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[数据库]Oracle以及SDE维护常用命令


      之前现场反馈一个数据更新的问题,查看感觉是因为表空间满了导致的(错误在之前的博客随笔中写过),因此远程对服务器进行查看。个人平常都是通过Oracle客户端的Entreprise Manager Console进行查看的,但是发现服务器上只安装了Oracle服务端并且不能正常进行网页登录查看。

      因此到网上查了一下查看Oracle表空间使用情况的查询语句,通过PLSQL进行查询查看,在这里记录一下,另外附几个常用的Oracle以及SDE命令。

查看表空间的使用情况(解决此次问题使用)
select sum(bytes)/(1024*1024) as free_space,tablespace_name
from dba_free_space
group by tablespace_name;
SELECT A.TABLESPACE_NAME,A.BYTES TOTAL,B.BYTES USED, C.BYTES FREE,
(B.BYTES*100)/A.BYTES "% USED",(C.BYTES*100)/A.BYTES "% FREE"
FROM SYS.SM$TS_AVAIL A,SYS.SM$TS_USED B,SYS.SM$TS_FREE C
WHERE A.TABLESPACE_NAME=B.TABLESPACE_NAME AND A.TABLESPACE_NAME=C.TABLESPACE_NAME;

解决这个问题通过修改表空间为自增长即可(自增长的幅度要大一点,通过本地存放文件来设置)

ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE 'D:\ORACLE\PRODUCT\10.2.0\ORADATA\ORCL\BUSINESS.DBF' AUTOEXTEND ON NEXT 100M MAXSIZE UNLIMITED

上面的语句为把'D:\ORACLE\PRODUCT\10.2.0\ORADATA\ORCL\BUSINESS.DBF' 这个文件的自增长设置为100M

附:

Oracle维护常用SQL (经过PLSQL中测试)
1、查看表空间的名称及大小
select t.tablespace_name, round(sum(bytes/(1024*1024)),0) ts_size
from dba_tablespaces t, dba_data_files d
where t.tablespace_name = d.tablespace_name
group by t.tablespace_name;
2、查看表空间物理文件的名称及大小
select tablespace_name, file_id, file_name,round(bytes/(1024*1024),0) total_space
from dba_data_files
order by tablespace_name;
3、查看回滚段名称及大小
select segment_name, tablespace_name, r.status,
(initial_extent/1024) InitialExtent,(next_extent/1024) NextExtent,
max_extents, v.curext CurExtent
From dba_rollback_segs r, v$rollstat v
Where r.segment_id = v.usn(+)
order by segment_name ;
4、查看控制文件
select name from v$controlfile;
5、查看日志文件
select member from v$logfile;
6、查看数据库库对象
select owner, object_type, status, count(*) count# from all_objects group by owner, object_type, status;
7、查看数据库的版本
Select version FROM Product_component_version
Where SUBSTR(PRODUCT,1,6)='Oracle';
8、查看数据库的创建日期和归档方式
Select Created, Log_Mode, Log_Mode From V$Database;
9、如何远程判断Oracle数据库的安装平台
select * from v$version;
10、查看数据表的参数信息
SELECT partition_name, high_value, high_value_length, tablespace_name,
pct_free, pct_used, ini_trans, max_trans, initial_extent,
next_extent, min_extent, max_extent, pct_increase, FREELISTS,
freelist_groups, LOGGING, BUFFER_POOL, num_rows, blocks,
empty_blocks, avg_space, chain_cnt, avg_row_len, sample_size,
last_analyzed
FROM dba_tab_partitions
--WHERE table_name = :tname AND table_owner = :towner
ORDER BY partition_position
11、查看还没提交的事务
select * from v$locked_object;
select * from v$transaction;
12、回滚段查看
select rownum, sys.dba_rollback_segs.segment_name Name, v$rollstat.extents
Extents, v$rollstat.rssize Size_in_Bytes, v$rollstat.xacts XActs,
v$rollstat.gets Gets, v$rollstat.waits Waits, v$rollstat.writes Writes,
sys.dba_rollback_segs.status status from v$rollstat, sys.dba_rollback_segs,
v$rollname where v$rollname.name(+) = sys.dba_rollback_segs.segment_name and
v$rollstat.usn (+) = v$rollname.usn order by rownum
13、捕捉运行很久的SQL
select username,sid,opname,
      round(sofar*100 / totalwork,0) || '%' as progress, time_remaining,sql_text
from v$session_longops , v$sql
where sql_address = address
and sql_hash_value = hash_value
14、查看数据表的参数信息
SELECT partition_name, high_value, high_value_length, tablespace_name,
        pct_free, pct_used, ini_trans, max_trans, initial_extent,
        next_extent, min_extent, max_extent, pct_increase, FREELISTS,
        freelist_groups, LOGGING, BUFFER_POOL, num_rows, blocks,
        empty_blocks, avg_space, chain_cnt, avg_row_len, sample_size,
        last_analyzed
   FROM dba_tab_partitions
--WHERE table_name = :tname AND table_owner = :towner
ORDER BY partition_position
15、查找object为哪些进程所用
select p.spid,s.sid,s.serial# serial_num,s.username user_name,a.type object_type,s.osuser os_user_name,a.owner,
a.object object_name,decode(sign(48 - command),1,to_char(command), 'Action Code #' || to_char(command) ) action,
p.program oracle_process,s.terminal terminal,s.program program,s.status session_status
from v$session s, v$access a, v$process p
where s.paddr = p.addr and s.type = 'USER' and  a.sid = s.sid and a.object='SUBSCRIBER_ATTR'
order by s.username, s.osuser
16、耗资源的进程(top session)
select s.schemaname schema_name,    decode(sign(48 - command), 1,
to_char(command), 'Action Code #' || to_char(command) ) action,    status
session_status,   s.osuser os_user_name,   s.sid,         p.spid ,         s.serial# serial_num,
nvl(s.username, '[Oracle process]') user_name,   s.terminal terminal, 
s.program program,   st.value criteria_value from v$sesstat st,   v$session s , v$process p
where st.sid = s.sid and   st.statistic# = to_number('38') and   ('ALL' = 'ALL'
or s.status = 'ALL') and p.addr = s.paddr order by st.value desc, p.spid asc, s.username asc, s.osuser asc
17、查看锁(lock)情况
select /*+ RULE */ ls.osuser os_user_name,   ls.username user_name,decode(ls.type, 'RW', 'Row wait enqueue lock', 'TM', 'DML enqueue lock', 'TX','Transaction enqueue lock', 'UL', 'User supplied lock') lock_type,o.object_name object,   decode(ls.lmode, 1, null, 2, 'Row Share', 3,'Row Exclusive', 4, 'Share', 5, 'Share Row Exclusive', 6, 'Exclusive', null)
lock_mode, o.owner, ls.sid, ls.serial# serial_num, ls.id1, ls.id2 
from sys.dba_objects o, ( select s.osuser, s.username, l.type, l.lmode, s.sid, s.serial#, l.id1, l.id2 from v$session s, 
v$lock l where s.sid = l.sid ) ls where o.object_id = ls.id1

18、根据sid查是哪台电脑的链接
select osuser,machine,username,sid,serial# from v$session where sid='128';
19、根据sid查对应的sql
select SID,SQL_TEXT from v$open_cursor where SID='128';
20、查看等待(wait)情况
SELECT v$waitstat.class, v$waitstat.count count, SUM(v$sysstat.value) sum_value
FROM v$waitstat, v$sysstat WHERE v$sysstat.name IN ('db block gets',
'consistent gets') group by v$waitstat.class, v$waitstat.count
21、查看sga情况
SELECT NAME, BYTES FROM SYS.V_$SGASTAT ORDER BY NAME ASC
22、查看catched object
SELECT owner, name, db_link, namespace, type, sharable_mem, loads, executions, locks, pins, kept FROM v$db_object_cache
23、查看V$SQLAREA
SELECT SQL_TEXT, SHARABLE_MEM, PERSISTENT_MEM, RUNTIME_MEM, SORTS,
VERSION_COUNT, LOADED_VERSIONS, OPEN_VERSIONS, USERS_OPENING, EXECUTIONS,
USERS_EXECUTING, LOADS, FIRST_LOAD_TIME, INVALIDATIONS, PARSE_CALLS, DISK_READS,
BUFFER_GETS, ROWS_PROCESSED FROM V$SQLAREA
24、查看object分类数量
select OBJECT_TYPE,COUNT(*) from all_objects GROUP BY OBJECT_TYPE;

25、有关connection的相关信息
1)查看有哪些用户连接
select s.osuser os_user_name, decode(sign(48 - command), 1, to_char(command),
'Action Code #' || to_char(command) ) action, p.program oracle_process, 
status session_status, s.terminal terminal, s.program program, 
s.username user_name, s.fixed_table_sequence activity_meter, ''query, 
0 memory, 0 max_memory, 0 cpu_usage,    s.sid,   s.serial# serial_num 
from v$session s, v$process p where s.paddr=p.addr and s.type ='USER'
order by s.username, s.osuser
2)根据v.sid查看对应连接的资源占用等情况
select n.name,v.value,n.class,n.statistic#
from v$statname n,v$sesstat v
where v.sid = 71 and v.statistic# = n.statistic#
order by n.class, n.statistic#
3)根据sid查看对应连接正在运行的sql
select command_type,sql_text,sharable_mem,persistent_mem,runtime_mem,sorts,version_count,loaded_versions,open_versions,users_opening,
executions,users_executing,loads,first_load_time,invalidations,parse_calls,disk_reads,buffer_gets,rows_processed,sysdate start_time,sysdate finish_time,
address sql_address,'N' status
from v$sqlarea
where address = (select sql_address from v$session where sid = 71)
26、查询表空间的碎片程度

select a.tablespace_name,
trunc(sqrt(max(blocks)/sum(blocks))* (100/sqrt(sqrt(count(blocks)))),2) fsfi
from dba_free_space  a,dba_tablespaces b
where a.tablespace_name=b.tablespace_name
and b.contents not in('TEMPORARY','UNDO','SYSAUX')
group by A.tablespace_name
order by fsfi;

27、查询有哪些数据库实例在运行
select inst_name from v$active_instances;
28、获取oracle前10条最耗资源的sql语句
SELECT * FROM
  (SELECT PARSING_USER_ID
          EXECUTIONS,
          SORTS,
          COMMAND_TYPE,
          DISK_READS,
          sql_text
      FROM  v$sqlarea
     ORDER BY disk_reads DESC   ) 
  WHERE ROWNUM<11;

SDE常用SQL (通过CMD直接运行)

1、查看sde连接状态,快速查看有几个连接(不用进入sql*plus)

sdemon -o status

2、删除当前连接的某个用户,需要提供S-ID,及sde的密码

sdemon -o kill -t 1731 -p sde

3、断开所有用户的连接

sdemon -o kill -t all -s 127.0.0.1 -i 5151 -p sde

4、差看sde的实例个数和名称

sdemon -o info -I instances

5、查看sde实例占用的表,表后面的id为,sde库中table_registry

sdemon -o info -I locks

6、查询操作系统类型、操作系统环境变量、系统盘符、sde安装路径等信息

sdemon -o info -I vars

7、对SDE服务开启、停止、暂停

sdemon -o start -p sde

sdemon -o shutdown -p sde

sdemon -o pause -p sde