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[操作系统]iOS开发之蓝牙通讯


iOS开发之蓝牙通讯

一、引言

        蓝牙是设备近距离通信的一种方便手段,在iPhone引入蓝牙4.0后,设备之间的通讯变得更加简单。相关的蓝牙操作由专门的CoreBluetooth.framework进行统一管理。通过蓝牙进行通讯交互分为两方,一方为中心设备central,一方为外设peripheral,外设通过广播的方式向外发送信息,中心设备检索到外设发的广播信息,可以进行配对连接,进而进行数据交互。

二、中心设备CBCentralManager

        CBCentralManager是管理中心设备的管理类,其中重要方法如下:

//设置中心设备代理@property(assign, nonatomic, nullable) id<CBCentralManagerDelegate> delegate;//中心设备当前状态@property(readonly) CBCentralManagerState state;//中心设备是否正在扫描@property(readonly) BOOL isScanning NS_AVAILABLE(NA, 9_0);

其中state是一个枚举,有关蓝牙是否可用的状态如下:

typedef NS_ENUM(NSInteger, CBCentralManagerState) {    //状态未知  CBCentralManagerStateUnknown = 0,  //连接断开 即将重置  CBCentralManagerStateResetting,  //该平台不支持蓝牙  CBCentralManagerStateUnsupported,  //未授权蓝牙使用 hovertree.com  CBCentralManagerStateUnauthorized,  //蓝牙关闭  CBCentralManagerStatePoweredOff,  //蓝牙正常开启  CBCentralManagerStatePoweredOn,};

下面这些方法用于初始化管理中心:

//初始化方法//设置的代理需要遵守CBCentralManagerDelegate协议//queue可以设置蓝牙扫描的线程 传入nil则为在主线程中进行- (instancetype)initWithDelegate:(nullable id<CBCentralManagerDelegate>)delegate              queue:(nullable dispatch_queue_t)queue;//此方法同上 在options字典中用于进行一些管理中心的初始化属性设置//字典中支持的键值如下 http://www.cnblogs.com/roucheng//*NSString * const CBCentralManagerOptionShowPowerAlertKey 对应一个NSNumber类型的bool值,用于设置是否在关闭蓝牙时弹出用户提示NSString * const CBCentralManagerOptionRestoreIdentifierKey 对应一个NSString对象,设置管理中心的标识符ID*/- (instancetype)initWithDelegate:(nullable id<CBCentralManagerDelegate>)delegate              queue:(nullable dispatch_queue_t)queue             options:(nullable NSDictionary<NSString *, id> *)options;

//根据获取所有已知设备- (NSArray<CBPeripheral *> *)retrievePeripheralsWithIdentifiers:(NSArray<NSUUID *> *)identifiers;//根据服务id获取所有连接的设备 hovertree.com- (NSArray<CBPeripheral *> *)retrieveConnectedPeripheralsWithServices:(NSArray<CBUUID *> *)serviceUUIDs;

在初始化管理中心完成后,会回调代理中的如下方法,我们必须实现如下方法:

//这个方法中可以获取到管理中心的状态- (void)centralManagerDidUpdateState:(CBCentralManager *)central;

如果上面方法中管理中心状态为蓝牙可用,可以通过下面方法开启扫描外设:

//serviceUUIDs用于扫描一个特点ID的外设 options用于设置一些扫描属性 键值如下/*//是否允许重复扫描 对应NSNumber的bool值,默认为NO,会自动去重NSString *const CBCentralManagerScanOptionAllowDuplicatesKey;//要扫描的设备UUID 数组 对应NSArray hovertree.comNSString *const CBCentralManagerScanOptionSolicitedServiceUUIDsKey;*/- (void)scanForPeripheralsWithServices:(nullable NSArray<CBUUID *> *)serviceUUIDs options:(nullable NSDictionary<NSString *, id> *)options;

//停止扫描外设- (void)stopScan;

扫描的结果会在如下代理方法中回掉:

//peripheral 扫描到的外设//advertisementData是外设发送的广播数据//RSSI 是信号强度 http://www.cnblogs.com/roucheng/- (void)centralManager:(CBCentralManager *)central didDiscoverPeripheral:(CBPeripheral *)peripheral advertisementData:(NSDictionary<NSString *, id> *)advertisementData RSSI:(NSNumber *)RSSI;

扫描到外设后,通过下面方法可以连接一个外设:

/*options中可以设置一些连接设备的初始属性键值如下//对应NSNumber的bool值,设置当外设连接后是否弹出一个警告NSString *const CBConnectPeripheralOptionNotifyOnConnectionKey;//对应NSNumber的bool值,设置当外设断开连接后是否弹出一个警告NSString *const CBConnectPeripheralOptionNotifyOnDisconnectionKey;//对应NSNumber的bool值,设置当外设暂停连接后是否弹出一个警告 http://www.cnblogs.com/roucheng/NSString *const CBConnectPeripheralOptionNotifyOnNotificationKey;*/- (void)connectPeripheral:(CBPeripheral *)peripheral options:(nullable NSDictionary<NSString *, id> *)options;//取消一个外设的连接- (void)cancelPeripheralConnection:(CBPeripheral *)peripheral;

调用过连接外设的方法后,会回掉如下代理方法:

//连接外设成功- (void)centralManager:(CBCentralManager *)central didConnectPeripheral:(CBPeripheral *)peripheral;//连接外设失败- (void)centralManager:(CBCentralManager *)central didFailToConnectPeripheral:(CBPeripheral *)peripheral error:(nullable NSError *)error;//断开外设连接- (void)centralManager:(CBCentralManager *)central didDisconnectPeripheral:(CBPeripheral *)peripheral error:(nullable NSError *)error;

当管理中心恢复时会调用如下代理:

 1 //dict中会传入如下键值对 hovertree.com 2 /* 3 //恢复连接的外设数组 4 NSString *const CBCentralManagerRestoredStatePeripheralsKey; 5 //恢复连接的服务UUID数组 6 NSString *const CBCentralManagerRestoredStateScanServicesKey; 7 //恢复连接的外设扫描属性字典数组 8 NSString *const CBCentralManagerRestoredStateScanOptionsKey; 9 */10 - (void)centralManager:(CBCentralManager *)central willRestoreState:(NSDictionary<NSString *, id> *)dict;

三、外设CBPeripheralManager

        从上面我们知道,中心设备是用来扫描周围的外设,两台设备的通讯中,必须有一个充当中心设备,一个充当外设,外设是由CBPeripheralManager进行管理,主要方法如下:

 1 //设置外设管理中心代理 2 @property(assign, nonatomic, nullable) id<CBPeripheralManagerDelegate> delegate; 3 //外设状态 枚举如中心设备 4 @property(readonly) CBPeripheralManagerState state; 5 //是否正在发送广播 6 @property(readonly) BOOL isAdvertising; 7 //用户的授权状态 8 + (CBPeripheralManagerAuthorizationStatus)authorizationStatus; 9 //初始化并设置代理 参数的具体含义与中心设备管理中心10 - (instancetype)initWithDelegate:(nullable id<CBPeripheralManagerDelegate>)delegate11               queue:(nullable dispatch_queue_t);12 - (instancetype)initWithDelegate:(nullable id<CBPeripheralManagerDelegate>)delegate13               queue:(nullable dispatch_queue_t)queue14             options:(nullable NSDictionary<NSString *, id> *)options;15 //开始发送广播 hovertree.com 何问起16 //advertisementData中可以发送的数据有约定 如下17 /*18 对应设置NSString类型的广播名19 NSString *const CBAdvertisementDataLocalNameKey;20 外设制造商的NSData数据21 NSString *const CBAdvertisementDataManufacturerDataKey;22 外设制造商的CBUUID数据23 NSString *const CBAdvertisementDataServiceDataKey;24 服务的UUID与其对应的服务数据字典数组25 NSString *const CBAdvertisementDataServiceUUIDsKey;26 附加服务的UUID数组27 NSString *const CBAdvertisementDataOverflowServiceUUIDsKey;28 外设的发送功率 NSNumber类型29 NSString *const CBAdvertisementDataTxPowerLevelKey;30 外设是否可以连接31 NSString *const CBAdvertisementDataIsConnectable;32 服务的UUID数组33 NSString *const CBAdvertisementDataSolicitedServiceUUIDsKey;34 */35 - (void)startAdvertising:(nullable NSDictionary<NSString *, id> *)advertisementData;36 //停止发送广播37 - (void)stopAdvertising;38 //设置一个连接的具体central设备的延时 枚举如下39 /*40 typedef NS_ENUM(NSInteger, CBPeripheralManagerConnectionLatency) {41   CBPeripheralManagerConnectionLatencyLow = 0,42   CBPeripheralManagerConnectionLatencyMedium,43   CBPeripheralManagerConnectionLatencyHigh44 } NS_ENUM_AVAILABLE(NA, 6_0);45 */46 - (void)setDesiredConnectionLatency:(CBPeripheralManagerConnectionLatency)latency forCentral:(CBCentral *)central;47 //添加一个服务 http://www.cnblogs.com/roucheng/48 - (void)addService:(CBMutableService *)service;49 //移除一个服务50 - (void)removeService:(CBMutableService *)service;51 //移除所有服务52 - (void)removeAllServices;53 //响应中心设备的读写请求54 - (void)respondToRequest:(CBATTRequest *)request withResult:(CBATTError)result;55 //更新一个连接中心设备的订阅特征值56 - (BOOL)updateValue:(NSData *)value forCharacteristic:(CBMutableCharacteristic *)characteristic onSubscribedCentrals:(nullable NSArray<CBCentral *> *)centrals;

外设代理的相关方法如下:

 1 //这个方法是必须实现的 状态可用后可以发送广播 2 - (void)peripheralManagerDidUpdateState:(CBPeripheralManager *)peripheral; 3 //连接回复时调用的方法 和centralManager类似 4 - (void)peripheralManager:(CBPeripheralManager *)peripheral willRestoreState:(NSDictionary<NSString *, id> *)dict; 5 //开始发送广播时调用的方法 6 - (void)peripheralManagerDidStartAdvertising:(CBPeripheralManager *)peripheral error:(nullable NSError *)error; 7 //添加服务调用的回调 8 - (void)peripheralManager:(CBPeripheralManager *)peripheral didAddService:(CBService *)service error:(nullable NSError *)error; 9 //当一个central设备订阅一个特征值时调用的方法10 - (void)peripheralManager:(CBPeripheralManager *)peripheral central:(CBCentral *)central didSubscribeToCharacteristic:(CBCharacteristic *)characteristic;11 //取消订阅一个特征值时调用的方法12 - (void)peripheralManager:(CBPeripheralManager *)peripheral central:(CBCentral *)central didUnsubscribeFromCharacteristic:(CBCharacteristic *)characteristic;13 //收到读请求时触发的方法 何问起 hovertree.com14 - (void)peripheralManager:(CBPeripheralManager *)peripheral didReceiveReadRequest:(CBATTRequest *)request;15 //收到写请求时触发的方法16 - (void)peripheralManager:(CBPeripheralManager *)peripheral didReceiveWriteRequests:(NSArray<CBATTRequest *> *)requests;17 //外设准备更新特征值时调用的方法18 - (void)peripheralManagerIsReadyToUpdateSubscribers:(CBPeripheralManager *)peripheral;

四、中心设备与外设对象CBCentral与CBPeripheral

        上面介绍了中心设备管理类与外设管理类,这些类用于将设备连接建立起来,器具的数据交换的服务和一些信息则是在对应的设备对象中。

1、中心设备 CBCentral属性与方法

//设备UUID@property(readonly, nonatomic) NSUUID *identifier;//中心设备最大接收的数据长度@property(readonly, nonatomic) NSUInteger maximumUpdateValueLength;

2、外设CAPeripheral属性与方法

        外设对象要比中心对象复杂的多,当centralManager连接到外设后,需要通过外设对象的代理方法进行数据交互,其中主要方法属性如下:

 1 //设置代理 2 @property(assign, nonatomic, nullable) id<CBPeripheralDelegate> delegate; 3 //外设name 4 @property(retain, readonly, nullable) NSString *name; 5 //信号强度 http://www.cnblogs.com/roucheng/ 6 @property(retain, readonly, nullable) NSNumber *RSSI NS_DEPRECATED(NA, NA, 5_0, 8_0); 7 //外设状态 8 /* 9 typedef NS_ENUM(NSInteger, CBPeripheralState) {10   CBPeripheralStateDisconnected = 0,//未连接11   CBPeripheralStateConnecting,//正在链接12   CBPeripheralStateConnected,//已经连接13   CBPeripheralStateDisconnecting NS_AVAILABLE(NA, 9_0),//正在断开连接14 } NS_AVAILABLE(NA, 7_0);15 */16 @property(readonly) CBPeripheralState state;17 //所有的服务数组18 @property(retain, readonly, nullable) NSArray<CBService *> *services;19 //获取当前信号强度20 - (void)readRSSI;21 //根据服务UUID寻找服务对象22 - (void)discoverServices:(nullable NSArray<CBUUID *> *)serviceUUIDs;23 //在服务对象UUID数组中寻找特定服务24 - (void)discoverIncludedServices:(nullable NSArray<CBUUID *> *)includedServiceUUIDs forService:(CBService *)service;25 //在一个服务中寻找特征值26 - (void)discoverCharacteristics:(nullable NSArray<CBUUID *> *)characteristicUUIDs forService:(CBService *)service;27 //从一个特征中读取数据28 - (void)readValueForCharacteristic:(CBCharacteristic *)characteristic;29 //写数据的最大长度 hovertree.com 何问起30 //type枚举如下31 /*32 typedef NS_ENUM(NSInteger, CBCharacteristicWriteType) {33   CBCharacteristicWriteWithResponse = 0,//写数据并且接收成功与否回执34   CBCharacteristicWriteWithoutResponse,//写数据不接收回执35 };36 */37 - (NSUInteger)maximumWriteValueLengthForType:(CBCharacteristicWriteType)type NS_AVAILABLE(NA, 9_0);38 //向某个特征中写数据39 - (void)writeValue:(NSData *)data forCharacteristic:(CBCharacteristic *)characteristic type:(CBCharacteristicWriteType)type;40 //为制定的特征值设置监听通知41 - (void)setNotifyValue:(BOOL)enabled forCharacteristic:(CBCharacteristic *)characteristic;42 //寻找特征值的描述43 - (void)discoverDescriptorsForCharacteristic:(CBCharacteristic *)characteristic;44 //读取特征的描述值45 - (void)readValueForDescriptor:(CBDescriptor *)descriptor;46 //写特征的描述值47 - (void)writeValue:(NSData *)data forDescriptor:(CBDescriptor *)descriptor;

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外设的代理方法如下:

 1 //外设名称更改时回调的方法 2 - (void)peripheralDidUpdateName:(CBPeripheral *)peripheral NS_AVAILABLE(NA, 6_0); 3 //外设服务变化时回调的方法 4 - (void)peripheral:(CBPeripheral *)peripheral didModifyServices:(NSArray<CBService *> *)invalidatedServices NS_AVAILABLE(NA, 7_0); 5 //信号强度改变时调用的方法 6 - (void)peripheralDidUpdateRSSI:(CBPeripheral *)peripheral error:(nullable NSError *)error NS_DEPRECATED(NA, NA, 5_0, 8_0); 7 //读取信号强度回调的方法 柯乐义 keleyi.com 8 - (void)peripheral:(CBPeripheral *)peripheral didReadRSSI:(NSNumber *)RSSI error:(nullable NSError *)error NS_AVAILABLE(NA, 8_0); 9 //发现服务时调用的方法10 - (void)peripheral:(CBPeripheral *)peripheral didDiscoverServices:(nullable NSError *)error;11 //在服务中发现子服务回调的方法12 - (void)peripheral:(CBPeripheral *)peripheral didDiscoverIncludedServicesForService:(CBService *)service error:(nullable NSError *)error;13 //发现服务的特征值后回调的方法14 - (void)peripheral:(CBPeripheral *)peripheral didDiscoverCharacteristicsForService:(CBService *)service error:(nullable NSError *)error;15 //特征值更新时回调的方法16 - (void)peripheral:(CBPeripheral *)peripheral didUpdateValueForCharacteristic:(CBCharacteristic *)characteristic error:(nullable NSError *)error;17 //向特征值写数据时回调的方法18 - (void)peripheral:(CBPeripheral *)peripheral didWriteValueForCharacteristic:(CBCharacteristic *)characteristic error:(nullable NSError *)error;19 //特征值的通知设置改变时触发的方法20 - (void)peripheral:(CBPeripheral *)peripheral didUpdateNotificationStateForCharacteristic:(CBCharacteristic *)characteristic error:(nullable NSError *)error;21 //发现特征值的描述信息触发的方法22 - (void)peripheral:(CBPeripheral *)peripheral didDiscoverDescriptorsForCharacteristic:(CBCharacteristic *)characteristic error:(nullable NSError *)error;23 //特征的描述值更新时触发的方法24 - (void)peripheral:(CBPeripheral *)peripheral didUpdateValueForDescriptor:(CBDescriptor *)descriptor error:(nullable NSError *)error;25 //写描述信息时触发的方法26 - (void)peripheral:(CBPeripheral *)peripheral didWriteValueForDescriptor:(CBDescriptor *)descriptor error:(nullable NSError *)error;

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五、服务对象CBService

    服务对象是用来管理外设提供的一些数据服务的,其中属性如下:

//对应的外设@property(assign, readonly, nonatomic) CBPeripheral *peripheral;//是否是初等服务@property(readonly, nonatomic) BOOL isPrimary;//包含的自服务 http://www.cnblogs.com/roucheng/@property(retain, readonly, nullable) NSArray<CBService *> *includedServices;//服务中的特征值@property(retain, readonly, nullable) NSArray<CBCharacteristic *> *characteristics;

六、服务的特征值CBCharacteristic

        通过绑定服务中的特征值来进行数据的读写操作,其中属性如下:

//对应的服务对象@property(assign, readonly, nonatomic) CBService *service;//特征值的属性 枚举如下/*typedef NS_OPTIONS(NSUInteger, CBCharacteristicProperties) {  CBCharacteristicPropertyBroadcast,//允许广播特征  CBCharacteristicPropertyRead,//可读属性  CBCharacteristicPropertyWriteWithoutResponse,//可写并且接收回执  CBCharacteristicPropertyWrite,//可写属性  CBCharacteristicPropertyNotify,//可通知属性  CBCharacteristicPropertyIndicate,//可展现的特征值  CBCharacteristicPropertyAuthenticatedSignedWrites,//允许签名的特征值写入  CBCharacteristicPropertyExtendedProperties,  CBCharacteristicPropertyNotifyEncryptionRequired,  CBCharacteristicPropertyIndicateEncryptionRequired};*/@property(readonly, nonatomic) CBCharacteristicProperties properties;//特征值的数据 http://www.cnblogs.com/roucheng/@property(retain, readonly, nullable) NSData *value;//特征值的描述@property(retain, readonly, nullable) NSArray<CBDescriptor *> *descriptors;//是否是当前广播的特征@property(readonly) BOOL isBroadcasted;//是否是正在通知的特征@property(readonly) BOOL isNotifying;

七、读写请求对象CBATTRequest

        服务对象是外设向中心设备提供的相关数据服务,获取到相应服务后,中心设备可以进行读写请求,读写对象属性如下:

//对应的中心设备@property(readonly, nonatomic) CBCentral *central;//对应的特征值@property(readonly, nonatomic) CBCharacteristic *characteristic;//读写数据值@property(readwrite, copy, nullable) NSData *value;

http://www.cnblogs.com/roucheng/p/texiao.html

本文小结:

  • iOS开发之蓝牙通讯
  • 一、引言
  • 二、中心设备CBCentralManager
  • 三、外设CBPeripheralManager
  • 四、中心设备与外设对象CBCentral与CBPeripheral
  • 1、中心设备 CBCentral属性与方法
  • 2、外设CAPeripheral属性与方法
  • 五、服务对象CBService
  • 六、服务的特征值CBCharacteristic
  • 七、读写请求对象CBATTRequest