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[数据库]SQL SERVER几种数据迁移/导出导入的实践


SQLServer提供了多种数据导出导入的工具和方法,在此,分享我实践的经验(只涉及数据库与Excel、数据库与文本文件、数据库与数据库之间的导出导入)。

(一)数据库与Excel

方法1:

使用数据库客户端(SSMS)的界面工具。右键选择要导出数据的数据库,选择“任务”——“导出数据”,下图1,按照向导一步一步操作即可。而导入则相反,导入时,SQLServer会默认创建一张新表,字段名也默认跟导入的Excel标题一样,并且会默认字段数据类型等。当然在可以在向导进行修改。需要注意的是如果标题不是英文而是中文,默认创建字段名也是中文,这将给后面数据更新操作带来麻烦,所以最好还是以有意义的英文字段名。把数据导入后,再通过执行语句,把数据插入/更新到业务表。

 figure-1:任务——导出数据

 

方法2:

从SQLServer2005开始,可以直接在SSMS上查询出来的结果复制,然后粘贴到Excel上,对于少量数据来说,是非常快速方便的,需要注意的是长数字可能会变成科学记数法的形式,提前在Excel上指定列的格式为文本即可。

导入的话,ctrl + c 复制Excel上的数据,然后在选择相关表,编辑数据,把数据直接粘贴上去即可。但是不建议直接粘贴到业务表(如果表是空白没有数据,并且字段顺序对应,可以这样操作),而是建议先粘贴到一个新建的中间表中,然后再通过语句,把数据插入/更新到业务表。

这种方法的导出导入,适合于少量的数据,如5000行以内的记录,大于5000行以上就不建议了,速度较慢,如果数据过大,还一定成功。

 

 

(二)数据库与文本文件、数据库与数据库

数据库之间的数据迁移或导出导入其实是比较方便的,比如备份数据库后,在新的机器上做恢复。但是需要注意的是SQL2008之前的版本的备份无法在SQL2012或以上版本上直接恢复的,而是通过中间的SQL2008做一个过渡,把旧版本的数据库恢复到SQL2008,然后做备份,最后在SQL2012上恢复。

如果是新版本(下面以SQL2012为例)的备份文件恢复到旧版本(以SQL2008为例)上就比较麻烦了,一般是不支持新版本备份文件在旧版本中恢复的。只能通过编写脚本,把新版本的数据导入到旧版本中。

 

方法1:

首先推荐使用的是数据不落地的“链接服务器”。使用SQL2012的SSMS,同时连接到SQL2012和SQL2008的实例,通过编写脚本把SQL2012的数据导入到SQL2008中。两个实例的可以通过链接服务器来连接。以下是设置步骤。

figure-2:新建链接服务器

 

figure-3:链接服务器和数据源

 

figure-4:认证

 

figure-5:创建成功后,可以直接浏览链接服务器的目录,也可以使用语句查询了。

 

也可以使用脚本来创建链接服务器。

--创建链接服务器EXEC sp_addlinkedserver @server='LINKED_SERVER_TEST2',--被访问的服务器别名@srvproduct='',@provider='SQLOLEDB',@datasrc='192.168.88.6,11433'--数据源GO--创建登录名和密码EXEC sys.sp_addlinkedsrvlogin@rmtsrvname = 'LINKED_SERVER_TEST2', -- 被访问的服务器别名@useself = 'false',@locallogin = NULL,@rmtuser = 'sa', -- 数据源登录名@rmtpassword = 'psd123456' -- 数据源登录密码GO--设置数据可以访问EXEC sys.sp_serveroption@server = 'LINKED_SERVER_TEST2', @optname = 'data access',@optvalue = N'true'GO

code-1:创建链接服务器的脚本

 

创建成功后,可以直接查询数据。

figure-6:查询链接服务器的数据

 

通过视图sys.servers可以查询所有服务器及相关的属性。

figure-7:查询所有链接服务器

 

在SSMS上或运行以下脚本可以删除指定的链接服务器。

--删除链接服务器及所有登录EXEC sys.sp_dropserver @server = 'LINKED_SERVER_TEST2', @droplogins = 'droplogins' GO

 code-2:删除链接服务器及所有登录

 

详细请参考:https://technet.microsoft.com/zh-cn/library/ff772782%28v=sql.105%29.aspx

 

 

方法2:

如果两个实例不能连接,只能在SQL2012上导出数据,再到SQL2008上导入。SQLServer提供生成包含数据的脚本工具,下图2。在第三步的“高级”选项里有一项“Types of data to scripts”有三个选择:Data only,Schema and data,Schema only,分别是只生成数据、生成表(对象)和数据,表(对象)。还有生成脚本的版本“Script for Server Version”,下图3。其他选项,按实际需要选择。

 

 figure-8:任务——生成脚本

 

figure-9:生成脚本的高级选项

 

也可以使用存储过程生成包含数据的脚本。这里介绍一个别人已经做写好存储过程:sp_generate_inserts。运行之后,会按表每条记录生成一条insert的语句

CREATE PROC [dbo].[sp_generate_inserts]  (   @table_name VARCHAR(776) ,     -- The table/view for which the INSERT statements will be generated using the existing data   @target_table VARCHAR(776) = NULL ,   -- Use this parameter to specify a different table name into which the data will be inserted   @include_column_list BIT = 1 ,    -- Use this parameter to include/ommit column list in the generated INSERT statement   @from VARCHAR(800) = NULL ,     -- Use this parameter to filter the rows based on a filter condition (using WHERE)   @include_timestamp BIT = 0 ,     -- Specify 1 for this parameter, if you want to include the TIMESTAMP/ROWVERSION column's data in the INSERT statement   @debug_mode BIT = 0 ,      -- If @debug_mode is set to 1, the SQL statements constructed by this procedure will be printed for later examination   @owner VARCHAR(64) = NULL ,    -- Use this parameter if you are not the owner of the table   @ommit_images BIT = 0 ,      -- Use this parameter to generate INSERT statements by omitting the 'image' columns   @ommit_identity BIT = 1 ,    -- Use this parameter to ommit the identity columns   @top INT = NULL ,      -- Use this parameter to generate INSERT statements only for the TOP n rows   @cols_to_include VARCHAR(8000) = NULL ,  -- List of columns to be included in the INSERT statement   @cols_to_exclude VARCHAR(8000) = NULL ,  -- List of columns to be excluded from the INSERT statement   @disable_constraints BIT = 0 ,    -- When 1, disables foreign key constraints and enables them after the INSERT statements   @ommit_computed_cols BIT = 1    -- When 1, computed columns will not be included in the INSERT statement    )AS   BEGIN/***********************************************************************************************************Procedure:  sp_generate_inserts (Build 22)     (Copyright ?2002 Narayana Vyas Kondreddi. All rights reserved.)                     Purpose:  To generate INSERT statements from existing data.     These INSERTS can be executed to regenerate the data at some other location.    This procedure is also useful to create a database setup, where in you can     script your data along with your table definitions.Written by:  Narayana Vyas Kondreddi      http://vyaskn.tripod.comAcknowledgements:    Divya Kalra  -- For beta testing    Mark Charsley  -- For reporting a problem with scripting uniqueidentifier columns with NULL values    Artur Zeygman  -- For helping me simplify a bit of code for handling non-dbo owned tables    Joris Laperre  -- For reporting a regression bug in handling text/ntext columnsTested on:   SQL Server 7.0 and SQL Server 2000Date created:  January 17th 2001 21:52 GMTDate modified:  May 1st 2002 19:50 GMTEmail:     vyaskn@hotmail.comNOTE:    This procedure may not work with tables with too many columns.    Results can be unpredictable with huge text columns or SQL Server 2000's sql_variant data types    Whenever possible, Use @include_column_list parameter to ommit column list in the INSERT statement, for better results    IMPORTANT: This procedure is not tested with internation data (Extended characters or Unicode). If needed    you might want to convert the datatypes of character variables in this procedure to their respective unicode counterparts    like nchar and nvarchar    Example 1:  To generate INSERT statements for table 'titles':        EXEC sp_generate_inserts 'titles'Example 2:   To ommit the column list in the INSERT statement: (Column list is included by default)    IMPORTANT: If you have too many columns, you are advised to ommit column list, as shown below,    to avoid erroneous results        EXEC sp_generate_inserts 'titles', @include_column_list = 0Example 3:  To generate INSERT statements for 'titlesCopy' table from 'titles' table:    EXEC sp_generate_inserts 'titles', 'titlesCopy'Example 4:  To generate INSERT statements for 'titles' table for only those titles     which contain the word 'Computer' in them:    NOTE: Do not complicate the FROM or WHERE clause here. It's assumed that you are good with T-SQL if you are using this parameter    EXEC sp_generate_inserts 'titles', @from = "from titles where title like '%Computer%'"Example 5:   To specify that you want to include TIMESTAMP column's data as well in the INSERT statement:    (By default TIMESTAMP column's data is not scripted)    EXEC sp_generate_inserts 'titles', @include_timestamp = 1Example 6:  To print the debug information:     EXEC sp_generate_inserts 'titles', @debug_mode = 1Example 7:   If you are not the owner of the table, use @owner parameter to specify the owner name    To use this option, you must have SELECT permissions on that table    EXEC sp_generate_inserts Nickstable, @owner = 'Nick'Example 8:   To generate INSERT statements for the rest of the columns excluding images    When using this otion, DO NOT set @include_column_list parameter to 0.    EXEC sp_generate_inserts imgtable, @ommit_images = 1Example 9:   To generate INSERT statements excluding (ommiting) IDENTITY columns:    (By default IDENTITY columns are included in the INSERT statement)    EXEC sp_generate_inserts mytable, @ommit_identity = 1Example 10:   To generate INSERT statements for the TOP 10 rows in the table:        EXEC sp_generate_inserts mytable, @top = 10Example 11:   To generate INSERT statements with only those columns you want:        EXEC sp_generate_inserts titles, @cols_to_include = "'title','title_id','au_id'"Example 12:   To generate INSERT statements by omitting certain columns:        EXEC sp_generate_inserts titles, @cols_to_exclude = "'title','title_id','au_id'"Example 13:  To avoid checking the foreign key constraints while loading data with INSERT statements:        EXEC sp_generate_inserts titles, @disable_constraints = 1Example 14:   To exclude computed columns from the INSERT statement:    EXEC sp_generate_inserts MyTable, @ommit_computed_cols = 1***********************************************************************************************************/    SET NOCOUNT ON--Making sure user only uses either @cols_to_include or @cols_to_exclude    IF ( ( @cols_to_include IS NOT NULL )       AND ( @cols_to_exclude IS NOT NULL )      )       BEGIN        RAISERROR('Use either @cols_to_include or @cols_to_exclude. Do not use both the parameters at once',16,1)        RETURN -1 --Failure. Reason: Both @cols_to_include and @cols_to_exclude parameters are specified      END--Making sure the @cols_to_include and @cols_to_exclude parameters are receiving values in proper format    IF ( ( @cols_to_include IS NOT NULL )       AND ( PATINDEX('''%''', @cols_to_include) = 0 )      )       BEGIN        RAISERROR('Invalid use of @cols_to_include property',16,1)        PRINT 'Specify column names surrounded by single quotes and separated by commas'        PRINT 'Eg: EXEC sp_generate_inserts titles, @cols_to_include = "''title_id'',''title''"'        RETURN -1 --Failure. Reason: Invalid use of @cols_to_include property      END    IF ( ( @cols_to_exclude IS NOT NULL )       AND ( PATINDEX('''%''', @cols_to_exclude) = 0 )      )       BEGIN        RAISERROR('Invalid use of @cols_to_exclude property',16,1)        PRINT 'Specify column names surrounded by single quotes and separated by commas'        PRINT 'Eg: EXEC sp_generate_inserts titles, @cols_to_exclude = "''title_id'',''title''"'        RETURN -1 --Failure. Reason: Invalid use of @cols_to_exclude property      END--Checking to see if the database name is specified along wih the table name--Your database context should be local to the table for which you want to generate INSERT statements--specifying the database name is not allowed    IF ( PARSENAME(@table_name, 3) ) IS NOT NULL       BEGIN        RAISERROR('Do not specify the database name. Be in the required database and just specify the table name.',16,1)        RETURN -1 --Failure. Reason: Database name is specified along with the table name, which is not allowed      END--Checking for the existence of 'user table' or 'view'--This procedure is not written to work on system tables--To script the data in system tables, just create a view on the system tables and script the view instead    IF @owner IS NULL       BEGIN        IF ( ( OBJECT_ID(@table_name, 'U') IS NULL )           AND ( OBJECT_ID(@table_name, 'V') IS NULL )          )           BEGIN            RAISERROR('User table or view not found.',16,1)            PRINT 'You may see this error, if you are not the owner of this table or view. In that case use @owner parameter to specify the owner name.'            PRINT 'Make sure you have SELECT permission on that table or view.'            RETURN -1 --Failure. Reason: There is no user table or view with this name          END      END    ELSE       BEGIN        IF NOT EXISTS ( SELECT 1                FROM  INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLES                WHERE  TABLE_NAME = @table_name                    AND ( TABLE_TYPE = 'BASE TABLE'                       OR TABLE_TYPE = 'VIEW'                      )                    AND TABLE_SCHEMA = @owner )           BEGIN            RAISERROR('User table or view not found.',16,1)            PRINT 'You may see this error, if you are not the owner of this table. In that case use @owner parameter to specify the owner name.'            PRINT 'Make sure you have SELECT permission on that table or view.'            RETURN -1 --Failure. Reason: There is no user table or view with this name              END      END--Variable declarations    DECLARE @Column_ID INT ,      @Column_List NVARCHAR(MAX) ,      @Column_Name VARCHAR(128) ,      @Start_Insert NVARCHAR(MAX) ,      @Data_Type VARCHAR(128) ,      @Actual_Values NVARCHAR(MAX) ,  --This is the string that will be finally executed to generate INSERT statements      @IDN VARCHAR(128)    --Will contain the IDENTITY column's name in the table--Variable Initialization    SET @IDN = ''    SET @Column_ID = 0    SET @Column_Name = ''    SET @Column_List = ''    SET @Actual_Values = ''    IF @owner IS NULL       BEGIN        SET @Start_Insert = 'INSERT INTO ' + '['          + RTRIM(COALESCE(@target_table, @table_name)) + ']'       END    ELSE       BEGIN        SET @Start_Insert = 'INSERT ' + '[' + LTRIM(RTRIM(@owner))          + '].' + '[' + RTRIM(COALESCE(@target_table, @table_name))          + ']'           END--To get the first column's ID    SELECT @Column_ID = MIN(ORDINAL_POSITION)    FROM  INFORMATION_SCHEMA.COLUMNS (NOLOCK)    WHERE  TABLE_NAME = @table_name        AND ( @owner IS NULL           OR TABLE_SCHEMA = @owner          )--Loop through all the columns of the table, to get the column names and their data types    WHILE @Column_ID IS NOT NULL       BEGIN        SELECT @Column_Name = QUOTENAME(COLUMN_NAME) ,            @Data_Type = DATA_TYPE        FROM  INFORMATION_SCHEMA.COLUMNS (NOLOCK)        WHERE  ORDINAL_POSITION = @Column_ID            AND TABLE_NAME = @table_name            AND ( @owner IS NULL               OR TABLE_SCHEMA = @owner              )        IF @cols_to_include IS NOT NULL --Selecting only user specified columns          BEGIN            IF CHARINDEX('''' + SUBSTRING(@Column_Name, 2,                           LEN(@Column_Name) - 2)                   + '''', @cols_to_include) = 0               BEGIN                GOTO SKIP_LOOP              END          END        IF @cols_to_exclude IS NOT NULL --Selecting only user specified columns          BEGIN            IF CHARINDEX('''' + SUBSTRING(@Column_Name, 2,                           LEN(@Column_Name) - 2)                   + '''', @cols_to_exclude) <> 0               BEGIN                GOTO SKIP_LOOP              END          END    --Making sure to output SET IDENTITY_INSERT ON/OFF in case the table has an IDENTITY column        IF ( SELECT COLUMNPROPERTY(OBJECT_ID(QUOTENAME(COALESCE(@owner,                               USER_NAME()))                           + '.' + @table_name),                      SUBSTRING(@Column_Name, 2,                           LEN(@Column_Name) - 2),                      'IsIdentity')          ) = 1           BEGIN            IF @ommit_identity = 0 --Determing whether to include or exclude the IDENTITY column              SET @IDN = @Column_Name            ELSE               GOTO SKIP_LOOP                END        --Making sure whether to output computed columns or not        IF @ommit_computed_cols = 1           BEGIN            IF ( SELECT COLUMNPROPERTY(OBJECT_ID(QUOTENAME(COALESCE(@owner,                               USER_NAME()))                               + '.'                               + @table_name),                          SUBSTRING(@Column_Name, 2,                               LEN(@Column_Name)                               - 2),                          'IsComputed')              ) = 1               BEGIN                GOTO SKIP_LOOP                        END          END        --Tables with columns of IMAGE data type are not supported for obvious reasons        IF ( @Data_Type IN ( 'image' ) )           BEGIN            IF ( @ommit_images = 0 )               BEGIN                RAISERROR('Tables with image columns are not supported.',16,1)                PRINT 'Use @ommit_images = 1 parameter to generate INSERTs for the rest of the columns.'                PRINT 'DO NOT ommit Column List in the INSERT statements. If you ommit column list using @include_column_list=0, the generated INSERTs will fail.'                RETURN -1 --Failure. Reason: There is a column with image data type              END            ELSE               BEGIN                GOTO SKIP_LOOP              END          END    --Determining the data type of the column and depending on the data type, the VALUES part of    --the INSERT statement is generated. Care is taken to handle columns with NULL values. Also    --making sure, not to lose any data from flot, real, money, smallmomey, datetime columns        SET @Actual_Values = @Actual_Values          + CASE WHEN @Data_Type IN ( 'char', 'varchar', 'nchar','nvarchar' )              THEN 'COALESCE(''N'''''' + REPLACE(RTRIM('                + @Column_Name                + '),'''''''','''''''''''')+'''''''',''NULL'')'              WHEN @Data_Type IN ( 'datetime', 'smalldatetime',                        'DATE','time' )              THEN 'COALESCE('''''''' + RTRIM(CONVERT(char,'                + @Column_Name + ',120))+'''''''',''NULL'')'              WHEN @Data_Type IN ( 'uniqueidentifier' )              THEN 'COALESCE('''''''' + REPLACE(CONVERT(char(255),RTRIM('                + @Column_Name                + ')),'''''''','''''''''''')+'''''''',''NULL'')'              WHEN @Data_Type IN ( 'text', 'ntext' )              THEN 'COALESCE(''N'''''' + REPLACE(CONVERT(char(8000),'                + @Column_Name                + '),'''''''','''''''''''')+'''''''',''NULL'')'              WHEN @Data_Type IN ( 'binary', 'varbinary' )              THEN 'COALESCE(RTRIM(CONVERT(char,'                + 'CONVERT(int,' + @Column_Name                + '))),''NULL'')'              WHEN @Data_Type IN ( 'timestamp', 'rowversion' )              THEN CASE WHEN @include_timestamp = 0                   THEN '''DEFAULT'''                   ELSE 'COALESCE(RTRIM(CONVERT(char,'                     + 'CONVERT(int,' + @Column_Name                     + '))),''NULL'')'                END              WHEN @Data_Type IN ( 'hierarchyid' )              THEN 'COALESCE(''CAST(''''''+LTRIM(RTRIM('                + 'CONVERT(char, ' + @Column_Name + ')'                + ')),''NULL'')' + '+''''''AS hierarchyid)'''              WHEN @Data_Type IN ( 'float', 'real', 'money',                        'smallmoney' )              THEN 'COALESCE(LTRIM(RTRIM(' + 'CONVERT(char, '                + @Column_Name + ',2)' + ')),''NULL'')'              ELSE 'COALESCE(LTRIM(RTRIM(' + 'CONVERT(char, '                + @Column_Name + ')' + ')),''NULL'')'           END + '+' + ''',''' + ' + '            --Generating the column list for the INSERT statement        SET @Column_List = @Column_List + @Column_Name + ','          SKIP_LOOP: --The label used in GOTO        SELECT @Column_ID = MIN(ORDINAL_POSITION)        FROM  INFORMATION_SCHEMA.COLUMNS (NOLOCK)        WHERE  TABLE_NAME = @table_name            AND ORDINAL_POSITION > @Column_ID            AND ( @owner IS NULL               OR TABLE_SCHEMA = @owner              )  --Loop ends here!      END--To get rid of the extra characters that got concatenated during the last run through the loop    SET @Column_List = LEFT(@Column_List, LEN(@Column_List) - 1)    SET @Actual_Values = LEFT(@Actual_Values, LEN(@Actual_Values) - 6)    IF LTRIM(@Column_List) = ''       BEGIN        RAISERROR('No columns to select. There should at least be one column to generate the output',16,1)        RETURN -1 --Failure. Reason: Looks like all the columns are ommitted using the @cols_to_exclude parameter      END--Forming the final string that will be executed, to output the INSERT statements    IF ( @include_column_list <> 0 )       BEGIN        SET @Actual_Values = 'SELECT ' + CASE WHEN @top IS NULL                              OR @top < 0 THEN ''                           ELSE ' TOP '                              + LTRIM(STR(@top))                              + ' '                         END + ''''          + RTRIM(@Start_Insert) + ' ''+' + '''('          + RTRIM(@Column_List) + '''+' + ''')'''          + ' +''VALUES(''+ ' + @Actual_Values + '+'')''' + ' '          + COALESCE(@from,                ' FROM ' + CASE WHEN @owner IS NULL THEN ''                        ELSE '[' + LTRIM(RTRIM(@owner))                          + '].'                     END + '[' + RTRIM(@table_name) + ']'                + '(NOLOCK)')      END    ELSE       IF ( @include_column_list = 0 )         BEGIN          SET @Actual_Values = 'SELECT '            + CASE WHEN @top IS NULL                  OR @top < 0 THEN ''                ELSE ' TOP ' + LTRIM(STR(@top)) + ' '             END + '''' + RTRIM(@Start_Insert)            + ' '' +''VALUES(''+ ' + @Actual_Values + '+'')'''            + ' ' + COALESCE(@from,                     ' FROM '                     + CASE WHEN @owner IS NULL THEN ''                        ELSE '[' + LTRIM(RTRIM(@owner))                           + '].'                      END + '[' + RTRIM(@table_name)                     + ']' + '(NOLOCK)')        END  --Determining whether to ouput any debug information    IF @debug_mode = 1       BEGIN        PRINT '/*****START OF DEBUG INFORMATION*****'        PRINT 'Beginning of the INSERT statement:'        PRINT @Start_Insert        PRINT ''        PRINT 'The column list:'    --PRINT @Column_List        PRINT ''        PRINT 'The SELECT statement executed to generate the INSERTs'        PRINT @Actual_Values        PRINT ''        PRINT '*****END OF DEBUG INFORMATION*****/'        PRINT ''      END        --PRINT '--INSERTs generated by ''sp_generate_inserts'' stored procedure written by Vyas'    --PRINT '--Build number: 22'    --PRINT '--Problems/Suggestions? Contact Vyas @ vyaskn@hotmail.com'    --PRINT '--http://vyaskn.tripod.com'    --PRINT ''    --PRINT 'SET NOCOUNT ON'    --PRINT ''--Determining whether to print IDENTITY_INSERT or not    IF ( @IDN <> '' )       BEGIN        PRINT 'SET IDENTITY_INSERT ' + QUOTENAME(COALESCE(@owner,                               USER_NAME()))          + '.' + QUOTENAME(@table_name) + ' ON'        PRINT 'GO'        PRINT ''      END    IF @disable_constraints = 1      AND ( OBJECT_ID(QUOTENAME(COALESCE(@owner, USER_NAME())) + '.'              + @table_name, 'U') IS NOT NULL )       BEGIN        IF @owner IS NULL           BEGIN            SELECT 'ALTER TABLE '                + QUOTENAME(COALESCE(@target_table,                           @table_name))                + ' NOCHECK CONSTRAINT ALL' AS '--Code to disable constraints temporarily'          END        ELSE           BEGIN            SELECT 'ALTER TABLE ' + QUOTENAME(@owner) + '.'                + QUOTENAME(COALESCE(@target_table,                           @table_name))                + ' NOCHECK CONSTRAINT ALL' AS '--Code to disable constraints temporarily'          END        PRINT 'GO'      END    PRINT ''    PRINT 'PRINT ''Inserting values into ' + '['      + RTRIM(COALESCE(@target_table, @table_name)) + ']' + ''''--All the hard work pays off here!!! You'll get your INSERT statements, when the next line executes!    EXEC (@Actual_Values)    PRINT 'PRINT ''Done'''    PRINT ''    IF @disable_constraints = 1      AND ( OBJECT_ID(QUOTENAME(COALESCE(@owner, USER_NAME())) + '.'              + @table_name, 'U') IS NOT NULL )       BEGIN        IF @owner IS NULL           BEGIN            SELECT 'ALTER TABLE '                + QUOTENAME(COALESCE(@target_table,                           @table_name))                + ' CHECK CONSTRAINT ALL' AS '--Code to enable the previously disabled constraints'          END        ELSE           BEGIN            SELECT 'ALTER TABLE ' + QUOTENAME(@owner) + '.'                + QUOTENAME(COALESCE(@target_table,                           @table_name))                + ' CHECK CONSTRAINT ALL' AS '--Code to enable the previously disabled constraints'          END        PRINT 'GO'      END    PRINT ''    IF ( @IDN <> '' )       BEGIN        PRINT 'SET IDENTITY_INSERT ' + QUOTENAME(COALESCE(@owner,                               USER_NAME()))          + '.' + QUOTENAME(@table_name) + ' OFF'        PRINT 'GO'      END    --PRINT 'SET NOCOUNT OFF'    SET NOCOUNT OFF    RETURN 0 --Success. We are done!  ENDGO

View Code

code-3:sp_generate_inserts脚本源代码

 

在我的实际使用中,只有两三个参数比较常用,分别是@table_name、@from和@owner,如果表的架构使用默认的dbo,则可以省略。以下是一个使用的例子:

figure-10:使用sp_generate_inserts的一个例子

 

其他参数的用法,这里就不一一解释了。我经常使用这个存储过程做一些简单而少量(如数万行记录以内)的数据导出导入,比前面介绍的方法方便快捷许多。但这个存储过程支持处理一般常用的数据类型,像

USE AdventureWorks2008R2GOSELECT * FROM Person.CountryRegion;GO

code-4:SQLMCD的测试脚本

 

在运行下输入CMD,输入:

sqlcmd -S localhost -d AdventureWorks2008R2 -i D:\1.sql

code-5:SQLMCD的命令

 

回车执行后如下图,SQLCMD的详细用法,请参考:https://msdn.microsoft.com/zh-cn/library/ms180944.aspx

和 https://msdn.microsoft.com/zh-cn/library/ms162773%28v=sql.105%29.aspx

 

 figure-11:SQLCMD的测试例子

 

 

方法3:

使用BCP导出导入大容量数据。可以参阅我的另一篇博客《BCP导出导入大容量数据实践》。

 

以上几种方法是我在日常工作比较常使用的数据导出导入的工具,每一种方法都有各自的优势和不同的使用场景,使用不同的方法组合,可以节省不少时间,提高工作效率,希望对您的有所帮助。如果您有更好的建议或方法欢迎告诉我!