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[Java教程]struts2.3.24 + spring4.1.6 + hibernate4.3.11 + mysql5.5.25 开发环境搭建及相关说明


 一、目标

1、搭建传统的ssh开发环境,并成功运行(插入、查询)

2、了解c3p0连接池相关配置

3、了解验证hibernate的二级缓存,并验证

4、了解spring事物配置,并验证

5、了解spring的IOC(依赖注入),将struts2的action对象(bean)交给spring管理,自定义bean等...并验证

6、了解spring aop(面向切面编程),并编写自定义切面函数,验证结果

二、前期准备

开发环境:eclipse for java ee;mysql5.5.25;jdk1.7.0_79;navicat10.1.7(可选);

创建数据库demo:

/*Navicat MySQL Data TransferSource Server     : localhost_3306Source Server Version : 50519Source Host      : localhost:3306Source Database    : demoTarget Server Type  : MYSQLTarget Server Version : 50519File Encoding     : 65001Date: 2016-01-09 23:36:02*/SET FOREIGN_KEY_CHECKS=0;-- ------------------------------ Table structure for `user`-- ----------------------------DROP TABLE IF EXISTS `user`;CREATE TABLE `user` ( `id` bigint(20) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT, `account` varchar(200) NOT NULL, `name` varchar(200) NOT NULL, `address` varchar(1000) NOT NULL, PRIMARY KEY (`id`)) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8;

新建web工程,目录结构如下:

jar包准备,放到WEB-INF的lib目录下(有兴趣的可以用maven管理过程,但是有时候下载jar包很慢...)

相关jar包都可以在下载下来的struts、spring、hibernate中找到,这里给个参考,有些是可以删除的,比如spring mvc部分的jar包:

三、配置web.

  • 配置一个struts2的filter,映射所有*.action请求,由StrutsPrepareAndExecuteFilter对象来处理;
  • 配置context-param参数,指定spring配置文件的路径,<context-param>中的参数可以用ServletContext.getInitParameter(“param-name”)来获取;
  • 配置listener,主要是读取applicationContext.
<??><web-app ="http://www.w3.org/2001/ ="http://java.sun.com/ xsi:schemaLocation="http://java.sun.com/ id="WebApp_ID" version="3.0"> <display-name>SSH</display-name> <filter>   <filter-name>struts2</filter-name>   <filter-class>org.apache.struts2.dispatcher.ng.filter.StrutsPrepareAndExecuteFilter</filter-class> </filter> <filter-mapping>   <filter-name>struts2</filter-name>   <url-pattern>*.action</url-pattern> </filter-mapping> <context-param>   <param-name>contextConfigLocation</param-name>   <param-value>classpath:applicationContext.</param-value> </context-param> <listener>   <listener-class>org.springframework.web.context.ContextLoaderListener</listener-class> </listener> <welcome-file-list>   <welcome-file>index.jsp</welcome-file> </welcome-file-list></web-app>

四、配置applicationContext.
  • 配置自动扫描ssh包下的@Repostory,@Service等注解,并生成对应的bean;
  • 配置数据源(jdbc连接池为c3p0,可以参考c3p0的详细配置),连接池主要作用是快速提供connection,重复利用,不需要每次销毁创建,需配置用户名、密码、最大连接数、最小连接数、初始连接数等相关参数;
  • 配置sessionFactory(可以参考hibernate的详细配置,这里配置开启二级缓存),主要作用是提供session,执行sql语句;这里我们将会通过HibernateTemplate来对数据库进行操作,方便spring进行实物控制;ps,hibernate配置中还要配置类与数据库表的映射;
  • 配置事务管理器bean为HibernateTransactionManager,并把成员属性sessionFactory初始化为之前配置的sessionFactory bean;
  • 配置事务的传播特性,并配置一个切面引用它,对所有ssh.service包及子包下所有add、delete、update、save方法进行事务控制,还可以配置事务传播行为等参数;
  • 最后是一个自定义aop相关配置,对ssh.aop.AopTest下所有test开头的方法应用自定义切面‘myAop’进行控制,后续会验证结果;
<??><beans ="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"    ="http://www.springframework.org/schema/p"    ="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"    ="http://www.springframework.org/schema/tx"    ="http://www.w3.org/2001/    ="http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop"    ="http://www.springframework.org/schema/jdbc"    xsi:schemaLocation="      http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans      http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd      http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop      http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop/spring-aop.xsd      http://www.springframework.org/schema/tx      http://www.springframework.org/schema/tx/spring-tx-4.1.xsd      http://www.springframework.org/schema/jdbc      http://www.springframework.org/schema/jdbc/spring-jdbc-4.1.xsd      http://www.springframework.org/schema/context      http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context-4.1.xsd">    <!-- scans the classpath for annotated components (including @Repostory   and @Service that will be auto-registered as Spring beans -->       <context:component-scan base-package="ssh" />  <!--配数据源 -->  <bean name="dataSource" class="com.mchange.v2.c3p0.ComboPooledDataSource" destroy-method="close">    <property name="driverClass" value="com.mysql.jdbc.Driver" />    <property name="jdbcUrl" value="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/demo" />    <property name="user" value="root" />    <property name="password" value="root" />        <property name="acquireIncrement" value="1"></property>     <property name="initialPoolSize" value="80"></property>     <property name="maxIdleTime" value="60"></property>     <property name="maxPoolSize" value="80"></property>     <property name="minPoolSize" value="30"></property>     <property name="acquireRetryDelay" value="1000"></property>     <property name="acquireRetryAttempts" value="60"></property>     <property name="breakAfterAcquireFailure" value="false"></property>    <!-- 如出现Too many connections, 注意修改mysql的配置文件my.ini,增大最多连接数配置项,(查看当前连接命令:show processlist) -->  </bean>    <bean id="sessionFactory" class="org.springframework.orm.hibernate4.LocalSessionFactoryBean">    <property name="dataSource" ref="dataSource" />    <property name="hibernateProperties">      <props>        <prop key="hibernate.dialect">org.hibernate.dialect.MySQLDialect</prop>        <prop key="hibernate.show_sql">true</prop>        <prop key="hibernate.hbm2ddl.auto">update</prop>        <prop key="current_session_context_class">thread</prop>        <prop key="hibernate.cache.use_second_level_cache">true</prop>        <prop key="hibernate.cache.region.factory_class">org.hibernate.cache.ehcache.EhCacheRegionFactory</prop>        <prop key="hibernate.cache.use_query_cache">true</prop>        <prop key="hibernate.cache.provider_configuration_file_resource_path">ehcache.</prop>      </props>    </property>    <property name="mappingLocations">       <list>        <value>classpath:ssh/model/User.hbm.</value>       </list>     </property>     <!--     <property name="annotatedClasses">      <list>        <value>ssh.model.User</value>      </list>    </property>    -->  </bean>    <!-- 配置事务管理器 -->  <bean id="transactionManager"    class="org.springframework.orm.hibernate4.HibernateTransactionManager">    <property name="sessionFactory" ref="sessionFactory" />  </bean>    <!-- 事务的传播特性 -->  <tx:advice id="txadvice" transaction-manager="transactionManager">    <tx:attributes>      <tx:method name="add*" propagation="REQUIRED" read-only="false" rollback-for="java.lang.Exception"/>      <tx:method name="delete*" propagation="REQUIRED" read-only="false" rollback-for="java.lang.Exception"/>      <tx:method name="update*" propagation="REQUIRED" read-only="false" rollback-for="java.lang.Exception"/>      <tx:method name="save*" propagation="REQUIRED" read-only="false" rollback-for="java.lang.Exception"/>    </tx:attributes>  </tx:advice>    <aop:config>    <aop:pointcut id="pcMethod" expression="execution(* ssh.service..*.*(..))" />    <aop:advisor pointcut-ref="pcMethod" advice-ref="txadvice" />  </aop:config>     <!-- 自定义aop处理 测试 -->  <bean id="aopTest" class="ssh.aop.AopTest"></bean>  <bean id="myAop" class="ssh.aop.MyAop"></bean>  <aop:config proxy-target-class="true">    <aop:aspect ref="myAop">      <aop:pointcut id="pcMethodTest" expression="execution(* ssh.aop.AopTest.test*(..))"/>      <aop:before pointcut-ref="pcMethodTest" method="before"/>      <aop:after pointcut-ref="pcMethodTest" method="after"/>    </aop:aspect>  </aop:config> </beans>

 五、配置struts.

配置struts.objectFactory常数为spring,表示action由通过spring的bean中获取;

配置result type为"json",也可以配置其它的,这里为了前后端数据交互简便,配置成json格式;

配置两个action,addUser和queryAllUser;

<??><!DOCTYPE struts PUBLIC  "-//Apache Software Foundation//DTD Struts Configuration 2.3//EN"  "http://struts.apache.org/dtds/struts-2.3.dtd"><struts>  <constant name="struts.objectFactory" value="spring"/>  <constant name="struts.enable.DynamicMethodInvocation" value="false" />  <constant name="struts.devMode" value="false" />  <package name="default" extends="struts-default,json-default">     <global-results>       <result type="json">        <param name="root">json</param>        <param name="contentType">text/html</param>       </result>     </global-results>         <action name="addUser" class="userAction" method="addUser">          <result>.</result>        </action>                <action name="queryAllUser" class="userAction" method="queryAllUser">     <result>.</result>    </action>      </package>  <!-- Add packages here --></struts>

六、编写相关代码

注意事项:

dao继承HibernateDaoSupport类,所有数据库相关操作用hibernateTemplate操作;

给dao层,service层,action添加相应注解,注册为spring的bean;

附代码如下:

UserAction.java

package ssh.action;import java.io.PrintWriter;import java.util.List;import javax.annotation.Resource;import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;import org.apache.log4j.Logger;import org.apache.struts2.ServletActionContext;import org.springframework.stereotype.Controller;import ssh.aop.AopTest;import ssh.model.User;import ssh.service.UserService;import com.google.gson.Gson;@Controllerpublic class UserAction {  Logger logger = Logger.getLogger(UserAction.class);  @Resource  private UserService userService;  @Resource  private AopTest aopTest;    public void addUser(){    PrintWriter out = null;            try{      HttpServletRequest request = ServletActionContext.getRequest();      HttpServletResponse response = ServletActionContext.getResponse();      response.setContentType("text/html;charset=UTF-8");      String account = request.getParameter("account");      String name = request.getParameter("name");      String address = request.getParameter("address");       User user = new User();      user.setAccount(account);      user.setAddress(address);      user.setName(name);      userService.add(user);      out = response.getWriter();      out.write(new Gson().toJson("success"));    }catch(Exception e){      e.printStackTrace();      logger.error(e.getMessage());      if(out != null)        out.write(new Gson().toJson("fail"));    }finally{      out.flush();      out.close();    }      }      public void queryAllUser(){    PrintWriter out = null;        aopTest.test1();    aopTest.test2();    //logger.error("i");    try {      HttpServletResponse response = ServletActionContext.getResponse();      response.setContentType("text/html;charset=UTF-8");        Gson gson = new Gson();      List<User> userList= userService.queryAllUser();      String gsonStr = gson.toJson(userList);            out = response.getWriter();      out.write(gsonStr);    } catch (Exception e) {      e.printStackTrace();      logger.error(e.getMessage());      if(out != null)        out.write(new Gson().toJson("fail"));    }finally{      out.flush();      out.close();    }  }}

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 AopTest.java

package ssh.aop;public class AopTest {    public void test1(){    System.out.println("AopTest test1 method is running~");  }    public void test2(){    System.out.println("AopTest test2 method is running~");  }}

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MyAop.java

package ssh.aop;public class MyAop {  public void before(){    System.out.println("befor~");  }    public void after(){    System.out.println("after~");  }}

View Code

BaseDao.java

package ssh.dao.base;import javax.annotation.Resource;import org.hibernate.SessionFactory;import org.springframework.orm.hibernate4.support.HibernateDaoSupport;public class BaseDao extends HibernateDaoSupport{  @Resource   public void setMySessionFactory(SessionFactory sessionFactory){     this.setSessionFactory(sessionFactory);   }}

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UserDao.java

package ssh.dao;import java.util.ArrayList;import java.util.List;import org.springframework.orm.hibernate4.HibernateTemplate;import org.springframework.stereotype.Repository;import ssh.dao.base.BaseDao;import ssh.model.User;@Repositorypublic class UserDao extends BaseDao{  public void add(User user){    this.getHibernateTemplate().save(user);  }    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")  public List<User> queryAllUser(){        List<User> users = new ArrayList<User>();    HibernateTemplate hibernateTemplate = this.getHibernateTemplate();        hibernateTemplate.setCacheQueries(true);    users = (List<User>) hibernateTemplate.find("from User");    hibernateTemplate.setCacheQueries(false);    return users;  }}

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User.java

package ssh.model;import java.io.Serializable;public class User implements Serializable{  /**   *   */  private static final long serialVersionUID = -6190571611246371934L;  private Long id;  private String account;  private String name;  private String address;  public String getAccount() {    return account;  }  public String getName() {    return name;  }  public String getAddress() {    return address;  }  public void setAccount(String account) {    this.account = account;  }  public void setName(String name) {    this.name = name;  }  public void setAddress(String address) {    this.address = address;  }  /**   * @return the id   */  public Long getId() {    return id;  }  /**   * @param id the id to set   */  public void setId(Long id) {    this.id = id;  }}

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User.hbm.

<??><!-- ~ Hibernate, Relational Persistence for Idiomatic Java ~ ~ Copyright (c) 2010, Red Hat Inc. or third-party contributors as ~ indicated by the @author tags or express copyright attribution ~ statements applied by the authors. All third-party contributions are ~ distributed under license by Red Hat Inc. ~ ~ This copyrighted material is made available to anyone wishing to use, modify, ~ copy, or redistribute it subject to the terms and conditions of the GNU ~ Lesser General Public License, as published by the Free Software Foundation. ~ ~ This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, ~ but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY ~ or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU Lesser General Public License ~ for more details. ~ ~ You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public License ~ along with this distribution; if not, write to: ~ Free Software Foundation, Inc. ~ 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor ~ Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA --><!DOCTYPE hibernate-mapping PUBLIC    "-//Hibernate/Hibernate Mapping DTD 3.0//EN"    "http://www.hibernate.org/dtd/hibernate-mapping-3.0.dtd"><hibernate-mapping package="ssh.model">  <class name="User" table="user">    <cache usage="read-write"/>    <id name="id" column="id">      <generator class="increment"/>    </id>    <property name="account" type="java.lang.String" column="account"/>    <property name="name" type="java.lang.String" column="name"/>    <property name="address" type="java.lang.String" column="address"/>  </class></hibernate-mapping>

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UserService.java

package ssh.service;import java.util.List;import javax.annotation.Resource;import org.springframework.stereotype.Service;import ssh.dao.UserDao;import ssh.model.User;@Servicepublic class UserService {  @Resource  private UserDao userDao = new UserDao();  public List<User> queryAllUser(){    return userDao.queryAllUser();      }  public void add(User user){    userDao.add(user);  }}

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index.jsp(记得添加jquery库)

<%@ page language="java" contentType="text/html; charset=UTF-8"  pageEncoding="UTF-8"%><!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd"><html><head><meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"><title>Insert title here</title><style>.mt20{ margin-top: 20px;}</style></head><body><div style="text-align: center;"> <div class="mt20"><label>账号:</label><input id="account" type="text"/></div> <div class="mt20"><label>姓名:</label><input id="name" type="text"/></div> <div class="mt20"><label>地址:</label><input id="address" type="text"/></div> <div class="mt20"><button id="addUser" >添加</button></div></div><h3>用户列表:</h3><ul id="userList"></ul><script type="text/javascript" src="js/jquery-1.11.1.min.js"></script><script> $(function() {   $.ajax({     url : 'queryAllUser.action',     type : 'post',     dataType : 'json',     success : function(data) {      try {        for(var i = 0; i < data.length; i++){          $("#userList").append("<li><span style='color:red'>id="+data[i].id+"</span>,account="+data[i].account+",name="+data[i].name+",address="+data[i].address+"</li>");        }      } catch (e) {};           }     ,     error : function(e) {      alert("sys error");     }    });      $("#addUser").on("click", function() {   var account = $("#account").val();   var name = $("#name").val();   var address = $("#address").val();   $.ajax({    url : 'addUser.action',    type : 'post',    dataType : 'json',    data : {     account : account,     name : name,     address : address    },    success : function(data) {     try {            $("#userList").append("<li>account="+account+",name="+name+",address="+address+"</li>");      alert("添加成功");     } catch (e) {     }    },    error : function(e) {     alert("sys error");    }   });  }); });</script></body></html>

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七、验证结果

回到开头,开始熟悉了解相关技术,并验证结果

1、搭建传统的ssh开发环境,并成功运行(插入、查询)

如下图:查询及添加用户成功;

2、了解c3p0连接池相关配置

数据库连接是一种昂贵的资源,开启及关闭比较消耗性能,因此可以用连接池来管理,初始化若干个连接,重复使用,而不是重复创建关闭,有点类似线程池;

配置如下,要根据实际项目情况合理配置最小最大连接数,详细的各个参数含义可以参考链接

另外要验证连接数相关配置很简单,可以自己写个程序验证,比如当配置最大连接数为10的时候,可以写个程序验证,当打开10个connection后,第11个connection会一直处于等待状态,获取不到;所以要根据情况合理配置连接数,否则有可能会影响应用性能;

  <!--配数据源 -->  <bean name="dataSource" class="com.mchange.v2.c3p0.ComboPooledDataSource" destroy-method="close">    <property name="driverClass" value="com.mysql.jdbc.Driver" />    <property name="jdbcUrl" value="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/demo" />    <property name="user" value="root" />    <property name="password" value="root" />          <property name="acquireIncrement" value="1"></property>       <property name="initialPoolSize" value="80"></property>       <property name="maxIdleTime" value="60"></property>       <property name="maxPoolSize" value="80"></property>       <property name="minPoolSize" value="30"></property>       <property name="acquireRetryDelay" value="1000"></property>       <property name="acquireRetryAttempts" value="60"></property>       <property name="breakAfterAcquireFailure" value="false"></property>      <!-- 如出现Too many connections, 注意修改mysql的配置文件my.ini,增大最多连接数配置项,(查看当前连接命令:show processlist) -->  </bean>

3、了解验证hibernate的二级缓存,并验证

hibernate的一级缓存是指session范围的缓存,默认开启,二级缓存是sessionFactory范围缓存,在配置sessionFactory的时候,我们已经配置二级缓存为ehcache,接下来验证效果,查询user操作,发现第一次查询会操作数据库,打印sql语句,刷新页面后,发现查询成功且没打印sql语句,如下图,可见二级缓存工作OK;

4、了解spring事物配置,并验证

所谓事务控制,原理都一样,就是要保证原子性、一致性、隔离性、持久性,jdbc编程的时候,都是自己控制,通过set autocommit=false设置成不自动提交,然后开始写具体的数据库操作,发生异常的时候rollback,否则commit;其实spring对事物的控制原理也差不多,加了一些封装,配置等,更加方便而已,比如可以在service层不同方法进行控制等;

验证的话很简单,在service层某个方法(注意方法名要符合spring配置文件中配置的规则)内写两个插入user的操作,在中间抛出一个异常,然后执行,如果发现第一个user插入成功,说明事务控制失效,否则ok;

5、了解spring的IOC(依赖注入),将struts2的action对象(bean)交给spring管理,自定义bean等...并验证

仔细观察的话,在配置applicationContext.

之所以把对象的创建交给spring容器,目的是为了解耦;

另外在用struts的时候,spring把action注册为bean,默认是单例的,访问的时候并不是每次都new出一个action,在并发访问的时候,会有风险;

不过,可以通过scope="prototype",把action配置成多例;ps:struts2中的action默认是多例;

注意:applicationContext.配置的bean和自定义注解的bean都是可以在程序运行的过程中直接获取的,通过@Resource等方式,这个很好验证,写个小程序即可;

6、了解spring aop(面向切面编程),并编写自定义切面函数,验证结果

切面编程这种形式很多地方都用了该思想,什么过滤器,拦截器,事务控制等等...

其原理还是java的反射和动态代理,在方法执行前后加以控制,加入自己要执行的代码;

小例子中加了个切面,在方法执行前后打印before和after字符串,如下图,工作正常,代码参考前面部分:

  <!-- 自定义aop处理 测试 -->  <bean id="aopTest" class="ssh.aop.AopTest"></bean>  <bean id="myAop" class="ssh.aop.MyAop"></bean>  <aop:config proxy-target-class="true">    <aop:aspect ref="myAop">      <aop:pointcut id="pcMethodTest" expression="execution(* ssh.aop.AopTest.test*(..))"/>      <aop:before pointcut-ref="pcMethodTest" method="before"/>      <aop:after pointcut-ref="pcMethodTest" method="after"/>    </aop:aspect>  </aop:config>