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[操作系统]Linux下使用iostat 监视I/O状态

我们可以使用 sar(1), pidstat(1), mpstat(1), vmstat(8) 来监控

一、安装

yum install sysstat

二、参数解释

FILES

/proc/stat contains system statistics./proc/uptime contains system uptime./proc/partitions contains disk statistics (for pre 2.5 kernels that have been patched)./proc/diskstats contains disks statistics (for post 2.5 kernels)./sys contains statistics for block devices (post 2.5 kernels)./proc/self/mountstats contains statistics for network filesystems./dev/disk contains persistent device names.

CPU Utilization Report 

%user  Show the percentage of CPU utilization that occurred while executing at the user level (applica-tion).%nice  Show the percentage of CPU utilization that occurred while executing at the user level with nicepriority.%system  Show the percentage of CPU utilization that occurred while executing at the system level (kernel).%iowait  Show the percentage of time that the CPU or CPUs were idle during which the system had an outstand-ing disk I/O request.%steal  Show the percentage of time spent in involuntary wait by the virtual CPU or CPUs while the hypervi-sor was servicing another virtual processor.%idle  Show the percentage of time that the CPU or CPUs were idle and the system did not have an outstand-ing disk I/O request.

Device Utilization Report

tps  Indicate the number of transfers per second that were issued to the device. A transfer is an I/O   request to the device. Multiple logical requests can be combined into a single I/O request to the   device. A transfer is of indeterminate size.Blk_read/s  Indicate the amount of data read from the device expressed in a number of blocks per second. Blocks   are equivalent to sectors with kernels 2.4 and later and therefore have a size of 512 bytes. With   older kernels, a block is of indeterminate size.Blk_wrtn/s  Indicate the amount of data written to the device expressed in a number of blocks per second.Blk_read  The total number of blocks read.Blk_wrtn  The total number of blocks written.kB_read/s  Indicate the amount of data read from the device expressed in kilobytes per second.kB_wrtn/s  Indicate the amount of data written to the device expressed in kilobytes per second.kB_read  The total number of kilobytes read.kB_wrtn  The total number of kilobytes written.MB_read/s  Indicate the amount of data read from the device expressed in megabytes per second.MB_wrtn/s  Indicate the amount of data written to the device expressed in megabytes per second.MB_read  The total number of megabytes read.MB_wrtn  The total number of megabytes written.rrqm/s  The number of read requests merged per second that were queued to the device.wrqm/s  The number of write requests merged per second that were queued to the device.r/s  The number of read requests that were issued to the device per second.w/s  The number of write requests that were issued to the device per second.rsec/s  The number of sectors read from the device per second.wsec/s  The number of sectors written to the device per second.rkB/s  The number of kilobytes read from the device per second.wkB/s  The number of kilobytes written to the device per second.rMB/s  The number of megabytes read from the device per second.wMB/s  The number of megabytes written to the device per second.avgrq-sz  The average size (in sectors) of the requests that were issued to the device.avgqu-sz  The average queue length of the requests that were issued to the device.await  The average time (in milliseconds) for I/O requests issued to the device to be served. This includes the time spent by the requests in queue and the time spent servicing them.svctm  The average service time (in milliseconds) for I/O requests that were issued to the device. Warning! Do not trust this field any more. This field will be removed in a future sysstat version.%util  Percentage of CPU time during which I/O requests were issued to the device (bandwidth utilization for the device). Device saturation occurs when this value is close to 100%.

 Network Filesystem report

rBlk_nor/s  Indicate the number of blocks read by applications via the read(2) system call interface. A block has a size of 512 bytes.wBlk_nor/s  Indicate the number of blocks written by applications via the write(2) system call interface.rBlk_dir/s  Indicate the number of blocks read from files opened with the O_DIRECT flag.wBlk_dir/s  Indicate the number of blocks written to files opened with the O_DIRECT flag.rBlk_svr/s  Indicate the number of blocks read from the server by the NFS client via an NFS READ request.wBlk_svr/s  Indicate the number of blocks written to the server by the NFS client via an NFS WRITE request.rkB_nor/s  Indicate the number of kilobytes read by applications via the read(2) system call interface.wkB_nor/s  Indicate the number of kilobytes written by applications via the write(2) system call interface.rkB_dir/s  Indicate the number of kilobytes read from files opened with the O_DIRECT flag.wkB_dir/s  Indicate the number of kilobytes written to files opened with the O_DIRECT flag.rkB_svr/s  Indicate the number of kilobytes read from the server by the NFS client via an NFS READ request.wkB_svr/s  Indicate the number of kilobytes written to the server by the NFS client via an NFS WRITE request.rMB_nor/s  Indicate the number of megabytes read by applications via the read(2) system call interface.wMB_nor/s  Indicate the number of megabytes written by applications via the write(2) system call interface.rMB_dir/s  Indicate the number of megabytes read from files opened with the O_DIRECT flag.wMB_dir/s  Indicate the number of megabytes written to files opened with the O_DIRECT flag.rMB_svr/s  Indicate the number of megabytes read from the server by the NFS client via an NFS READ request.wMB_svr/s  Indicate the number of megabytes written to the server by the NFS client via an NFS WRITE request.ops/s  Indicate the number of operations that were issued to the filesystem per second.rops/s  Indicate the number of ’read’ operations that were issued to the filesystem per second.wops/s  Indicate the number of ’write’ operations that were issued to the filesystem per second.

 命令参数

-C 显示CPU使用情况-d 显示磁盘使用情况-k 以 KB 为单位显示-m 以 M 为单位显示-N 显示磁盘阵列(LVM) 信息-n 显示NFS 使用情况-p[磁盘] 显示磁盘和分区的情况-t 显示终端和CPU的信息-x 显示详细信息-V 显示版本信息

三、使用方式

Device Utilization Report

[[email protected] ~]# iostat -d -k 2 4Linux 2.6.32-431.11.2.el6.x86_64 (localhost)    01/08/2016   _x86_64_    (4 CPU)Device:      tps  kB_read/s  kB_wrtn/s  kB_read  kB_wrtnxvda      114.22    13.80    713.21 372234513 19241775188xvdb       19.26    21.24    144.25 573067009 3891812336Device:      tps  kB_read/s  kB_wrtn/s  kB_read  kB_wrtnxvda       0.00     0.00     0.00     0     0xvdb       4.50     0.00    18.00     0     36Device:      tps  kB_read/s  kB_wrtn/s  kB_read  kB_wrtnxvda       0.00     0.00     0.00     0     0xvdb       10.50     0.00    42.00     0     84Device:      tps  kB_read/s  kB_wrtn/s  kB_read  kB_wrtnxvda       0.00     0.00     0.00     0     0xvdb       20.50     0.00    86.00     0    172

参数说明

  • tps:该设备每秒的传输次数,多个逻辑请求可以组合成一个单一的 I/O 请求的设备。传输具有不确定的大小。

  • kB_read/s:每秒从设备读取的数据量

  • kB_wrtn/s:每秒向设备写入的数据量

  • kB_read:读取的总数据量

  • kB_wrtn:写入的总数量数据量

[[email protected] ~]# iostat -d -x -k 1 10Linux 2.6.32-431.11.2.el6.x86_64 (localhost)    01/08/2016   _x86_64_    (4 CPU)Device:     rrqm/s  wrqm/s   r/s   w/s  rkB/s  wkB/s avgrq-sz avgqu-sz  await svctm %utilxvda       0.02   0.69  0.56 113.65  13.80  713.21  12.73   0.00  0.03  0.48  5.53xvdb       0.02  17.88  1.07  18.19  21.24  144.27  17.19   0.13  6.71  1.69  3.25Device:     rrqm/s  wrqm/s   r/s   w/s  rkB/s  wkB/s avgrq-sz avgqu-sz  await svctm %utilxvda       0.00   0.00  0.00  0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00xvdb       0.00   0.00  0.00  5.00   0.00  20.00   8.00   0.11  22.00  4.40  2.20Device:     rrqm/s  wrqm/s   r/s   w/s  rkB/s  wkB/s avgrq-sz avgqu-sz  await svctm %utilxvda       0.00   0.00  0.00  0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00   0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00xvdb       0.00   0.00  0.00  16.00   0.00  64.00   8.00   0.80  50.19  6.81 10.90

总IO(io)/s = r/s(读) +w/s(写) 

平均等待时间 = 单个 I/O 服务时间 * ( 1 + 2 + … + 请求总数-1) / 请求总数 

参数说明

  • rrqm/s:每秒进行 merge 的读操作数目.即 delta(rmerge)/s

  • wrqm/s:每秒进行 merge 的写操作数目.即 delta(wmerge)/s

  • r/s:每秒完成的读 I/O 设备次数.即 delta(rio)/s

  • w/s:每秒完成的写 I/O 设备次数.即 delta(wio)/s

  • rsec/s:每秒读扇区数.即 delta(rsect)/s

  • wsec/s:每秒写扇区数.即 delta(wsect)/s

  • rkB/s:每秒读K字节数.是 rsect/s 的一半,因为每扇区大小为512字节.(需要计算)

  • wkB/s:每秒写K字节数.是 wsect/s 的一半.(需要计算)

  • avgrq-sz: 平均每次设备I/O操作的数据大小 (扇区).delta(rsect+wsect)/delta(rio+wio)

  • avgqu-sz: 平均I/O队列长度.即 delta(aveq)/s/1000 (因为aveq的单位为毫秒).

  • await:平均每次设备I/O操作的等待时间 (毫秒).即 delta(ruse+wuse)/delta(rio+wio)

  • svctm:平均每次设备I/O操作的服务时间 (毫秒).即 delta(use)/delta(rio+wio)

  • %util:一秒中有百分之多少的时间用于 I/O 操作,或者说一秒中有多少时间 I/O 队列是非空的.即 delta(use)/s/1000 (因为use的单位为毫秒)

如果%util 接近 100%,说明产生的I/O请求太多,I/O系统已经满负荷,该磁盘可能存在瓶颈.
如果idle小于70% IO压力就较大了,一般读取速度有较多的wait

avgqu-sz 是需要注意的地方,这个就是直接每次操作的数据的大小,如果次数多,但数据小的话,其实 IO 也会很小.如果数据大,才IO 的数据会高,通过 avgqu-sz × ( r/s or w/s ) = rsec/s or wsec/s

CPU Utilization Report 

[[email protected] ~]# iostat -c 1 10Linux 2.6.32-431.11.2.el6.x86_64 (localhost)    01/08/2016   _x86_64_    (4 CPU)avg-cpu: %user  %nice %system %iowait %steal  %idle      5.09  0.00  2.08  4.28  0.00  88.55avg-cpu: %user  %nice %system %iowait %steal  %idle      1.75  0.00  0.50  0.00  0.00  97.75avg-cpu: %user  %nice %system %iowait %steal  %idle      1.50  0.00  0.50  0.00  0.00  98.00avg-cpu: %user  %nice %system %iowait %steal  %idle      0.25  0.00  0.25  0.00  0.00  99.50

参数说明

  • %user:CPU处在用户模式下的时间百分比

  • %nice:CPU处在带NICE值的用户模式下的时间百分比

  • %system:CPU处在系统模式下的时间百分比

  • %iowait:CPU等待输入输出完成时间的百分比

  • %steal:管理程序维护另一个虚拟处理器时,虚拟CPU的无意识等待时间百分比

  • %idle:CPU空闲时间百分比

如果%iowait的值过高,表示硬盘存在I/O瓶颈,%idle值高,表示CPU较空闲

如果%idle值高但系统响应慢时,有可能是CPU等待分配内存,此时应加大内存容量,%idle值如果持续低于10,那么系统的CPU处理能力相对较低,表明系统中最需要解决的资源是CPU。

常见用法

iostat -d -k 1 10    #查看TPS和吞吐量信息iostat -d -x -k 1 10   #查看设备使用率(%util)、响应时间(await)iostat -c 1 10      #查看cpu状态

 

参考文章

http://www.cnblogs.com/peida/archive/2012/12/28/2837345.html

http://www.mjmwired.net/kernel/Documentation/iostats.txt

http://www.orczhou.com/index.php/2010/03/iostat-detail/

http://www.php-oa.com/2009/02/03/iostat.html