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[ASP.net教程]分享在winform下实现左右布局多窗口界面


在web页面上我们可以通过frameset,iframe嵌套框架很容易实现各种导航+内容的布局界面,而在winform、WPF中实现其实也很容易,我这里就分享一个:在winform下实现左右布局多窗口界面。

我这里说的多窗口是指一个父窗口包含多个子窗口,在winform中实现这种效果很简单,即将某个窗口的IsMdiContainer设为true,然后将其它子窗口的MdiParent设为其父窗口对象即可,这样就完成了一个多窗口界面,效果如下:

点击NEW新打开一个窗口,其效果如下:

请看我上图红色标注的地方,Windows菜单项下面显示的是当前所有已打开的子窗口,点击某个菜单,即可快速切换到其它窗口,若关闭某个子窗口,与之相对应的菜单项也会自动被移除,实现这个功能也很简单,只需要将菜单的MdiWindowListItem属性设为需要显示活动窗口列表的菜单项即可,如:this.menuStrip1.MdiWindowListItem = this.windowsToolStripMenuItem;

上述示例完整的实现代码如下:

  public partial class FormMdi : Form  {    private int formCount = 0;    public FormMdi()    {      InitializeComponent();      this.menuStrip1.MdiWindowListItem = this.windowsToolStripMenuItem;    }    private void newToolStripMenuItem_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)    {      ShowChildForm<FormChild>();    }    private void ShowChildForm<TForm>() where TForm : Form, new()    {      TForm childForm = new TForm();      childForm.Name = "frm" + Guid.NewGuid().ToString("N");      childForm.Text = string.Format("Child Form -{0}", ++formCount);      childForm.MdiParent = this;      childForm.WindowState = FormWindowState.Maximized;      childForm.Show();    }  }

相信实现上面这部份功能一般用过winform的人都会操作,我这里就当是复习顺便给新手一个参考,同时也为下面要实现的左右布局功能做一个铺垫吧。

 要实现左右布局,并且能够支持可动态调整左右占比的功能,非SplitContainer控件莫属了,如果不了解该控件用法请自行在网上查找相关资料,我这里就不作说明,如果要显示WINDOWS已打开的子窗口情况,同样也需要用到MenuStrip控件,

最终设计的主窗口(FormMain)效果如下:

我这里因为只是演示,所以菜单控件上我只添加了两个菜单项,分别为:WINDOWS,用于显示WINDOWS已打开的子窗口列表,NEW,用于打开一个子窗口;SplitContainer控件全部采用默认的,没有放置任何控件在其中,如果用在正式系统中,一般左边Panel1中会放置一个树形菜单,右边Panel2中保持空即可,因为这个是用来作为子窗口的容器。

 控件层次结构如下图示:

界面设计好了,下面就实现最重要的两个功能。

第一个功能:在右边Panel2中显示子窗口,实现代码如下:

public FormMain()    {      this.IsMdiContainer = true;    }private void ShowChildForm<TForm>() where TForm : Form, new()    {      TForm childForm = new TForm();      childForm.Name = "frm" + Guid.NewGuid().ToString("N");      childForm.Text = string.Format("Child Form -{0}", ++formCount);      childForm.MdiParent = this;      childForm.Parent = splitContainer1.Panel2;      childForm.WindowState = FormWindowState.Maximized;      childForm.Show();    }


简要说明:

1.在窗口构造函数中动态的将IsMdiContainer设为true,当然也可以设计视图中设置;

2.编写一个显示写子窗口的方法,方法中需注意的地方:childForm.MdiParent = this;childForm.Parent = splitContainer1.Panel2,意思是:将当前窗口作为子窗口的父窗口,同时将Panel2指定为子窗口的父对象,这样就能实现子窗口在Panel2中打开了。

第二个功能:在WINDOWS菜单项下显示已打开的子窗口列表,这里实现就没有像文章一开始介绍的那样简单,使用那个方法是无效的,需要我们来自行实现,稍微有点复杂,但如果明白其实现原理,也就简单明白了。

实现思路:当childForm加载到Panel2时,会触发Panel2.ControlAdded事件,当childForm被关闭时,会触发Panel2.ControlRemoved事件,我们可以统一订阅这两个事件,当childForm加载时,那么就在WINDOWS菜单项下增加一个菜单项,反之则移除该菜单项,实现代码如下:

this.splitContainer1.Panel2.ControlAdded += Panel2_ControlChanged;this.splitContainer1.Panel2.ControlRemoved += Panel2_ControlChanged;void Panel2_ControlChanged(object sender, ControlEventArgs e)    {      var frm = e.Control as Form;      string menuName = "menu_" + frm.Name;      bool exists = this.splitContainer1.Panel2.Controls.Contains(frm);      if (exists)      {        var menuItem = GetMenuItem(menuName);        if (menuItem != null)        {          menuItem.Checked = true;          frm.BringToFront();          frm.Focus();        }        else        {          windowsToolStripMenuItem.DropDownItems.Add(new ToolStripMenuItem() { Text = frm.Text, Name = menuName, Tag = frm, Checked = true });        }      }      else      {        var menuItem = GetMenuItem(menuName);        if (menuItem != null)        {          windowsToolStripMenuItem.DropDownItems.Remove(menuItem);          menuItem.Dispose();        }      }    }    private ToolStripMenuItem GetMenuItem(string menuName)    {      var menuItems = windowsToolStripMenuItem.DropDownItems.Cast<ToolStripMenuItem>();      menuItems.ToList().ForEach(m => m.Checked = false);      return menuItems.Where(m => m.Name == menuName).SingleOrDefault();    }

同时为了实现点击WINDOWS菜单项的子菜单能够快速切换子窗口,需要订阅WINDOWS菜单项的DropDownItemClicked事件,当然也可以为新增的子菜单项订阅Click事件,实现代码如下:

windowsToolStripMenuItem.DropDownItemClicked += windowsToolStripMenuItem_DropDownItemClicked;void windowsToolStripMenuItem_DropDownItemClicked(object sender, ToolStripItemClickedEventArgs e)    {      var menuItem = GetMenuItem(e.ClickedItem.Name);      menuItem.Checked = true;      var childForm = menuItem.Tag as Form;      childForm.BringToFront();      childForm.Focus();    }private void CheckWindowsMenuItem(string menuName)    {      var menuItem = GetMenuItem(menuName);      if (menuItem != null)      {        menuItem.Checked = true;      }    }

这样就基本实现了在WINDOWS菜单项下显示已打开的子窗口列表,并点击指定的菜单项能够切换当前活动的子窗口,但仍有一个不足的地方,那就是,当直接点击子窗口来切换当前活动窗口时(说白了就是当点击某个子窗口标题栏,该窗口就显示在其它所有的子窗口最前面),WINDOWS菜单项下的子菜单勾选项没有同步更新,一开始想到的是用Activated事件来进行处理,结果经测试发现有效,该Activated事件在点击子窗口标题栏时并不会被触发,所以只能换种方法,经过多次测试,发现当窗口从后面切换到前面时(称为Z顺序改变),子窗口就会发生重绘,从而触发Paint方法,我们可以订阅该事件,并进行处理,实现代码如下:

private string currentChildFormName = null;  //记录当前活动子窗口名称childForm.Paint += (s, e) => {         var frm=s as Form;        if (!frm.Name.Equals(currentChildFormName) && this.splitContainer1.Panel2.Controls[0].Equals(frm)) //当容器中第一个控件就是当前的窗口,则表明该窗口处于所有窗口之上        {          CheckWindowsMenuItem("menu_" + frm.Name);          currentChildFormName = frm.Name;        }      };

最后贴出完整的实现代码:

using System;using System.Collections.Generic;using System.ComponentModel;using System.Data;using System.Drawing;using System.Linq;using System.Text;using System.Threading.Tasks;using System.Windows.Forms;namespace WindowsFormsApplication1{  public partial class FormMain : Form  {    private int formCount = 0;    private string currentChildFormName = null;    public FormMain()    {      InitializeComponent();      this.IsMdiContainer = true;      this.splitContainer1.Panel2.ControlAdded += Panel2_ControlChanged;      this.splitContainer1.Panel2.ControlRemoved += Panel2_ControlChanged;      windowsToolStripMenuItem.DropDownItemClicked += windowsToolStripMenuItem_DropDownItemClicked;    }    void windowsToolStripMenuItem_DropDownItemClicked(object sender, ToolStripItemClickedEventArgs e)    {      var menuItem = GetMenuItem(e.ClickedItem.Name);      menuItem.Checked = true;      var childForm = menuItem.Tag as Form;      childForm.BringToFront();      childForm.Focus();    }    private void FormMain_Load(object sender, EventArgs e)    {      ShowChildForm<FormChild>();    }    private void ShowChildForm<TForm>() where TForm : Form, new()    {      TForm childForm = new TForm();      childForm.Name = "frm" + Guid.NewGuid().ToString("N");      childForm.Text = string.Format("Child Form -{0}", ++formCount);      childForm.MdiParent = this;      childForm.Parent = splitContainer1.Panel2;      childForm.WindowState = FormWindowState.Maximized;      childForm.Paint += (s, e) => {         var frm=s as Form;        if (!frm.Name.Equals(currentChildFormName) && this.splitContainer1.Panel2.Controls[0].Equals(frm)) //当容器中第一个控件就是当前的窗口,则表明该窗口处于所有窗口之上        {          CheckWindowsMenuItem("menu_" + frm.Name);          currentChildFormName = frm.Name;        }      };            childForm.Show();    }    private void CheckWindowsMenuItem(string menuName)    {      var menuItem = GetMenuItem(menuName);      if (menuItem != null)      {        menuItem.Checked = true;      }    }    void Panel2_ControlChanged(object sender, ControlEventArgs e)    {      var frm = e.Control as Form;      string menuName = "menu_" + frm.Name;      bool exists = this.splitContainer1.Panel2.Controls.Contains(frm);      if (exists)      {        var menuItem = GetMenuItem(menuName);        if (menuItem != null)        {          menuItem.Checked = true;          frm.BringToFront();          frm.Focus();        }        else        {          windowsToolStripMenuItem.DropDownItems.Add(new ToolStripMenuItem() { Text = frm.Text, Name = menuName, Tag = frm, Checked = true });        }      }      else      {        var menuItem = GetMenuItem(menuName);        if (menuItem != null)        {          windowsToolStripMenuItem.DropDownItems.Remove(menuItem);          menuItem.Dispose();        }      }    }    private ToolStripMenuItem GetMenuItem(string menuName)    {      var menuItems = windowsToolStripMenuItem.DropDownItems.Cast<ToolStripMenuItem>();      menuItems.ToList().ForEach(m => m.Checked = false);      return menuItems.Where(m => m.Name == menuName).SingleOrDefault();    }    private void newToolStripMenuItem_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)    {      ShowChildForm<FormChild>();    }  }}

以下是系统自动生成的代码:

namespace WindowsFormsApplication1{  partial class FormMain  {    /// <summary>    /// 必需的设计器变量。    /// </summary>    private System.ComponentModel.IContainer components = null;    /// <summary>    /// 清理所有正在使用的资源。    /// </summary>    /// <param name="disposing">如果应释放托管资源,为 true;否则为 false。</param>    protected override void Dispose(bool disposing)    {      if (disposing && (components != null))      {        components.Dispose();      }      base.Dispose(disposing);    }    #region Windows 窗体设计器生成的代码    /// <summary>    /// 设计器支持所需的方法 - 不要    /// 使用代码编辑器修改此方法的内容。    /// </summary>    private void InitializeComponent()    {      this.menuStrip1 = new System.Windows.Forms.MenuStrip();      this.windowsToolStripMenuItem = new System.Windows.Forms.ToolStripMenuItem();      this.newToolStripMenuItem = new System.Windows.Forms.ToolStripMenuItem();      this.splitContainer1 = new System.Windows.Forms.SplitContainer();      this.menuStrip1.SuspendLayout();      ((System.ComponentModel.ISupportInitialize)(this.splitContainer1)).BeginInit();      this.splitContainer1.SuspendLayout();      this.SuspendLayout();      //       // menuStrip1      //       this.menuStrip1.Items.AddRange(new System.Windows.Forms.ToolStripItem[] {      this.windowsToolStripMenuItem,      this.newToolStripMenuItem});      this.menuStrip1.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(0, 0);      this.menuStrip1.MdiWindowListItem = this.windowsToolStripMenuItem;      this.menuStrip1.Name = "menuStrip1";      this.menuStrip1.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(1069, 25);      this.menuStrip1.TabIndex = 1;      this.menuStrip1.Text = "menuStrip1";      //       // windowsToolStripMenuItem      //       this.windowsToolStripMenuItem.Name = "windowsToolStripMenuItem";      this.windowsToolStripMenuItem.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(73, 21);      this.windowsToolStripMenuItem.Text = "Windows";      this.windowsToolStripMenuItem.Click += new System.EventHandler(this.windowsToolStripMenuItem_Click);      //       // newToolStripMenuItem      //       this.newToolStripMenuItem.Name = "newToolStripMenuItem";      this.newToolStripMenuItem.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(46, 21);      this.newToolStripMenuItem.Text = "New";      this.newToolStripMenuItem.Click += new System.EventHandler(this.newToolStripMenuItem_Click);      //       // splitContainer1      //       this.splitContainer1.BackColor = System.Drawing.SystemColors.ActiveCaption;      this.splitContainer1.Dock = System.Windows.Forms.DockStyle.Fill;      this.splitContainer1.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(0, 25);      this.splitContainer1.Name = "splitContainer1";      //       // splitContainer1.Panel2      //       this.splitContainer1.Panel2.BackColor = System.Drawing.SystemColors.ScrollBar;      this.splitContainer1.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(1069, 526);      this.splitContainer1.SplitterDistance = 356;      this.splitContainer1.TabIndex = 2;      //       // FormMain      //       this.AutoScaleDimensions = new System.Drawing.SizeF(6F, 12F);      this.AutoScaleMode = System.Windows.Forms.AutoScaleMode.Font;      this.ClientSize = new System.Drawing.Size(1069, 551);      this.Controls.Add(this.splitContainer1);      this.Controls.Add(this.menuStrip1);      this.MainMenuStrip = this.menuStrip1;      this.Name = "FormMain";      this.Text = "FormMain";      this.Load += new System.EventHandler(this.FormMain_Load);      this.menuStrip1.ResumeLayout(false);      this.menuStrip1.PerformLayout();      ((System.ComponentModel.ISupportInitialize)(this.splitContainer1)).EndInit();      this.splitContainer1.ResumeLayout(false);      this.ResumeLayout(false);      this.PerformLayout();    }    #endregion    private System.Windows.Forms.MenuStrip menuStrip1;    private System.Windows.Forms.ToolStripMenuItem windowsToolStripMenuItem;    private System.Windows.Forms.SplitContainer splitContainer1;    private System.Windows.Forms.ToolStripMenuItem newToolStripMenuItem;  }}

以下是效果演示截图:

如果大家有什么更好的实现方法可以在下方评论,不足之处也欢迎指出,谢谢!