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[数据库]【mysql】关于innodb_file_format


一、几条mysql命令

通过以下命令看一下mysql中 innodb_file_format的配置

mysql> show engines;+--------------------+---------+----------------------------------------------------------------+--------------+------+------------+| Engine       | Support | Comment                            | Transactions | XA  | Savepoints |+--------------------+---------+----------------------------------------------------------------+--------------+------+------------+| MEMORY       | YES   | Hash based, stored in memory, useful for temporary tables   | NO      | NO  | NO     || CSV        | YES   | CSV storage engine                       | NO      | NO  | NO     || MRG_MYISAM     | YES   | Collection of identical MyISAM tables             | NO      | NO  | NO     || BLACKHOLE     | YES   | /dev/null storage engine (anything you write to it disappears) | NO      | NO  | NO     || MyISAM       | YES   | MyISAM storage engine                     | NO      | NO  | NO     || PERFORMANCE_SCHEMA | YES   | Performance Schema                       | NO      | NO  | NO     || ARCHIVE      | YES   | Archive storage engine                     | NO      | NO  | NO     || InnoDB       | DEFAULT | Supports transactions, row-level locking, and foreign keys   | YES     | YES | YES    || FEDERATED     | NO   | Federated MySQL storage engine                 | NULL     | NULL | NULL    |+--------------------+---------+----------------------------------------------------------------+--------------+------+------------+9 rows in set (0.00 sec)mysql> select version();+------------+| version() |+------------+| 5.6.25-log |+------------+1 row in set (0.00 sec)mysql> select @@innodb_version;+------------------+| @@innodb_version |+------------------+| 5.6.25      |+------------------+1 row in set (0.00 sec)mysql> show variables like "%innodb_file%";+--------------------------+----------+| Variable_name      | Value  |+--------------------------+----------+| innodb_file_format    | Antelope || innodb_file_format_check | ON    || innodb_file_format_max  | Antelope || innodb_file_per_table  | ON    |+--------------------------+----------+4 rows in set (0.00 sec)mysql> SET GLOBAL innodb_file_format = barracuda;Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)mysql> show variables like "%innodb_file%";+--------------------------+-----------+| Variable_name      | Value   |+--------------------------+-----------+| innodb_file_format    | Barracuda || innodb_file_format_check | ON    || innodb_file_format_max  | Antelope || innodb_file_per_table  | ON    |+--------------------------+-----------+4 rows in set (0.00 sec)mysql> SET GLOBAL innodb_file_format_max = barracuda;Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)mysql> show variables like "%innodb_file%";+--------------------------+-----------+| Variable_name      | Value   |+--------------------------+-----------+| innodb_file_format    | Barracuda || innodb_file_format_check | ON    || innodb_file_format_max  | Barracuda || innodb_file_per_table  | ON    |+--------------------------+-----------+4 rows in set (0.01 sec)mysql> show engine innodb status\G*************************** 1. row *************************** Type: InnoDB Name: Status: =====================================2015-12-29 01:31:16 a3731b70 INNODB MONITOR OUTPUT=====================================Per second averages calculated from the last 11 seconds-----------------BACKGROUND THREAD-----------------srv_master_thread loops: 2 srv_active, 0 srv_shutdown, 16015 srv_idlesrv_master_thread log flush and writes: 16017----------SEMAPHORES----------OS WAIT ARRAY INFO: reservation count 5OS WAIT ARRAY INFO: signal count 5Mutex spin waits 0, rounds 0, OS waits 0RW-shared spins 5, rounds 150, OS waits 5RW-excl spins 0, rounds 0, OS waits 0Spin rounds per wait: 0.00 mutex, 30.00 RW-shared, 0.00 RW-excl------------TRANSACTIONS------------Trx id counter 125966Purge done for trx's n:o < 124524 undo n:o < 0 state: running but idleHistory list length 484LIST OF TRANSACTIONS FOR EACH SESSION:---TRANSACTION 0, not startedMySQL thread id 41, OS thread handle 0xa3731b70, query id 3846 localhost root initshow engine innodb status--------FILE I/O--------I/O thread 0 state: waiting for i/o request (insert buffer thread)I/O thread 1 state: waiting for i/o request (log thread)I/O thread 2 state: waiting for i/o request (read thread)I/O thread 3 state: waiting for i/o request (read thread)I/O thread 4 state: waiting for i/o request (read thread)I/O thread 5 state: waiting for i/o request (read thread)I/O thread 6 state: waiting for i/o request (write thread)I/O thread 7 state: waiting for i/o request (write thread)I/O thread 8 state: waiting for i/o request (write thread)I/O thread 9 state: waiting for i/o request (write thread)Pending normal aio reads: 0 [0, 0, 0, 0] , aio writes: 0 [0, 0, 0, 0] , ibuf aio reads: 0, log i/o's: 0, sync i/o's: 0Pending flushes (fsync) log: 0; buffer pool: 0548 OS file reads, 43 OS file writes, 33 OS fsyncs0.00 reads/s, 0 avg bytes/read, 0.00 writes/s, 0.00 fsyncs/s-------------------------------------INSERT BUFFER AND ADAPTIVE HASH INDEX-------------------------------------Ibuf: size 1, free list len 1256, seg size 1258, 0 mergesmerged operations: insert 0, delete mark 0, delete 0discarded operations: insert 0, delete mark 0, delete 0Hash table size 553193, node heap has 2 buffer(s)0.00 hash searches/s, 0.00 non-hash searches/s---LOG---Log sequence number 1121969516Log flushed up to  1121969516Pages flushed up to 1121969516Last checkpoint at 11219695160 pending log writes, 0 pending chkp writes18 log i/o's done, 0.00 log i/o's/second----------------------BUFFER POOL AND MEMORY----------------------Total memory allocated 136019968; in additional pool allocated 0Dictionary memory allocated 47602Buffer pool size  8191Free buffers    7823Database pages   366Old database pages 0Modified db pages 0Pending reads 0Pending writes: LRU 0, flush list 0, single page 0Pages made young 0, not young 00.00 youngs/s, 0.00 non-youngs/sPages read 356, created 10, written 380.00 reads/s, 0.00 creates/s, 0.00 writes/sNo buffer pool page gets since the last printoutPages read ahead 0.00/s, evicted without access 0.00/s, Random read ahead 0.00/sLRU len: 366, unzip_LRU len: 0I/O sum[0]:cur[0], unzip sum[0]:cur[0]--------------ROW OPERATIONS--------------0 queries inside InnoDB, 0 queries in queue0 read views open inside InnoDBMain thread process no. 2255, id 2837244784, state: sleepingNumber of rows inserted 0, updated 0, deleted 0, read 00.00 inserts/s, 0.00 updates/s, 0.00 deletes/s, 0.00 reads/s----------------------------END OF INNODB MONITOR OUTPUT============================1 row in set (0.01 sec)

二、innodb_file_format

  • Antelope(羚羊)是Built-in-InnoDB(MySQL内置的InnoDB)支持文件格式的代号,有两种“数据表格式”(row_format):Redundant(冗余)、Compact(紧凑)

  • Barracuda(梭子鱼)是InnoDB Plugin支持的文件格式,在原来的基础上新增了两种数据表格式的支持:DynamicCompressed

  • innodb_file_format在配置文件中指定;row_format则在创建数据表时指定

同时Barracude也支持 old redundant and compact row formats

下面是来自stackexchange上面的回答 和 性能测试

1、Benefits of Barracuda and Compression

    Question

I've been reading about MySQL's file formats Antelope and Barracuda a while ago, and I wonder if I could benefit with having Barracuda and Compression.

My server is currently using Antelope, as it is the default of MySQL.
I've had many times issues with memory due to the large database I have. My database is increasing every day.

It seems Compression is giving benefits to a few people, like:
http://www.mysqlperformanceblog.com/2008/04/23/real-life-use-case-for-barracuda-innodb-file-format/

I understand memory and disk space can be lower, but I'm not sure if I understand this (quoted from the article):
"~5% CPU load according to top (from 80-100% mostly waiting for I/O)
0.01 sec average lookup time by primary key (from 1-20 sec before the conversion)"

I thought these two things would NOT improve, because if the data is compressed, the server has to uncompress in order to get the original data again, so doesn't that make sense that CPU usage would increase?

Does that benefit you in read/write intensive applications? Would you recommend me to change to Barracuda and Compression?

Are you aware of any issues of Barracuda?
It seems the answer of the following question points a few issues, but since it's from 2011, I'd say they are fixed by now: http://serverfault.com/questions/258022/mysql-innodb-how-to-switch-to-barracuda-format

    Answer

Regarding "Dynamic", the non-compressed Barracuda-only format, very little has changed from compact, mainly on how blobs (and any very dynamic fields) are stored. I have never had any issues with compact vs. dynamic, so I can safely recommend Barracuda's dynamic. Remember that Barracuda also supports old redundant and compact row formats.

The article you are mentioning is probably too old (5.1) and, as Peter Z., Percona's CEO, mentions on the comments it may be a bit misleading. That doesn't mean that compression can't be a huge gain depending on the workloads. However, I would recommend you to try it on versions >= 5.6, as both Facebook and Oracle have done lots of improvements about it.

As more recent reference materials, I would recommend you:

  • Getting InnoDB Compression Ready for Facebook Scale
  • InnoDB Compression Present and Future
  • Benchmarking InnoDB page compression performance

In particular, I like Facebook materials as they are third party (no need for an agenda) and they have one of the largest MySQL deployments in the world. As you can see they have had very successful setups combining SSD technology with compression.

Will it benefit you? That will depend on your workload, working set and setup (IOPS, memory). Depending if you are IO bound, CPU bound or memory bound, compression can affect negatively in some cases, by adding extra CPU, memory requirements (both compressed and uncompressed pages are stored on the InnoDB buffer pool) or generating too many compression failures, augmenting the latency. It also depends on the type of data: compression can help a lot with large text blobs, but it may be useless with already-compressed data.

In my experience, in practice, there are people for which compression was a the holy grail of performance and are very happy with it, but on other cases, we had to revert to uncompressed data as no gain was obtained. While a very heavy writing workload may seem like a bad environment for compression, if in your particular case you are not cpu-bound and memory-bound, but iops-bound it may be none-less helpful.

In a nutshell, it is very difficult to predict results, usually you should setup a test environment for benchmarking and then discover why you get better or worse results (and that way you can play with different block sizes, etc.). Barracuda is completely safeCompression may or not be for you. And you can always experiment with other compression methods like client-side compression of blobs (for example, if you end up CPU-bound) or other 3rd party engines like TokuDB, in which compression is a big priority, as it is focused in performance for larger datasets than InnoDB can handle.

2、Benchmarking InnoDB page compression performance

配置文件

innodb_file_format=barracudainnodb_file_per_table = 1innodb_strict_mode=1 #建议加上

创建数据表

CREATE TABLE name (column1 INT PRIMARY KEY) ENGINE=InnoDBROW_FORMAT=COMPRESSED KEY_BLOCK_SIZE=4;

Compact和redumdant的区别在就是在于首部的存存内容区别。

compact的存储格式为首部为一个非NULL的变长字段长度列表

redundant的存储格式为首部是一个字段长度偏移列表(每个字段占用的字节长度及其相应的位移)。

在Antelope中对于变长字段,低于768字节的,不会进行overflow page存储,某些情况下会减少结果集IO.

Sql代码

mysql> create table compressed1 ( acol int ) ENGINE=INNODB;Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.22 sec)mysql> show create table compressed1\G*************************** 1. row ***************************    Table: compressed1Create Table: CREATE TABLE `compressed1` ( `acol` int(11) DEFAULT NULL) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf81 row in set (0.05 sec)mysql> create table compressed2 ( acol int ) ENGINE=INNODB ROW_FORMAT=COMPRESSED KEY_BLOCK_SIZE=4;Query OK, 0 rows affected, 4 warnings (0.12 sec)mysql> show warnings;+---------+------+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+| Level  | Code | Message                                |+---------+------+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+| Warning | 1478 | InnoDB: KEY_BLOCK_SIZE requires innodb_file_format > Antelope.    || Warning | 1478 | InnoDB: ignoring KEY_BLOCK_SIZE=4.                  || Warning | 1478 | InnoDB: ROW_FORMAT=COMPRESSED requires innodb_file_format > Antelope. || Warning | 1478 | InnoDB: assuming ROW_FORMAT=COMPACT.                 |+---------+------+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+4 rows in set (0.00 sec)mysql> show create table compressed2\G*************************** 1. row ***************************    Table: compressed2Create Table: CREATE TABLE `compressed2` ( `acol` int(11) DEFAULT NULL) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8 ROW_FORMAT=COMPRESSED KEY_BLOCK_SIZE=41 row in set (0.00 sec)mysql> show variables like "%innodb_file%";+--------------------------+----------+| Variable_name      | Value  |+--------------------------+----------+| innodb_file_format    | Antelope || innodb_file_format_check | ON    || innodb_file_format_max  | Antelope || innodb_file_per_table  | ON    |+--------------------------+----------+//changemysql> show variables like "%innodb_file%";+--------------------------+-----------+| Variable_name      | Value   |+--------------------------+-----------+| innodb_file_format    | Barracuda || innodb_file_format_check | ON    || innodb_file_format_max  | Barracuda || innodb_file_per_table  | ON    |+--------------------------+-----------+4 rows in set (0.00 sec)mysql> create table compressed3 ( acol int ) ENGINE=INNODB ROW_FORMAT=COMPRESSED KEY_BLOCK_SIZE=4; Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.32 sec)mysql> show create table compressed3 \G*************************** 1. row ***************************    Table: compressed3Create Table: CREATE TABLE `compressed3` ( `acol` int(11) DEFAULT NULL) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8 ROW_FORMAT=COMPRESSED KEY_BLOCK_SIZE=41 row in set (0.00 sec)//数据文件-rw-rw---- 1 mysql mysql 8.4K 12月 29 01:18 compressed1.frm-rw-rw---- 1 mysql mysql 96K 12月 29 01:18 compressed1.ibd-rw-rw---- 1 mysql mysql 8.4K 12月 29 01:19 compressed2.frm-rw-rw---- 1 mysql mysql 96K 12月 29 01:19 compressed2.ibd-rw-rw---- 1 mysql mysql 8.4K 12月 29 03:03 compressed3.frm-rw-rw---- 1 mysql mysql 64K 12月 29 03:03 compressed3.ibd//compressed3.ibd 是被压缩过的

使用脚本查看文件信息

[root@localhost innodb]# python py_innodb_page_info.py -v /data/mysql/testdb/compressed3.ibd page offset 00000000, page type <File Space Header>page offset 00000000, page type <Freshly Allocated Page>page offset 00000000, page type <Freshly Allocated Page>page offset 00000000, page type <Freshly Allocated Page>Total number of page: 4:Freshly Allocated Page: 3File Space Header: 1[root@localhost innodb]# python py_innodb_page_info.py -v /data/mysql/testdb/compressed2.ibd page offset 00000000, page type <File Space Header>page offset 00000001, page type <Insert Buffer Bitmap>page offset 00000002, page type <File Segment inode>page offset 00000003, page type <B-tree Node>, page level <0000>page offset 00000000, page type <Freshly Allocated Page>page offset 00000000, page type <Freshly Allocated Page>Total number of page: 6:Freshly Allocated Page: 2Insert Buffer Bitmap: 1File Space Header: 1B-tree Node: 1File Segment inode: 1[root@localhost innodb]# python py_innodb_page_info.py -v /data/mysql/testdb/compressed1.ibd page offset 00000000, page type <File Space Header>page offset 00000001, page type <Insert Buffer Bitmap>page offset 00000002, page type <File Segment inode>page offset 00000003, page type <B-tree Node>, page level <0000>page offset 00000000, page type <Freshly Allocated Page>page offset 00000000, page type <Freshly Allocated Page>Total number of page: 6:Freshly Allocated Page: 2Insert Buffer Bitmap: 1File Space Header: 1B-tree Node: 1File Segment inode: 1[root@localhost innodb]# od -t x1 -j 54 -N 4 /data/mysql/testdb/compressed1.ibd 0000066 00 00 00 000000072[root@localhost innodb]# od -t x1 -j 54 -N 4 /data/mysql/testdb/compressed2.ibd 0000066 00 00 00 000000072[root@localhost innodb]# od -t x1 -j 54 -N 4 /data/mysql/testdb/compressed3.ibd 0000066 00 00 00 270000072

三、文件格式兼容性检查

InnoDB Plugin引入的新的文件格式,也引入较为完整的文件兼容性检查,以防止误操作非兼容的文件格式。兼容性检查一共有三类:启动数据库时、创建数据表时、访问数据表时。

  • 当数据库启动时候,参数innodb_file_format_check(>=5.1.38)会要求InnoDB在启动时检查当前数据表的格式。设置为ON时,如果检测到不支持的格式,那么InnoDB会启动失败;设置为OFF时,检测到不支持的仅会给出警告,并不会导致启动失败。

  • 当创建数据表时,InnoDB会依据参数InnoDB_file_format进行检查,如果创建的数据表格式高于InnoDB_file_format,则创建会失败。

  • 当访问某个数据表(table-access)时,InnoDB也会进行兼容性检查。只要当前运行的InnoDB版本能够支持的格式,都能够被访问,无论参数InnoDB_file_format的配置。

把innodb_file_format_check设置为OFF是很危险的。在InnoDB启动后,一般需要做一些恢复工作,例如Double write buffer/Insert buffer中的数据处理(这依赖于innodb_fast_shutdown参数),试想如果成功启动,但是某些表是不支持的格式,但是InnoDB仍然安装旧版本做恢复,这可能会毁掉相关数据。

所以,一般建议innodb_file_format_check设置为ON。如果是OFF,关闭InnoDB的innodb_fast_shutdown参数务必设置成0

 

参考文章

http://www.freehao123.com/vps-cpu-io-unixbench/
http://www.orczhou.com/index.php/2010/03/innodb-plugin-file-format/
http://www.orczhou.com/index.php/2014/03/some-tricky-about-mysqladmin-extended-status/
http://www.orczhou.com/index.php/2010/12/more-about-mysql-innodb-shutdown/
http://dba.stackexchange.com/questions/14246/innodb-file-format-barracuda
http://www.tuicool.com/articles/3qm2U3J
http://www.tuicool.com/articles/qQfAJfI
http://www.xuliangwei.com/xubusi/category/%E8%87%AA%E5%8A%A8%E5%8C%96%E8%BF%90%E7%BB%B4
http://www.xuliangwei.com/xubusi/203.html  
http://www.xuliangwei.com/xubusi/175.html
http://www.cnblogs.com/billyxp/p/3342969.html?utm_source=tuicool&utm_medium=referral
http://zjadolf.blog.163.com/blog/static/775779202014111063258737/
http://imysql.cn/taxonomy/term/21
http://imysql.com/2015/07/30/mysql-faq-howto-calculate-open-files.shtml
http://imysql.com/2014/09/28/mysql-optimization-case-blob-stored-in-innodb-optimization.shtml