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[操作系统]linux内核编译,配置本机驱动


1.前言                                                  

编译linux内核失败的原因很多时候就是驱动选错,适合自己本机的驱动没编译进去。面对特殊平台(或者有些洁癖者,我就是^_^),要编译精简内核,只要本机驱动,其他都不需要。面对内核里面这么多驱动,不懂硬件的我们,看到都头大。本人第一次安装gentoo的时候,内核编译了5次,前4次主要失败原因是以太网卡驱动、无线网卡驱动、显卡驱动、声卡驱动都没一次性配置正确。虽然gentoo提供了genkernel命令,可以自动帮你编译内核,但还是想自己手工尝试下。

2.获取本机驱动信息                              

既然跟内核挂钩,我们获取本机内核驱动信息最直接的办法就是使用lspci命令,这个命令可以输出本机驱动信息,配合-k选项可以看到此驱动在内核的位子。

一般编译内核的场景:更新旧内核,安装定制版linux发行版(gentoo,arch等),嵌入式平台,其他特殊平台等等...

大部分场景在下都可以使用lspci命令,安装gentoo的livecd版都提供了该工具,如果其他系统没有就安装该工具

debian系列安装

1 $:sudo apt-get install pciutils 

或者源码编译安装,下载地址https://www.kernel.org/pub/software/utils/pciutils/

然后我们获取本机环境现存的驱动信息,下面是我的机器上面的信息:

 1 $:lspci -k 2 00:00.0 Host bridge: Intel Corporation 2nd Generation Core Processor Family DRAM Controller (rev 09) 3   Subsystem: Lenovo Device 21e2 4 00:01.0 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation Xeon E3-1200/2nd Generation Core Processor Family PCI Express Root Port (rev 09) 5   Kernel driver in use: pcieport 6 00:02.0 VGA compatible controller: Intel Corporation 2nd Generation Core Processor Family Integrated Graphics Controller (rev 09) 7   Subsystem: Lenovo Device 21e3 8   Kernel driver in use: i915 9 00:16.0 Communication controller: Intel Corporation 6 Series/C200 Series Chipset Family MEI Controller #1 (rev 04)10   Subsystem: Lenovo Device 21e211   Kernel driver in use: mei_me12 00:1a.0 USB controller: Intel Corporation 6 Series/C200 Series Chipset Family USB Enhanced Host Controller #2 (rev 04)13   Subsystem: Lenovo Device 21e214   Kernel driver in use: ehci-pci15 00:1b.0 Audio device: Intel Corporation 6 Series/C200 Series Chipset Family High Definition Audio Controller (rev 04)16   Subsystem: Lenovo Device 21e217   Kernel driver in use: snd_hda_intel18 00:1c.0 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 6 Series/C200 Series Chipset Family PCI Express Root Port 1 (rev b4)19   Kernel driver in use: pcieport20 00:1c.1 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 6 Series/C200 Series Chipset Family PCI Express Root Port 2 (rev b4)21   Kernel driver in use: pcieport22 00:1c.2 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 6 Series/C200 Series Chipset Family PCI Express Root Port 3 (rev b4)23   Kernel driver in use: pcieport24 00:1c.3 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 6 Series/C200 Series Chipset Family PCI Express Root Port 4 (rev b4)25   Kernel driver in use: pcieport26 00:1c.7 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 6 Series/C200 Series Chipset Family PCI Express Root Port 8 (rev b4)27   Kernel driver in use: pcieport28 00:1d.0 USB controller: Intel Corporation 6 Series/C200 Series Chipset Family USB Enhanced Host Controller #1 (rev 04)29   Subsystem: Lenovo Device 21e230   Kernel driver in use: ehci-pci31 00:1f.0 ISA bridge: Intel Corporation HM65 Express Chipset Family LPC Controller (rev 04)32   Subsystem: Lenovo Device 21e233   Kernel driver in use: lpc_ich34 00:1f.2 SATA controller: Intel Corporation 6 Series/C200 Series Chipset Family 6 port SATA AHCI Controller (rev 04)35   Subsystem: Lenovo Device 21e236   Kernel driver in use: ahci37 00:1f.3 SMBus: Intel Corporation 6 Series/C200 Series Chipset Family SMBus Controller (rev 04)38   Subsystem: Lenovo Device 21e239 01:00.0 VGA compatible controller: Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. [AMD/ATI] Seymour [Radeon HD 6400M/7400M Series] (rev ff)40   Kernel driver in use: radeon41 03:00.0 Ethernet controller: Realtek Semiconductor Co., Ltd. RTL8111/8168/8411 PCI Express Gigabit Ethernet Controller (rev 06)42   Subsystem: Lenovo Device 21e243   Kernel driver in use: r816944 04:00.0 System peripheral: Ricoh Co Ltd PCIe SDXC/MMC Host Controller (rev 07)45   Subsystem: Lenovo Device 21e246   Kernel driver in use: sdhci-pci47 09:00.0 Network controller: Realtek Semiconductor Co., Ltd. RTL8188CE 802.11b/g/n WiFi Adapter (rev 01)48   Subsystem: Realtek Semiconductor Co., Ltd. Device 819549   Kernel driver in use: rtl8192ce

我们可以看到每个驱动后面都有Kernel driver in use:,代表驱动在内核中的链接位子。

3.配置内核驱动                              

下载内核源码https://www.kernel.org/,我这里下载的是stable 4.3.3,解压后进入源码目录执行:

1 $:make menuconfig

接下来就会弹出编译选项界面,如图:

我们可以看到上面有快捷键操作说明,我重点在</> for Search,在界面直接按反斜杠,进入搜索界面。接下来挑个重点驱动说明一下,我们看

Network controller,可以看到型号是Realtek  RTL8188CE,然后Kernel driver in use: rtl8192ce,在内核的位子链接是rtl8192ce

我们按</>,输入rtl8192ce,然后回车,就会出现详细位子,如图:

我们可以看到Pormt提示上面跟我要的型号一样,具体选项的前面有个(1),注意这里同一个Sombol(就是刚刚输入的rtl8192ce)有的对应很多选项,我根据前面的序号,按对应的数字就可以直接进入选项,按<esc>可以返回来这个界面。这里,我直接按1。按1后,就到具体选项了,如图:

我们看到上面,发行版为了兼容各种机器,把所有Realtek的驱动都编译进成了模块。接下来就保留自己的驱动型号,去掉其他不要的。

剩下的驱动跟上面操作一样的,还有的不必要驱动是直接编译进了内核,非模块。对照自己的驱动,其他都可以不要。配置好后的内核

配置文件最好保存下来,如果驱动没配置成功,再配置的时候把保存的配置文件复制一份到源码目录,命名为.config。继续make menuconfig配置。