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[操作系统]放肆地用 UIBezierPath 和 CAShapeLayer 画各种图形


CAShapeLayer 是 CALayer 的子类,但是比 CALayer 更灵活,可以画出各种图形,当然,你也可以使用其他方式来画,随你。

杂谈

在 CAShapeLayer 中,也可以像 CALayer 一样指定它的 frame 来画,就像这样:

 
 
 
 
 
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let layer = CAShapeLayer()
layer.frame = CGRectMake(110, 100, 150, 100)
layer.backgroundColor = UIColor.blackColor().CGColor
 
view.layer.addSublayer(layer)



然后你就会得到如图这样的黑色矩形


但是,CAShapeLayer 有一个神奇的属性 path 用这个属性配合上 UIBezierPath 这个类就可以达到超神的效果。

UIBezierPath 顾名思义,这是用贝塞尔曲线的方式来构建一段弧线,你可以用任意条弧线来组成你想要的形状,比如,你想用它来和上面一样画一个矩形,那就可以这样子来做:

 
 
 
 
 
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let path = UIBezierPath(rect: CGRectMake(110, 100, 150, 100))
let layer = CAShapeLayer()
layer.path = path.CGPath
layer.fillColor = UIColor.blackColor().CGColor
view.layer.addSublayer(layer)



要注意的是,这里就不要用backgroundColor 这个属性了,而要使用 fillColor 和 strokeColor ,前者代表设置这个 Layer 的填充色,后者代表设置它的边框色

 
 
 
 
 
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layer.fillColor = UIColor.clearColor().CGColor
layer.strokeColor = UIColor.blackColor().CGColor



可以试一下把上面代码设置颜色的部分改成这个样子,那么运行程序的时候就会是这种样子


玩一下UIBezierPath

在说回 UIBezierPath ,在 UIBezierPath 的 init 方法中,就有很多方便你画各种图形的方法,比如你可以画一个带圆角的图形

 
 
 
 
 
 
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let path = UIBezierPath(roundedRect: CGRectMake(110, 100, 150, 100), cornerRadius: 50)
let layer = CAShapeLayer()
layer.path = path.CGPath
layer.fillColor = UIColor.clearColor().CGColor
layer.strokeColor = UIColor.blackColor().CGColor



 


还可以指定起始角和半径画圆

 
 
 
 
 
 
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let radius: CGFloat = 60.0
let startAngle: CGFloat = 0.0
let endAngle: CGFloat = CGFloat(M_PI * 2)
let path = UIBezierPath(arcCenter: view.center, radius: radius, startAngle: startAngle, endAngle: endAngle, clockwise: true)
let layer = CAShapeLayer()
layer.path = path.CGPath
layer.fillColor = UIColor.clearColor().CGColor
layer.strokeColor = UIColor.blackColor().CGColor



 


在这里涉及到角度的问题,起始角和结束角,这里的角度使使用弧度制来表示,这里我收藏了一张图片,以方便参考


怎么画曲线

贝塞尔曲线的画法是由起点、终点、控制点三个参数来画的,为了解释清楚这个点,我写了几行代码来解释它

 
 
 
 
 
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let startPoint = CGPointMake(50, 300)
let endPoint = CGPointMake(300, 300)
let controlPoint = CGPointMake(170, 200)
 
let layer1 = CALayer()
layer1.frame = CGRectMake(startPoint.x, startPoint.y, 5, 5)
layer1.backgroundColor = UIColor.redColor().CGColor
 
let layer2 = CALayer()
layer2.frame = CGRectMake(endPoint.x, endPoint.y, 5, 5)
layer2.backgroundColor = UIColor.redColor().CGColor
 
let layer3 = CALayer()
layer3.frame = CGRectMake(controlPoint.x, controlPoint.y, 5, 5)
layer3.backgroundColor = UIColor.redColor().CGColor
 
let path = UIBezierPath()
let layer = CAShapeLayer()
 
path.moveToPoint(startPoint)
path.addQuadCurveToPoint(endPoint, controlPoint: controlPoint)
 
layer.path = path.CGPath
layer.fillColor = UIColor.clearColor().CGColor
layer.strokeColor = UIColor.blackColor().CGColor
 
view.layer.addSublayer(layer)
view.layer.addSublayer(layer1)
view.layer.addSublayer(layer2)
view.layer.addSublayer(layer3)



我很随意的定义了三个点,为了清楚显示它们的位置,我放了三个矩形在上面以便观察,然后调用 path.moveToPoint(startPoint) 让它移动到起始点,然后调用path.addQuadCurveToPoint(endPoint, controlPoint: controlPoint) 这个方法告诉它结束点和控制点,这样它就能画出一条有弧度的线条了,如果把fillColor设置一个颜色,那么它就会变成一个很丑的形状了,示例图如下


控制点决定了它的曲率,曲线的顶点不等于控制点的位置,具体可以看一下贝塞尔曲线的定义,你还可以使用两个控制点来画,两个控制点可以使用方法 path.addCurveToPoint(endPoint, controlPoint1: controlPoint, controlPoint2: controlPoint2)来搞定

这样它会是这个样子


再来说说 CAShapeLayer

CAShapeLayer 是个神奇的东西,给它一个path它就能变成你想要的形状,它还有很多可以玩的地方。综合使用可以组合成不同的动画,比如下面这样:


demo1.gif
 


demo2.gif
 


demo3.gif

这三个动画就是使用了 strokeEnd strokeStart lineWidth 三个属性,第一个动画用了strokeEnd这个属性的值范围是0-1,动画显示了从0到1之间每一个值对这条曲线的影响,strokeStart的方法则是相反的,如果把这两个值首先都设置成0.5然后慢慢改变成0和1的时候就会变成第二个动画,配合lineWidth则曲线会慢慢变粗,这里的很多属性都是支持动画的。

示例代码

 
 
 
 
 
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    private func animation1() {
        let animation = CABasicAnimation(keyPath: "strokeEnd")
        animation.fromValue = 0
        animation.toValue = 1
        animation.duration = 2
        layer.addAnimation(animation, forKey: "")
    }
 
    private func animation2() {
        layer.strokeStart = 0.5
        layer.strokeEnd = 0.5
 
        let animation = CABasicAnimation(keyPath: "strokeStart")
        animation.fromValue = 0.5
        animation.toValue = 0
        animation.duration = 2
 
        let animation2 = CABasicAnimation(keyPath: "strokeEnd")
        animation2.fromValue = 0.5
        animation2.toValue = 1
        animation2.duration = 2
 
        layer.addAnimation(animation, forKey: "")
        layer.addAnimation(animation2, forKey: "")
    }
 
    private func animation3() {
        let animation = CABasicAnimation(keyPath: "lineWidth")
        animation.fromValue = 1
        animation.toValue = 10
        animation.duration = 2
        layer.addAnimation(animation, forKey: "")
    }



 

应用一下

前一阵子在仿时光网这个APP,其中有一个Layer的形状很怪异,是这样的


很明显它可以用 CAShapeLayer + UIBezierPath 来做,思路大概是这样,先移动到左上方的位置,然后向下划线,然后往右划线,然后往上划线,还剩一个盖子,这个盖子就用一个控制点控制曲率,非常简单,代码如下

 
 
 
 
 
 
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let finalSize = CGSizeMake(CGRectGetWidth(view.frame), 400)
let layerHeight = finalSize.height * 0.2
let layer = CAShapeLayer()
let bezier = UIBezierPath()
bezier.moveToPoint(CGPointMake(0, finalSize.height - layerHeight))
bezier.addLineToPoint(CGPointMake(0, finalSize.height - 1))
bezier.addLineToPoint(CGPointMake(finalSize.width, finalSize.height - 1))
bezier.addLineToPoint(CGPointMake(finalSize.width, finalSize.height - layerHeight))
bezier.addQuadCurveToPoint(CGPointMake(0,finalSize.height - layerHeight),
    controlPoint: CGPointMake(finalSize.width / 2, (finalSize.height - layerHeight) - 40))
layer.path = bezier.CGPath
layer.fillColor = UIColor.blackColor().CGColor
view.layer.addSublayer(layer)



就能画出这样的形状来


再来一个复杂点的,微信下拉拍小视频的那只眼睛很有趣,来模仿一下那个效果吧,它是这样的


首先你得画出这只眼睛,这是眼睛包括5个部分组成(这个是用OC写的)

 
 
 
 
 
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@property (strong, nonatomic) CAShapeLayer *eyeFirstLightLayer;
@property (strong, nonatomic) CAShapeLayer *eyeSecondLightLayer;
@property (strong, nonatomic) CAShapeLayer *eyeballLayer;
@property (strong, nonatomic) CAShapeLayer *topEyesocketLayer;
@property (strong, nonatomic) CAShapeLayer *bottomEyesocketLayer;



然后,还是通过 UIBezierPath 和 CAShapeLayer 这样的老套路来画,代码较多

 
 
 
 
 
 
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- (CAShapeLayer *)eyeFirstLightLayer {
    if (!_eyeFirstLightLayer) {
        _eyeFirstLightLayer = [CAShapeLayer layer];
        CGPoint center = CGPointMake(CGRectGetWidth(self.frame) / 2, CGRectGetHeight(self.frame) / 2);
        UIBezierPath *path = [UIBezierPath bezierPathWithArcCenter:center
                                                            radius:CGRectGetWidth(self.frame) * 0.2
                                                        startAngle:(230.f / 180.f) * M_PI
                                                          endAngle:(265.f / 180.f) * M_PI
                                                         clockwise:YES];
        _eyeFirstLightLayer.borderColor = [UIColor blackColor].CGColor;
        _eyeFirstLightLayer.lineWidth = 5.f;
        _eyeFirstLightLayer.path = path.CGPath;
        _eyeFirstLightLayer.fillColor = [UIColor clearColor].CGColor;
        _eyeFirstLightLayer.strokeColor = [UIColor whiteColor].CGColor;
    }
    return _eyeFirstLightLayer;
}
 
- (CAShapeLayer *)eyeSecondLightLayer {
    if (!_eyeSecondLightLayer) {
        _eyeSecondLightLayer = [CAShapeLayer layer];
        CGPoint center = CGPointMake(CGRectGetWidth(self.frame) / 2, CGRectGetHeight(self.frame) / 2);
        UIBezierPath *path = [UIBezierPath bezierPathWithArcCenter:center
                                                            radius:CGRectGetWidth(self.frame) * 0.2
                                                        startAngle:(211.f / 180.f) * M_PI
                                                          endAngle:(220.f / 180.f) * M_PI
                                                         clockwise:YES];
        _eyeSecondLightLayer.borderColor = [UIColor blackColor].CGColor;
        _eyeSecondLightLayer.lineWidth = 5.f;
        _eyeSecondLightLayer.path = path.CGPath;
        _eyeSecondLightLayer.fillColor = [UIColor clearColor].CGColor;
        _eyeSecondLightLayer.strokeColor = [UIColor whiteColor].CGColor;
 
    }
    return _eyeSecondLightLayer;
}
 
- (CAShapeLayer *)eyeballLayer {
    if (!_eyeballLayer) {
        _eyeballLayer = [CAShapeLayer layer];
        CGPoint center = CGPointMake(CGRectGetWidth(self.frame) / 2, CGRectGetHeight(self.frame) / 2);
        UIBezierPath *path = [UIBezierPath bezierPathWithArcCenter:center
                                                            radius:CGRectGetWidth(self.frame) * 0.3
                                                        startAngle:(0.f / 180.f) * M_PI
                                                          endAngle:(360.f / 180.f) * M_PI
                                                         clockwise:YES];
        _eyeballLayer.borderColor = [UIColor blackColor].CGColor;
        _eyeballLayer.lineWidth = 1.f;
        _eyeballLayer.path = path.CGPath;
        _eyeballLayer.fillColor = [UIColor clearColor].CGColor;
        _eyeballLayer.strokeColor = [UIColor whiteColor].CGColor;
        _eyeballLayer.anchorPoint = CGPointMake(0.5, 0.5);
 
    }
    return _eyeballLayer;
}
 
- (CAShapeLayer *)topEyesocketLayer {
    if (!_topEyesocketLayer) {
        _topEyesocketLayer = [CAShapeLayer layer];
        CGPoint center = CGPointMake(CGRectGetWidth(self.frame) / 2, CGRectGetHeight(self.frame) / 2);
        UIBezierPath *path = [UIBezierPath bezierPath];
        [path moveToPoint:CGPointMake(0, CGRectGetHeight(self.frame) / 2)];
        [path addQuadCurveToPoint:CGPointMake(CGRectGetWidth(self.frame), CGRectGetHeight(self.frame) / 2)
                     controlPoint:CGPointMake(CGRectGetWidth(self.frame) / 2, center.y - center.y - 20)];
        _topEyesocketLayer.borderColor = [UIColor blackColor].CGColor;
        _topEyesocketLayer.lineWidth = 1.f;
        _topEyesocketLayer.path = path.CGPath;
        _topEyesocketLayer.fillColor = [UIColor clearColor].CGColor;
        _topEyesocketLayer.strokeColor = [UIColor whiteColor].CGColor;
    }
    return _topEyesocketLayer;
}
 
- (CAShapeLayer *)bottomEyesocketLayer {
    if (!_bottomEyesocketLayer) {
        _bottomEyesocketLayer = [CAShapeLayer layer];
        CGPoint center = CGPointMake(CGRectGetWidth(self.frame) / 2, CGRectGetHeight(self.frame) / 2);
        UIBezierPath *path = [UIBezierPath bezierPath];
        [path moveToPoint:CGPointMake(0, CGRectGetHeight(self.frame) / 2)];
        [path addQuadCurveToPoint:CGPointMake(CGRectGetWidth(self.frame), CGRectGetHeight(self.frame) / 2)
                     controlPoint:CGPointMake(CGRectGetWidth(self.frame) / 2, center.y + center.y + 20)];
        _bottomEyesocketLayer.borderColor = [UIColor blackColor].CGColor;
        _bottomEyesocketLayer.lineWidth = 1.f;
        _bottomEyesocketLayer.path = path.CGPath;
        _bottomEyesocketLayer.fillColor = [UIColor clearColor].CGColor;
        _bottomEyesocketLayer.strokeColor = [UIColor whiteColor].CGColor;
 
    }
    return _bottomEyesocketLayer;
}



然后更改一下某些属性的值,方便稍后的动画

 
 
 
 
 
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- (void)setupAnimation {
    self.eyeFirstLightLayer.lineWidth = 0.f;
    self.eyeSecondLightLayer.lineWidth = 0.f;
    self.eyeballLayer.opacity = 0.f;
    _bottomEyesocketLayer.strokeStart = 0.5f;
    _bottomEyesocketLayer.strokeEnd = 0.5f;
    _topEyesocketLayer.strokeStart = 0.5f;
    _topEyesocketLayer.strokeEnd = 0.5f;
}



最后根据 UIScrollView 的 contentOffset 来控制各种属性,办法较笨,但管用。

 
 
 
 
 
 
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- (void)animationWith:(CGFloat)y {
    CGFloat flag = self.frame.origin.y * 2.f - 20.f;
    if (y < flag) {
        if (self.eyeFirstLightLayer.lineWidth < 5.f) {
            self.eyeFirstLightLayer.lineWidth += 1.f;
            self.eyeSecondLightLayer.lineWidth += 1.f;
        }
    }
 
    if(y < flag - 20) {
        if (self.eyeballLayer.opacity <= 1.0f) {
            self.eyeballLayer.opacity += 0.1f;
        }
 
    }
 
    if (y < flag - 40) {
        if (self.topEyesocketLayer.strokeEnd < 1.f && self.topEyesocketLayer.strokeStart > 0.f) {
            self.topEyesocketLayer.strokeEnd += 0.1f;
            self.topEyesocketLayer.strokeStart -= 0.1f;
            self.bottomEyesocketLayer.strokeEnd += 0.1f;
            self.bottomEyesocketLayer.strokeStart -= 0.1f;
        }
    }
 
    if (y > flag - 40) {
        if (self.topEyesocketLayer.strokeEnd > 0.5f && self.topEyesocketLayer.strokeStart < 0.5f) {
            self.topEyesocketLayer.strokeEnd -= 0.1f;
            self.topEyesocketLayer.strokeStart += 0.1f;
            self.bottomEyesocketLayer.strokeEnd -= 0.1f;
            self.bottomEyesocketLayer.strokeStart += 0.1f;
        }
    }
 
    if (y > flag - 20) {
        if (self.eyeballLayer.opacity >= 0.0f) {
            self.eyeballLayer.opacity -= 0.1f;
        }
    }
 
    if (y > flag) {
        if (self.eyeFirstLightLayer.lineWidth > 0.f) {
            self.eyeFirstLightLayer.lineWidth -= 1.f;
            self.eyeSecondLightLayer.lineWidth -= 1.f;
        }
    }
}



 

最后

总之使用 UIbezierPath 和 CAShapeLayer 可以画出你想要的任何形状,没有它做不到,只有你想不到,搞定了它们你就可以轻松定制你想要的任何控件了。

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