>center</p>  </div>    <div class="right" style="background-color: lightgreen;">    <p>right</p>  </div>    </div>

【2】float + margin + (fix)

<style>p{margin: 0;}.parent{overflow: hidden;}.left,.right{position: relative;float: left;width: 100px;}.centerWrap{float: left; width:100%; margin: 0 -100px;}.center{margin: 0 120px;}</style>

<div class="parent" style="background-color: lightgrey;">  <div class="left" style="background-color: lightblue;">    <p>left</p>  </div>        <div class="centerWrap" style="background-color: red;">    <div class="center" style="background-color: pink;">      <p>center</p>      <p>center</p>    </div>      </div>  <div class="right" style="background-color: lightgreen;">    <p>right</p>  </div>      </div>

 

思路二: inline-block

【1】inline-block + margin + calc

<style>p{margin: 0;}.parent{font-size: 0;}.left,.right,.center{display:inline-block; vertical-align: top;font-size: 16px;}.left,.right{width: 100px;}.center{width: calc(100% - 240px); margin: 0 20px;}</style>

<div class="parent" style="background-color: lightgrey;">  <div class="left" style="background-color: lightblue;">    <p>left</p>  </div>        <div class="center" style="background-color: pink;">    <p>center</p>    <p>center</p>  </div>      <div class="right" style="background-color: lightgreen;">    <p>right</p>  </div>      </div>

【2】inline-block + margin + (fix)

<style>p{margin: 0;}.parent{font-size: 0;}.left,.right,.centerWrap{display:inline-block; vertical-align: top;font-size: 16px;}.left,.right{width: 100px;position:relative;}.centerWrap{width: 100%; margin: 0 -100px;}.center{margin: 0 120px;}</style>

<div class="parent" style="background-color: lightgrey;">  <div class="left" style="background-color: lightblue;">    <p>left</p>  </div>    <div class="centerWrap" style="background-color: orange;">    <div class="center" style="background-color: pink;">      <p>center</p>      <p>center</p>    </div>      </div>      <div class="right" style="background-color: lightgreen;">    <p>right</p>  </div>      </div>

 

思路三: table

<style>p{margin: 0;}.parent{display: table; width: 100%;table-layout: fixed;}.left,.right,.centerWrap{display:table-cell;}.left,.right{width: 100px;}.center{margin: 0 20px;}</style>

<div class="parent" style="background-color: lightgrey;">  <div class="left" style="background-color: lightblue;">    <p>left</p>  </div>    <div class="centerWrap" style="background-color: orange;">    <div class="center" style="background-color: pink;">      <p>center</p>      <p>center</p>    </div>      </div>      <div class="right" style="background-color: lightgreen;">    <p>right</p>  </div>      </div>

 

思路四: absolute

<style>p{margin: 0;}.parent{position: relative;height:40px;}.left,.right,.center{position: absolute;}.left{left: 0;width:100px;}.right{right: 0;width: 100px;}.center{left: 120px; right: 120px;}</style>

<div class="parent" style="background-color: lightgrey;">  <div class="left" style="background-color: lightblue;">    <p>left</p>  </div>    <div class="center" style="background-color: pink;">    <p>center</p>    <p>center</p>  </div>          <div class="right" style="background-color: lightgreen;">    <p>right</p>  </div>      </div>

 

思路五: flex

<style>p{margin: 0;}.parent{display: flex;}.left,.right{width: 100px;}.center{flex: 1; margin: 0 20px;}</style>

<div class="parent" style="background-color: lightgrey;">  <div class="left" style="background-color: lightblue;">    <p>left</p>  </div>    <div class="center" style="background-color: pink;">    <p>center</p>    <p>center</p>  </div>          <div class="right" style="background-color: lightgreen;">    <p>right</p>  </div>      </div>

 

两列定宽一侧自适应布局

  这种布局与单列定宽单列自适应布局非常相似

思路一: float

【1】float + margin

  缺点是IE6-浏览器的3px的bug,以及当自适应列中有元素清除浮动时,会使该元素不与左侧浮动元素同行,从而出现文字下沉现象

<style>p{margin: 0;}.parent{overflow: hidden;}.left,.center{float: left;width: 100px;margin-right: 20px;}.right{margin-left: 240px;}</style>

<div class="parent" style="background-color: lightgrey;">  <div class="left" style="background-color: lightblue;">    <p>left</p>  </div>    <div class="center" style="background-color: pink;">    <p>center</p>  </div>          <div class="right" style="background-color: lightgreen;">    <p>right</p>    <p>right</p>  </div>      </div>

【2】float + margin + calc

<style>p{margin: 0;}.parent{overflow: hidden;}.left,.center{float: left;width: 100px;margin-right: 20px;}.right{float: left; width: calc(100% - 240px);}</style>

<div class="parent" style="background-color: lightgrey;">  <div class="left" style="background-color: lightblue;">    <p>left</p>  </div>    <div class="center" style="background-color: pink;">    <p>center</p>  </div>          <div class="right" style="background-color: lightgreen;">    <p>right</p>    <p>right</p>  </div>      </div>

【3】float + margin + (fix)

<style>p{margin: 0;}.parent{overflow: hidden;}.left,.center{position: relative; float: left;width: 100px;margin-right: 20px;}.rightWrap{float: left; width: 100%; margin-left: -240px;}.right{margin-left:240px;}</style>

<div class="parent" style="background-color: lightgrey;">  <div class="left" style="background-color: lightblue;">    <p>left</p>  </div>    <div class="center" style="background-color: pink;">    <p>center</p>  </div>      <div class="rightWrap">    <div class="right" style="background-color: lightgreen;">      <p>right</p>      <p>right</p>    </div>        </div>      </div>

 【4】float + overflow

<style>p{margin: 0;}.parent{overflow: hidden;}.left,.center{position: relative; float: left;width: 100px;margin-right: 20px;}.right{overflow: hidden;zoom:1;}</style>

<div class="parent" style="background-color: lightgrey;">  <div class="left" style="background-color: lightblue;">    <p>left</p>  </div>    <div class="center" style="background-color: pink;">    <p>center</p>  </div>      <div class="right" style="background-color: lightgreen;">    <p>right</p>    <p>right</p>  </div>            </div>

 

思路二: inline-block

【1】inline-block + margin + calc

<style>p{margin: 0;}.parent{font-size: 0;}.left,.right,.center{display:inline-block; vertical-align: top;font-size: 16px;}.left,.center{width: 100px;margin-right:20px;}.right{width: calc(100% - 240px);}</style>

<div class="parent" style="background-color: lightgrey;">  <div class="left" style="background-color: lightblue;">    <p>left</p>  </div>    <div class="center" style="background-color: pink;">    <p>center</p>  </div>      <div class="right" style="background-color: lightgreen;">    <p>right</p>    <p>right</p>  </div>            </div>

【2】inline-block + margin + (fix)

<style>p{margin: 0;}.parent{font-size: 0;}.left,.rightWrap,.center{display:inline-block; vertical-align: top;font-size: 16px;}.left,.center{position: relative;width: 100px;margin-right:20px;}.rightWrap{width:100%; margin-left: -240px;}.right{margin-left: 240px;}</style>

<div class="parent" style="background-color: lightgrey;">  <div class="left" style="background-color: lightblue;">    <p>left</p>  </div>    <div class="center" style="background-color: pink;">    <p>center</p>  </div>      <div class="rightWrap" style="background-color: green;">    <div class="right" style="background-color: lightgreen;">      <p>right</p>      <p>right</p>    </div>      </div>      </div>

 

思路三: table

<style>p{margin: 0;}.parent{display: table; width: 100%;table-layout: fixed;}.leftWrap,.centerWrap,.right{display:table-cell;}.leftWrap,.centerWrap{width: 120px;}.left,.center{margin-right: 20px;}</style>

<div class="parent" style="background-color: lightgrey;">  <div class="leftWrap">    <div class="left" style="background-color: lightblue;">      <p>left</p>    </div>      </div>  <div class="centerWrap">    <div class="center" style="background-color: pink;">      <p>center</p>    </div>      </div>  <div class="right" style="background-color: lightgreen;">    <p>right</p>    <p>right</p>  </div>      </div>

 

思路四: absolute

<style>p{margin: 0;}.parent{position: relative;width:100%;height:40px;}.left{position: absolute;left:0;width:100px;}.center{position: absolute;left:120px;width: 100px;}.right{position: absolute;left:240px; right:0;}</style>

<div class="parent" style="background-color: lightgrey;">  <div class="left" style="background-color: lightblue;">    <p>left</p>  </div>      <div class="center" style="background-color: pink;">    <p>center</p>  </div>      <div class="right" style="background-color: lightgreen;">    <p>right</p>    <p>right</p>  </div>      </div>

 

思路五: flex

<style>p{margin: 0;}.parent{display: flex;}.left,.center{width:100px;margin-right:20px;}.right{flex:1;}</style>

<div class="parent" style="background-color: lightgrey;">  <div class="left" style="background-color: lightblue;">    <p>left</p>  </div>      <div class="center" style="background-color: pink;">    <p>center</p>  </div>      <div class="right" style="background-color: lightgreen;">    <p>right</p>    <p>right</p>  </div>      </div>

 

中间定宽两侧自适应布局

思路一: float

<style>p{margin: 0;}.parent{overflow: hidden;}.left{float: left;margin-right: 20px;}.center{float: left;width: 100px;margin-right: 20px;}.right{overflow: hidden;}</style>

<div class="parent" style="background-color: lightgrey;">  <div class="left" style="background-color: lightblue;">    <p>left</p>    <p>left</p>  </div>      <div class="center" style="background-color: pink;">    <p>center</p>  </div>    <div class="right" style="background-color: lightgreen;">    <p>right</p>    <p>right</p>  </div>          </div>

 

思路二: table

<style>p{margin: 0;}.parent{display: table; width: 100%;}.leftWrap{display: table-cell; width: 0.1%;}.centerWrap{display: table-cell;width: 120px;}.left,.center{margin-right: 20px;}.right{display:table-cell;}</style>

<div class="parent" style="background-color: lightgrey;">  <div class="leftWrap">    <div class="left" style="background-color: lightblue;">      <p>left</p>      <p>left</p>    </div>        </div>  <div class="centerWrap">    <div class="center" style="background-color: pink;">      <p>center</p>    </div>        </div>  <div class="right" style="background-color: lightgreen;">    <p>right</p>    <p>right</p>  </div>          </div>

 

思路三: flex

<style>p{margin: 0;}.parent{display: flex;}.left{margin-right: 20px;}.center{width: 100px;margin-right: 20px;}.right{flex: 1;}</style>

<div class="parent" style="background-color: lightgrey;">  <div class="left" style="background-color: lightblue;">    <p>left</p>    <p>left</p>  </div>        <div class="center" style="background-color: pink;">    <p>center</p>  </div>        <div class="right" style="background-color: lightgreen;">    <p>right</p>    <p>right</p>  </div>          </div>

 

一侧定宽两列自适应布局

思路一: float

<style>p{margin: 0;}.parent{overflow: hidden;}.left{float: left;width: 100px;margin-right: 20px;}.center{float: left;margin-right: 20px;}.right{overflow: hidden;}</style>

<div class="parent" style="background-color: lightgrey;">  <div class="left" style="background-color: lightblue;">    <p>left</p>  </div>        <div class="center" style="background-color: pink;">    <p>center</p>    <p>center</p>  </div>        <div class="right" style="background-color: lightgreen;">    <p>right</p>    <p>right</p>  </div>          </div>

 

思路二: table

<style>p{margin: 0;}.parent{display: table; width: 100%;}.leftWrap{display: table-cell; width: 120px;}.centerWrap{display: table-cell;width: 0.1%;}.left,.center{margin-right: 20px;}.right{display:table-cell;}</style>

<div class="parent" style="background-color: lightgrey;">  <div class="leftWrap">    <div class="left" style="background-color: lightblue;">      <p>left</p>    </div>        </div>  <div class="centerWrap">    <div class="center" style="background-color: pink;">      <p>center</p>      <p>center</p>    </div>        </div>  <div class="right" style="background-color: lightgreen;">    <p>right</p>    <p>right</p>  </div>          </div>

 

思路三: flex

<style>p{margin: 0;}.parent{display: flex;}.left{width: 100px;margin-right: 20px;}.center{margin-right: 20px;}.right{flex: 1;}</style>

<div class="parent" style="background-color: lightgrey;">  <div class="left" style="background-color: lightblue;">    <p>left</p>  </div>        <div class="center" style="background-color: pink;">    <p>center</p>    <p>center</p>  </div>        <div class="right" style="background-color: lightgreen;">    <p>right</p>    <p>right</p>  </div>          </div>

 

三列自适应布局

思路一: float

<style>p{margin: 0;}.parent{overflow: hidden;}.left,.center{float: left;margin-right: 20px;}.right{overflow: hidden;}</style>

<div class="parent" style="background-color: lightgrey;">  <div class="left" style="background-color: lightblue;">    <p>left</p>    <p>left</p>  </div>        <div class="center" style="background-color: pink;">    <p>center</p>    <p>center</p>  </div>        <div class="right" style="background-color: lightgreen;">    <p>right</p>    <p>right</p>  </div>          </div>

 

思路二: table

<style>p{margin: 0;}.parent{display: table; width: 100%;}.leftWrap,.centerWrap{display: table-cell;width: 0.1%;}.left,.center{margin-right: 20px;}.right{display:table-cell;}</style>

<div class="parent" style="background-color: lightgrey;">  <div class="leftWrap">    <div class="left" style="background-color: lightblue;">      <p>left</p>      <p>left</p>    </div>        </div>  <div class="centerWrap">    <div class="center" style="background-color: pink;">      <p>center</p>      <p>center</p>    </div>        </div>  <div class="right" style="background-color: lightgreen;">    <p>right</p>    <p>right</p>  </div>          </div>

 

思路三: flex

<style>p{margin: 0;}.parent{display: flex;}.left,.center{margin-right: 20px;}.right{flex: 1;}</style>

<div class="parent" style="background-color: lightgrey;">  <div class="left" style="background-color: lightblue;">    <p>left</p>    <p>left</p>  </div>        <div class="center" style="background-color: pink;">    <p>center</p>    <p>center</p>  </div>        <div class="right" style="background-color: lightgreen;">    <p>right</p>    <p>right</p>  </div>          </div>

 

总结

  三列布局类似于大号的两列布局。无论是什么布局方式,无外乎需要应用float、inline-block、table、absolute和flex这五种布局属性,然后再配合负margin、calc()函数、bfc、增加结构等来实现布局

  自适应包括两种情况:一种是宽度由内容撑开,一种是宽度自动撑满父元素剩余宽度

  可实现宽度由内容撑开的属性有: float、inline、inline-block、table、table-cell、absolute、fixed和flex

  可实现宽度自动撑满父元素剩余宽度的属性有: overflow(配合float)、table、flex