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[ASP.net教程]Winform应用程序实现通用消息窗口


记得我之前发表过一篇文章《Winform应用程序实现通用遮罩层》,是实现了透明遮罩的消息窗口,功能侧重点在动图显示+消息提醒,效果看上去比较的炫,而本篇我又来重新设计通用消息窗口,功能重点在于消息提醒、进度报告,当然如果大家时间,可以将两种相结合,那样就会更完美了,我这里仍是以实现功能为主,由于代码相对简单,我就直接贴上所有代码,大家可以直接复制到本地测试,若发现问题可自行改正或反馈给我,我来完善,谢谢!

using System;using System.Collections.Generic;using System.ComponentModel;using System.Data;using System.Drawing;using System.Text;using System.Threading;using System.Windows.Forms;namespace WindowsFormsApplication1{  /// <summary>  /// 等待窗口:用于处理耗时工作时,友好显示消息窗口  /// 作者:Zuowenjun  /// 日期:2016-1-29  /// 网址:http://www.zuowenjun.cn  /// </summary>  public partial class FRM_Waitting : Form  {    private SynchronizationContext formContext;    public string Message    {      get { return labMessage.Text; }      set { labMessage.Text = value; }    }    public Action<WaittingForWorkObject> WorkAction { get; set; }    public object WorkActionParam { get; set; }    public Exception WorkException { get; private set; }    public class WaittingForWorkObject    {      private SendOrPostCallback UpdateMessageAction = null;      public SynchronizationContext Context { get; private set; }      public object UserData { get; private set; }      public void UpdateMessage(string msg)      {        this.Context.Post(UpdateMessageAction, msg);      }      public WaittingForWorkObject(FRM_Waitting parentForm)      {        this.Context = parentForm.formContext;        this.UserData = parentForm.WorkActionParam;        this.UpdateMessageAction = delegate(object o)        {          parentForm.Message = o.ToString();        };      }    }    public static void WaittingForWork(Action<WaittingForWorkObject> workAction, object workParam = null, string text = "请稍候", string message = "系统处理中,请稍候...")    {      var waittingForm = new FRM_Waitting(text, message, workAction, workParam);      waittingForm.ShowDialog();      if (waittingForm.WorkException != null)      {        throw waittingForm.WorkException;      }    }    public FRM_Waitting()    {      InitializeComponent();    }    public FRM_Waitting(string text, string message, Action<WaittingForWorkObject> workAction, object workParam = null)      : this()    {      this.Text = text;      this.Message = message;      this.WorkAction = workAction;      this.WorkActionParam = workParam;    }    private void FRM_Waitting_Load(object sender, EventArgs e)    {    }    private void FRM_Waitting_Shown(object sender, EventArgs e)    {      formContext = SynchronizationContext.Current;      if (WorkAction != null)      {        Thread workThread = new Thread(DoWork);        workThread.IsBackground = true;        workThread.Start();      }    }    private void DoWork()    {      try      {        var wfObject = new WaittingForWorkObject(this);        WorkAction(wfObject);      }      catch (Exception ex)      {        WorkException = ex;      }      formContext.Send(delegate(object o) { this.Close(); }, null);    }  }}

以下是系统自动生成的代码:

namespace WindowsFormsApplication1{  partial class FRM_Waitting  {    /// <summary>    /// Required designer variable.    /// </summary>    private System.ComponentModel.IContainer components = null;    /// <summary>    /// Clean up any resources being used.    /// </summary>    /// <param name="disposing">true if managed resources should be disposed; otherwise, false.</param>    protected override void Dispose(bool disposing)    {      if (disposing && (components != null))      {        components.Dispose();      }      base.Dispose(disposing);    }    #region Windows Form Designer generated code    /// <summary>    /// Required method for Designer support - do not modify    /// the contents of this method with the code editor.    /// </summary>    private void InitializeComponent()    {      this.labMessage = new System.Windows.Forms.Label();      this.SuspendLayout();      //       // labMessage      //       this.labMessage.Dock = System.Windows.Forms.DockStyle.Fill;      this.labMessage.Font = new System.Drawing.Font("宋体", 9.75F, System.Drawing.FontStyle.Regular, System.Drawing.GraphicsUnit.Point, ((byte)(134)));      this.labMessage.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(0, 0);      this.labMessage.Name = "labMessage";      this.labMessage.Padding = new System.Windows.Forms.Padding(5);      this.labMessage.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(453, 125);      this.labMessage.TabIndex = 0;      this.labMessage.Text = "Message";      this.labMessage.TextAlign = System.Drawing.ContentAlignment.MiddleCenter;      this.labMessage.UseWaitCursor = true;      //       // FRM_Waitting      //       this.AutoScaleDimensions = new System.Drawing.SizeF(6F, 12F);      this.AutoScaleMode = System.Windows.Forms.AutoScaleMode.Font;      this.ClientSize = new System.Drawing.Size(453, 125);      this.ControlBox = false;      this.Controls.Add(this.labMessage);      this.FormBorderStyle = System.Windows.Forms.FormBorderStyle.FixedSingle;      this.Name = "FRM_Waitting";      this.ShowIcon = false;      this.ShowInTaskbar = false;      this.StartPosition = System.Windows.Forms.FormStartPosition.CenterParent;      this.Text = "FRM_Waitting";      this.UseWaitCursor = true;      this.Load += new System.EventHandler(this.FRM_Waitting_Load);      this.Shown += new System.EventHandler(this.FRM_Waitting_Shown);      this.ResumeLayout(false);    }    #endregion    private System.Windows.Forms.Label labMessage;  }}

上述代码比较简单,我这里对消息窗口的实现原理作一个简要的说明:

1.将耗时处理逻辑代码封装到一个委托中(Aciton<FRM_Waitting.WaittingForWorkObject>);

2.获取当前同步上下文并保存,以便可以跨线程操作UI;

3.创建并运行一个后台线程,同时将该线程指定到DoWork(工作方法);

4.在DoWork方法中实例化WaittingForWorkObject对象,并传给1中委托,然后执行委托,这样耗时的操作都在后台线程中处理了;

5.在DoWork方法使用try catch捕获可能存在的异常,若发生异常则保存到WorkException属性中;

6.执行完成后(无论是否报错),通过同上下文发送关闭消息窗口指令,使消息窗口关闭;

7.在静态方法WaittingForWork中判断WorkException属性是否不为空,若不为空则重新抛出错误,这样主线程就知道发生了什么异常;

 说明:为了能够兼容.NET 2.0及以上版本,代码中采用了匿名方法,而非Lambada表达式,实际使用时则可以任意选择,下面的测试示例中均提供了新旧两种代码写法,以供大家比较。

以下是各种测试示例:

    /// <summary>    /// 测试:普通显示一个消息窗口    /// </summary>    private void Test1()    {      //旧方式(兼容.NET2.0及以上)      FRM_Waitting.WaittingForWork(delegate(FRM_Waitting.WaittingForWorkObject o)      {        //在这里面写耗时处理逻辑代码,以下是模拟耗时        Thread.Sleep(10 * 1000);      });      //新方式(.NET4.0及以上)      //FRM_Waitting.WaittingForWork((o) =>      //{        //在这里面写耗时处理逻辑代码,以下是模拟耗时      //  Thread.Sleep(10 * 1000);      //});    }

效果如下:

 

    /// <summary>    /// 测试:普通显示一个消息窗口,并自定义提示消息并窗口标题    /// </summary>    private void Test1_1()    {      //旧方式(兼容.NET2.0及以上)      FRM_Waitting.WaittingForWork(delegate(FRM_Waitting.WaittingForWorkObject o)      {        //在这里面写耗时处理逻辑代码,以下是模拟耗时        Thread.Sleep(10 * 1000);      },null,"客官请稍候","客官,店小二正在为您拼命处理中,请稍等片刻...");      //新方式(.NET4.0及以上)      //FRM_Waitting.WaittingForWork((o) =>      //{        //在这里面写耗时处理逻辑代码,以下是模拟耗时      //  Thread.Sleep(10 * 1000);      //},null,"客官请稍候","客官,店小二正在为您拼命处理中,请稍等片刻...");    }

效果如下:

 

    /// <summary>    /// 测试:普通显示一个消息窗口,并在后台线程中抛出错误,前台显示错误信息    /// </summary>     private void Test1_2()    {       try       {         //旧方式(兼容.NET2.0及以上)         //FRM_Waitting.WaittingForWork(delegate(FRM_Waitting.WaittingForWorkObject o)         //{         //  //在这里面写耗时处理逻辑代码,以下是模拟耗时         //  Thread.Sleep(10 * 1000);         //  throw new Exception("这里后台线程里抛出的错误!");         //});         //新方式(.NET4.0及以上)         FRM_Waitting.WaittingForWork((o) =>         {          //在这里面写耗时处理逻辑代码,以下是模拟耗时           Thread.Sleep(10 * 1000);           throw new Exception("这里后台线程里抛出的错误!");         });       }       catch(Exception ex)       {         MessageBox.Show("发生异常:" + ex.Message);       }    }

效果如下:

 

    /// <summary>    /// 测试:在消息窗口上显示加载进度    /// </summary>    private void Test2()    {      //旧方式(兼容.NET2.0及以上)      //FRM_Waitting.WaittingForWork(delegate(FRM_Waitting.WaittingForWorkObject o)      //{          //在这里面写耗时处理逻辑代码,以下是模拟耗时      //  for (int i = 1; i <= 10; i++)      //  {      //    Thread.Sleep(1000);      //    o.UpdateMessage(string.Format("共{0}项,当前已加载{1}项", 10, i));      //  }      //});      //新方式(.NET4.0及以上)      FRM_Waitting.WaittingForWork((o) =>      {        //在这里面写耗时处理逻辑代码,以下是模拟耗时        for (int i = 1; i <= 10; i++)        {          Thread.Sleep(1000);          o.UpdateMessage(string.Format("共{0}项,当前已加载{1}项", 10, i));        }      });    }

效果如下:

 

    /// <summary>    /// 测试:在消息窗口上显示加载进度,并同时在主窗口(非消息窗口都可以)上更新控件内容    /// </summary>    private void Test3()    {      //旧方式(兼容.NET2.0及以上)      FRM_Waitting.WaittingForWork(delegate(FRM_Waitting.WaittingForWorkObject o)      {        //在这里面写耗时处理逻辑代码,以下是模拟耗时        for (int i = 1; i <= 10; i++)        {          Thread.Sleep(1000);          o.UpdateMessage(string.Format("共{0}项,当前已加载{1}项", 10, i));          o.Context.Send(delegate(object d) { this.listBox1.Items.Add(d); }, string.Format("共{0}项,当前已加载{1}项", 10, i));        }      });      //新方式(.NET4.0及以上)      //FRM_Waitting.WaittingForWork((o) =>      //{        //在这里面写耗时处理逻辑代码,以下是模拟耗时      //  for (int i = 1; i <= 10; i++)      //  {      //    Thread.Sleep(1000);      //    o.UpdateMessage(string.Format("共{0}项,当前已加载{1}项", 10, i));      //    o.Context.Send(d => this.listBox1.Items.Add(d), string.Format("共{0}项,当前已加载{1}项", 10, i));      //  }      //});    }

效果如下:

 

看完上面的测试效果,大家觉得如何,能否满足你的日常要求呢,我认为基本都可以满足的,当然如果发现更多的情况,欢迎在下方评论留言。