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[数据库]多实例mysql的安装和管理


mysql的多实例有两种方式可以实现,两种方式各有利弊。
第一种是使用多个配置文件启动不同的进程来实现多实例,这种方式的优势逻辑简单,配置简单,缺点是管理起来不太方便。
第二种是通过官方自带的mysqld_multi使用单独的配置文件来实现多实例,这种方式定制每个实例的配置不太方面,优点是管理起来很方便,集中管理。

下面就分别来实战这两种多实例的安装和管理

环境介绍:

mysql 版本:5.1.50

操作系统:SUSE 11

mysql实例数:3个

实例占用端口分别为:3306、3307、3308

创建mysql用户
  /usr/sbin/groupadd mysql  /usr/sbin/useradd -g mysql mysql

编译安装mysql

tar xzvf mysql-5.1.50.tar.gz  cd mysql-5.1.50  ./configure '--prefix=/usr/local/mysql' '--with-charset=utf8' '--with-extra-charsets=complex' '--with-pthread' '--enable-thread-safe-client' '--with-ssl' '--with-client-ldflags=-all-static' '--with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static' '--with-plugins=partition,innobase,blackhole,myisam,innodb_plugin,heap,archive' '--enable-shared' '--enable-assembler'  make  make install

初始化数据库

  /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql_install_db --basedir=/usr/local/mysql --datadir=/data/dbdata_3306 --user=mysql  /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql_install_db --basedir=/usr/local/mysql --datadir=/data/dbdata_3307 --user=mysql  /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql_install_db --basedir=/usr/local/mysql --datadir=/data/dbdata_3308 --user=mysql

创建配置文件
vim /data/dbdata_3306/my.cnf
3306的配置文件如下:
  [client]  port = 3306  socket = /data/dbdata_3306/mysql.sock  [mysqld]  datadir=/data/dbdata_3306/  skip-name-resolve  lower_case_table_names=1  innodb_file_per_table=1  port = 3306  socket = /data/dbdata_3306/mysql.sock  back_log = 50  max_connections = 300  max_connect_errors = 1000  table_open_cache = 2048  max_allowed_packet = 16M  binlog_cache_size = 2M  max_heap_table_size = 64M  sort_buffer_size = 2M  join_buffer_size = 2M  thread_cache_size = 64  thread_concurrency = 8  query_cache_size = 64M  query_cache_limit = 2M  ft_min_word_len = 4  default-storage-engine = innodb  thread_stack = 192K  transaction_isolation = REPEATABLE-READ  tmp_table_size = 64M  log-bin=mysql-bin  binlog_format=mixed  slow_query_log  long_query_time = 1  server-id = 1  key_buffer_size = 8M  read_buffer_size = 2M  read_rnd_buffer_size = 2M  bulk_insert_buffer_size = 64M  myisam_sort_buffer_size = 128M  myisam_max_sort_file_size = 10G  myisam_repair_threads = 1  myisam_recover  innodb_additional_mem_pool_size = 16M  innodb_buffer_pool_size = 200M  innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:10M:autoextend  innodb_file_io_threads = 8  innodb_thread_concurrency = 16  innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit = 1  innodb_log_buffer_size = 16M  innodb_log_file_size = 512M  innodb_log_files_in_group = 3  innodb_max_dirty_pages_pct = 60  innodb_lock_wait_timeout = 120  [mysqldump]  quick  max_allowed_packet = 256M  [mysql]  no-auto-rehash  prompt=\\u@\\d \\R:\\m>  [myisamchk]  key_buffer_size = 512M  sort_buffer_size = 512M  read_buffer = 8M  write_buffer = 8M  [mysqlhotcopy]  interactive-timeout  [mysqld_safe]  open-files-limit = 8192

vim /data/dbdata_3307/my.cnf

3307的配置文件如下:
  [client]  port = 3307  socket = /data/dbdata_3307/mysql.sock  [mysqld]  datadir=/data/dbdata_3307/  skip-name-resolve  lower_case_table_names=1  innodb_file_per_table=1  port = 3307  socket = /data/dbdata_3307/mysql.sock  back_log = 50  max_connections = 300  max_connect_errors = 1000  table_open_cache = 2048  max_allowed_packet = 16M  binlog_cache_size = 2M  max_heap_table_size = 64M  sort_buffer_size = 2M  join_buffer_size = 2M  thread_cache_size = 64  thread_concurrency = 8  query_cache_size = 64M  query_cache_limit = 2M  ft_min_word_len = 4  default-storage-engine = innodb  thread_stack = 192K  transaction_isolation = REPEATABLE-READ  tmp_table_size = 64M  log-bin=mysql-bin  binlog_format=mixed  slow_query_log  long_query_time = 1  server-id = 1  key_buffer_size = 8M  read_buffer_size = 2M  read_rnd_buffer_size = 2M  bulk_insert_buffer_size = 64M  myisam_sort_buffer_size = 128M  myisam_max_sort_file_size = 10G  myisam_repair_threads = 1  myisam_recover  innodb_additional_mem_pool_size = 16M  innodb_buffer_pool_size = 200M  innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:10M:autoextend  innodb_file_io_threads = 8  innodb_thread_concurrency = 16  innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit = 1  innodb_log_buffer_size = 16M  innodb_log_file_size = 512M  innodb_log_files_in_group = 3  innodb_max_dirty_pages_pct = 60  innodb_lock_wait_timeout = 120  [mysqldump]  quick  max_allowed_packet = 256M  [mysql]  no-auto-rehash  prompt=\\u@\\d \\R:\\m>  [myisamchk]  key_buffer_size = 512M  sort_buffer_size = 512M  read_buffer = 8M  write_buffer = 8M  [mysqlhotcopy]  interactive-timeout  [mysqld_safe]  open-files-limit = 8192

vim /data/dbdata_3308/my.cnf

3308的配置文件如下:
  [client]  port = 3308  socket = /data/dbdata_3308/mysql.sock  [mysqld]  datadir=/data/dbdata_3308/  skip-name-resolve  lower_case_table_names=1  innodb_file_per_table=1  port = 3308  socket = /data/dbdata_3308/mysql.sock  back_log = 50  max_connections = 300  max_connect_errors = 1000  table_open_cache = 2048  max_allowed_packet = 16M  binlog_cache_size = 2M  max_heap_table_size = 64M  sort_buffer_size = 2M  join_buffer_size = 2M  thread_cache_size = 64  thread_concurrency = 8  query_cache_size = 64M  query_cache_limit = 2M  ft_min_word_len = 4  default-storage-engine = innodb  thread_stack = 192K  transaction_isolation = REPEATABLE-READ  tmp_table_size = 64M  log-bin=mysql-bin  binlog_format=mixed  slow_query_log  long_query_time = 1  server-id = 1  key_buffer_size = 8M  read_buffer_size = 2M  read_rnd_buffer_size = 2M  bulk_insert_buffer_size = 64M  myisam_sort_buffer_size = 128M  myisam_max_sort_file_size = 10G  myisam_repair_threads = 1  myisam_recover  innodb_additional_mem_pool_size = 16M  innodb_buffer_pool_size = 200M  innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:10M:autoextend  innodb_file_io_threads = 8  innodb_thread_concurrency = 16  innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit = 1  innodb_log_buffer_size = 16M  innodb_log_file_size = 512M  innodb_log_files_in_group = 3  innodb_max_dirty_pages_pct = 60  innodb_lock_wait_timeout = 120  [mysqldump]  quick  max_allowed_packet = 256M  [mysql]  no-auto-rehash  prompt=\\u@\\d \\R:\\m>  [myisamchk]  key_buffer_size = 512M  sort_buffer_size = 512M  read_buffer = 8M  write_buffer = 8M  [mysqlhotcopy]  interactive-timeout  [mysqld_safe]  open-files-limit = 8192

创建自动启动文件

vim /data/dbdata_3306/mysqld
3306的启动文件如下:
  #!/bin/bash  mysql_port=3306  mysql_username="admin"  mysql_password="password"  function_start_mysql()  {  printf "Starting MySQL...\n"  /bin/sh /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld_safe --defaults-file=/data/dbdata_${mysql_port}/my.cnf 2>&1 > /dev/null &  }  function_stop_mysql()  {  printf "Stoping MySQL...\n"  /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin -u ${mysql_username} -p${mysql_password} -S /data/dbdata_${mysql_port}/mysql.sock shutdown  }  function_restart_mysql()  {  printf "Restarting MySQL...\n"  function_stop_mysql  function_start_mysql  }  function_kill_mysql()  {  kill -9 $(ps -ef | grep 'bin/mysqld_safe' | grep ${mysql_port} | awk '{printf $2}')  kill -9 $(ps -ef | grep 'libexec/mysqld' | grep ${mysql_port} | awk '{printf $2}')  }  case $1 in  start)  function_start_mysql;;  stop)  function_stop_mysql;;  kill)  function_kill_mysql;;  restart)  function_stop_mysql  function_start_mysql;;  *)  echo "Usage: /data/dbdata_${mysql_port}/mysqld {start|stop|restart|kill}";;  esac

vim /data/dbdata_3307/mysqld
3307的启动文件如下:
  #!/bin/bash  mysql_port=3307  mysql_username="admin"  mysql_password="password"  function_start_mysql()  {  printf "Starting MySQL...\n"  /bin/sh /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld_safe --defaults-file=/data/dbdata_${mysql_port}/my.cnf 2>&1 > /dev/null &  }  function_stop_mysql()  {  printf "Stoping MySQL...\n"  /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin -u ${mysql_username} -p${mysql_password} -S /data/dbdata_${mysql_port}/mysql.sock shutdown  }  function_restart_mysql()  {  printf "Restarting MySQL...\n"  function_stop_mysql  function_start_mysql  }  function_kill_mysql()  {  kill -9 $(ps -ef | grep 'bin/mysqld_safe' | grep ${mysql_port} | awk '{printf $2}')  kill -9 $(ps -ef | grep 'libexec/mysqld' | grep ${mysql_port} | awk '{printf $2}')  }  case $1 in  start)  function_start_mysql;;  stop)  function_stop_mysql;;  kill)  function_kill_mysql;;  restart)  function_stop_mysql  function_start_mysql;;  *)  echo "Usage: /data/dbdata_${mysql_port}/mysqld {start|stop|restart|kill}";;  esac

vim /data/dbdata_3308/mysqld
3308的启动文件如下:
  #!/bin/bash  mysql_port=3308  mysql_username="admin"  mysql_password="password"  function_start_mysql()  {  printf "Starting MySQL...\n"  /bin/sh /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld_safe --defaults-file=/data/dbdata_${mysql_port}/my.cnf 2>&1 > /dev/null &  }  function_stop_mysql()  {  printf "Stoping MySQL...\n"  /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin -u ${mysql_username} -p${mysql_password} -S /data/dbdata_${mysql_port}/mysql.sock shutdown  }  function_restart_mysql()  {  printf "Restarting MySQL...\n"  function_stop_mysql  function_start_mysql  }  function_kill_mysql()  {  kill -9 $(ps -ef | grep 'bin/mysqld_safe' | grep ${mysql_port} | awk '{printf $2}')  kill -9 $(ps -ef | grep 'libexec/mysqld' | grep ${mysql_port} | awk '{printf $2}')  }  case $1 in  start)  function_start_mysql;;  stop)  function_stop_mysql;;  kill)  function_kill_mysql;;  restart)  function_stop_mysql  function_start_mysql;;  *)  echo "Usage: /data/dbdata_${mysql_port}/mysqld {start|stop|restart|kill}";;  esac

启动3306、3307、3308的mysql

  /data/dbdata_3306/mysqld start  /data/dbdata_3307/mysqld start  /data/dbdata_3308/mysqld start

更改原来密码(处于安全考虑,还需要删除系统中没有密码的帐号,这里省略了):

  /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin -uroot password 'password' -S /data/dbdata_3306/mysql.sock  /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin -uroot password 'password' -S /data/dbdata_3307/mysql.sock  /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin -uroot password 'password' -S /data/dbdata_3308/mysql.sock

登录测试并创建关闭mysql的帐号权限,mysqld脚本要用到!

  /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql -uroot -ppassword -S /data/dbdata_3308/mysql.sock  GRANT SHUTDOWN ON *.* TO 'admin'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';  flush privileges;  /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql -uroot -ppassword -S /data/dbdata_3308/mysql.sock  GRANT SHUTDOWN ON *.* TO 'admin'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';  flush privileges;  /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql -uroot -ppassword -S /data/dbdata_3308/mysql.sock  GRANT SHUTDOWN ON *.* TO 'admin'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';  flush privileges;

创建了admin帐号以后脚本的stop功能和restart功能就正常了!
更改环境变量
  vim /etc/profile 添加下面一行内容  PATH=${PATH}:/usr/local/mysql/bin/  source /etc/profile

添加到自动启动

  vim /etc/init.d/boot.local  /data/dbdata_3306/mysqld start  /data/dbdata_3307/mysqld start  /data/dbdata_3308/mysqld start

如果是rhel或者centos系统的话自启动文件/etc/rc.local
 
管理的话,在本地都是采用 -S /data/dbdata_3308/mysql.sock,如果在远程可以通过不同的端口连接上去坐管理操作。其他的和单实例的管理没什么区别!
再来看第二种通过官方自带的mysqld_multi来实现多实例实战:

这里的mysql安装以及数据库的初始化和前面的步骤一样,就不再赘述。

mysqld_multi的配置
vim /etc/my.cnf
  [mysqld_multi]  mysqld = /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld_safe  mysqladmin = /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin  user = admin  password = password  [mysqld1]  socket = /data/dbdata_3306/mysql.sock  port = 3306  pid-file = /data/dbdata_3306/3306.pid  datadir = /data/dbdata_3306  user = mysql  skip-name-resolve  lower_case_table_names=1  innodb_file_per_table=1  back_log = 50  max_connections = 300  max_connect_errors = 1000  table_open_cache = 2048  max_allowed_packet = 16M  binlog_cache_size = 2M  max_heap_table_size = 64M  sort_buffer_size = 2M  join_buffer_size = 2M  thread_cache_size = 64  thread_concurrency = 8  query_cache_size = 64M  query_cache_limit = 2M  ft_min_word_len = 4  default-storage-engine = innodb  thread_stack = 192K  transaction_isolation = REPEATABLE-READ  tmp_table_size = 64M  log-bin=mysql-bin  binlog_format=mixed  slow_query_log  long_query_time = 1  server-id = 1  key_buffer_size = 8M  read_buffer_size = 2M  read_rnd_buffer_size = 2M  bulk_insert_buffer_size = 64M  myisam_sort_buffer_size = 128M  myisam_max_sort_file_size = 10G  myisam_repair_threads = 1  myisam_recover  innodb_additional_mem_pool_size = 16M  innodb_buffer_pool_size = 200M  innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:10M:autoextend  innodb_file_io_threads = 8  innodb_thread_concurrency = 16  innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit = 1  innodb_log_buffer_size = 16M  innodb_log_file_size = 512M  innodb_log_files_in_group = 3  innodb_max_dirty_pages_pct = 60  innodb_lock_wait_timeout = 120  [mysqld2]  socket = /data/dbdata_3307/mysql.sock  port = 3307  pid-file = /data/dbdata_3307/3307.pid  datadir = /data/dbdata_3307  user = mysql  skip-name-resolve  lower_case_table_names=1  innodb_file_per_table=1  back_log = 50  max_connections = 300  max_connect_errors = 1000  table_open_cache = 2048  max_allowed_packet = 16M  binlog_cache_size = 2M  max_heap_table_size = 64M  sort_buffer_size = 2M  join_buffer_size = 2M  thread_cache_size = 64  thread_concurrency = 8  query_cache_size = 64M  query_cache_limit = 2M  ft_min_word_len = 4  default-storage-engine = innodb  thread_stack = 192K  transaction_isolation = REPEATABLE-READ  tmp_table_size = 64M  log-bin=mysql-bin  binlog_format=mixed  slow_query_log  long_query_time = 1  server-id = 1  key_buffer_size = 8M  read_buffer_size = 2M  read_rnd_buffer_size = 2M  bulk_insert_buffer_size = 64M  myisam_sort_buffer_size = 128M  myisam_max_sort_file_size = 10G  myisam_repair_threads = 1  myisam_recover  innodb_additional_mem_pool_size = 16M  innodb_buffer_pool_size = 200M  innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:10M:autoextend  innodb_file_io_threads = 8  innodb_thread_concurrency = 16  innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit = 1  innodb_log_buffer_size = 16M  innodb_log_file_size = 512M  innodb_log_files_in_group = 3  innodb_max_dirty_pages_pct = 60  innodb_lock_wait_timeout = 120  [mysqld3]  socket = /data/dbdata_3308/mysql.sock  port = 3308  pid-file = /data/dbdata_3308/3308.pid  datadir = /data/dbdata_3308  user = mysql  skip-name-resolve  lower_case_table_names=1  innodb_file_per_table=1  back_log = 50  max_connections = 300  max_connect_errors = 1000  table_open_cache = 2048  max_allowed_packet = 16M  binlog_cache_size = 2M  max_heap_table_size = 64M  sort_buffer_size = 2M  join_buffer_size = 2M  thread_cache_size = 64  thread_concurrency = 8  query_cache_size = 64M  query_cache_limit = 2M  ft_min_word_len = 4  default-storage-engine = innodb  thread_stack = 192K  transaction_isolation = REPEATABLE-READ  tmp_table_size = 64M  log-bin=mysql-bin  binlog_format=mixed  slow_query_log  long_query_time = 1  server-id = 1  key_buffer_size = 8M  read_buffer_size = 2M  read_rnd_buffer_size = 2M  bulk_insert_buffer_size = 64M  myisam_sort_buffer_size = 128M  myisam_max_sort_file_size = 10G  myisam_repair_threads = 1  myisam_recover  innodb_additional_mem_pool_size = 16M  innodb_buffer_pool_size = 200M  innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:10M:autoextend  innodb_file_io_threads = 8  innodb_thread_concurrency = 16  innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit = 1  innodb_log_buffer_size = 16M  innodb_log_file_size = 512M  innodb_log_files_in_group = 3  innodb_max_dirty_pages_pct = 60  innodb_lock_wait_timeout = 120  [mysqldump]  quick  max_allowed_packet = 256M  [mysql]  no-auto-rehash  prompt=\\u@\\d \\R:\\m>  [myisamchk]  key_buffer_size = 512M  sort_buffer_size = 512M  read_buffer = 8M  write_buffer = 8M  [mysqlhotcopy]  interactive-timeout  [mysqld_safe]  open-files-limit = 8192

mysqld_multi启动

  /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld_multi start 1  /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld_multi start 2  /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld_multi start 3

或者采用一条命令的形式:

  /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld_multi start 1-3

更改原来密码(处于安全考虑,还需要删除系统中没有密码的帐号,这里省略了):

  /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin -uroot password 'password' -S /data/dbdata_3306/mysql.sock  /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin -uroot password 'password' -S /data/dbdata_3307/mysql.sock  /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin -uroot password 'password' -S /data/dbdata_3308/mysql.sock

登录测试并创建admin密码(停止mysql的时候需要使用到)

  /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql -uroot -ppassword -S /data/dbdata_3308/mysql.sock  GRANT SHUTDOWN ON *.* TO 'admin'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';  flush privileges;  /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql -uroot -ppassword -S /data/dbdata_3308/mysql.sock  GRANT SHUTDOWN ON *.* TO 'admin'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';  flush privileges;  /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql -uroot -ppassword -S /data/dbdata_3308/mysql.sock  GRANT SHUTDOWN ON *.* TO 'admin'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';  flush privileges;

更改环境变量
  vim /etc/profile  PATH=${PATH}:/usr/local/mysql/bin/  source /etc/profile

添加到自动启动

  vim /etc/init.d/boot.local  /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld_multi start 1-3

如果是rhel或者centos系统的话自启动文件/etc/rc.local
 
管理的话,在本地都是采用 -S /data/dbdata_3308/mysql.sock,如果在远程可以通过不同的端口连接上去坐管理操作。其他的和单实例的管理没什么区别!

大家在管理多实例的话可以使用mysqlmanager实例管理器,管理器来会比较方面,限于篇幅,这里就不在多做介绍!

参考资料:http://blog.chinaunix.net/uid-20639775-id-3438560.html