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[操作系统]构建本地yum源之rpmbuild问题汇总


- check-rpaths的问题

  今天在编译varnish的时候,遇到几个问题,其中一个就是出现如下错误:

...
+ /usr/lib/rpm/check-rpaths /usr/lib/rpm/check-buildroot********************************************************************************* WARNING: 'check-rpaths' detected a broken RPATH and will cause 'rpmbuild'* to fail. To ignore these errors, you can set the '$QA_RPATHS'* environment variable which is a bitmask allowing the values* below. The current value of QA_RPATHS is 0x0000.** 0x0001 ... standard RPATHs (e.g. /usr/lib); such RPATHs are a minor* issue but are introducing redundant searchpaths without* providing a benefit. They can also cause errors in multilib* environments.* 0x0002 ... invalid RPATHs; these are RPATHs which are neither absolute* nor relative filenames and can therefore be a SECURITY risk* 0x0004 ... insecure RPATHs; these are relative RPATHs which are a* SECURITY risk* 0x0008 ... the special '$ORIGIN' RPATHs are appearing after other* RPATHs; this is just a minor issue but usually unwanted* 0x0010 ... the RPATH is empty; there is no reason for such RPATHs* and they cause unneeded work while loading libraries* 0x0020 ... an RPATH references '..' of an absolute path; this will break* the functionality when the path before '..' is a symlink* ** Examples:* - to ignore standard and empty RPATHs, execute 'rpmbuild' like* $ QA_RPATHS=$[ 0x0001|0x0010 ] rpmbuild my-package.src.rpm* - to check existing files, set $RPM_BUILD_ROOT and execute check-rpaths like* $ RPM_BUILD_ROOT=<top-dir> /usr/lib/rpm/check-rpaths* *******************************************************************************ERROR 0002: file 'xxx.so' contains an invalid rpath 'xxx' in [xxx]
...

  参考 https://fedoraproject.org/wiki/Packaging:Guidelines, 其中说道:

Sometimes, code will hardcode specific library paths when linking binaries (using the -rpath or -R flag). This is commonly referred to as an rpath. Normally, the dynamic linker and loader (ld.so) resolve the executable's dependencies on shared libraries and load what is required. However, when -rpath or -R is used, the location information is then hardcoded into the binary and is examined by ld.so in the beginning of the execution. Since the Linux dynamic linker is usually smarter than a hardcoded path, we usually do not permit the use of rpath in Fedora.There is a tool called check-rpaths which is included in the rpmdevtools package. It is a good idea to add it to the %__arch_install_post macro in your ~/.rpmmacros config file:

  由此可知,这一步只是一种检测是不是代码中使用了rpath,那我们可以简单的注释掉rpath检测就可以了,具体做法就是:

  vi ~/.rpmmacros

%_topdir   %(echo $HOME)/rpmbuild%_smp_mflags -j3#%__arch_install_post  /usr/lib/rpm/check-rpaths  /usr/lib/rpm/check-buildroot

  后面就能顺利编译了

 

- pkgconfig跟ldconfig, ldd的问题

  先看下面的说明:

1. The pkgconfig package contains tools for passing the include path and/or library paths to build tools during the make file execution.pkg-config is a function that returns meta information for the specified library.The default setting for PKG_CONFIG_PATH is /usr/lib/pkgconfig because of the prefix we use to install pkgconfig. You may add to PKG_CONFIG_PATH by exporting additional paths on your system where pkgconfig files are installed. Note that PKG_CONFIG_PATH is only needed when compiling packages, not during run-time.上面的解释够清楚了,pkg-config是用来在执行makefile时指定头文件和库文件的路径。它到由环境变量PKG_CONFIG_PATH指定的路径下(默认为/usr/lib/config)去找对应库的*.pc文件,*.pc文件记录了包之间的倚赖关系、头文件和库文件包含路径、版本等信息。
2. /etc/ld.so.conf.d/* 或/etc/ld.so.conf和ldconfig.
/etc/ld.so.conf.d/*目录下的文件和/etc/ld.so.conf记录了动态链接库的路径,系统默认搜索/lib和 /usr/lib,在其他路径下的库文件就需在这些文件中指定。或者,还有个方法,就是设置LD_LIBRARY_PATH环境变量,添加其他路径,多个 中间用:分隔开。
ldconfig是一个用来将/etc/ld.so.conf.d/*h 和/etc/ld.so.conf中列出的库缓存到/etc/ld.so.cache文件中以供使用,因此在装完一些库或更新/etc/ld.so.conf文件时,需运行/sbin/ldconfig命令一下。

  当运行 ./configure 产生Makefile的过程中出现, pkg-config有问题,或是不能找到对应的lib文件的时候。

  不妨重新设置下pkgconfig的两个变量:

export PKG_CONFIG_PATH=/usr/local/lib/pkgconfig:/usr/share/pkgconfig:$PKG_CONFIG_PATH
export PKG_CONFIG=/usr/bin/pkg-config

  并且重新加载下动态链接库

ldconfig

  另外一个非常实用的调试脚本就是ldd: 

[root@xx pcre-8.34]# ldd /bin/ls  linux-vdso.so.1 => (0x00007fff2a5ff000)  libselinux.so.1 => /lib64/libselinux.so.1 (0x00007fec45edf000)  librt.so.1 => /lib64/librt.so.1 (0x00007fec45cd7000)  libcap.so.2 => /lib64/libcap.so.2 (0x00007fec45ad2000)  libacl.so.1 => /lib64/libacl.so.1 (0x00007fec458ca000)  libc.so.6 => /lib64/libc.so.6 (0x00007fec45536000)  libdl.so.2 => /lib64/libdl.so.2 (0x00007fec45331000)  /lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 (0x00007fec46105000)  libpthread.so.0 => /lib64/libpthread.so.0 (0x00007fec45114000)  libattr.so.1 => /lib64/libattr.so.1 (0x00007fec44f0f000)[root@xx pcre-8.34]# 

  其本质也就是设置诸如LD_DEBUG等环境变量,在程序运行时,打印出调用的动态链接库。