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[ASP.net教程]关于WEB ServiceWCFWebApi实现身份验证之WCF篇(1)

WCF身份验证一般常见的方式有:自定义用户名及密码验证、X509证书验证、ASP.NET成员资格(membership)验证、SOAP Header验证、Windows集成验证、WCF身份验证服务(AuthenticationService),这些验证方式其实网上都有相关的介绍文章,我这里算是一个总结吧,顺便对于一些注意细节进行说明,以便大家能更好的掌握这些知识。

第一种:自定义用户名及密码验证(需要借助X509证书)

由于该验证需要借助于X509证书,所以我们需要先创建一个证书,可以利用MS自带的makecert.exe程序来制作测试用证书,使用步骤:请依次打开开始->Microsoft Visual Studio 2010(VS菜单,版本不同,名称有所不同)->Visual Studio Tools->Visual Studio 命令提示,然后执行以下命令:

makecert -r -pe -n "CN=ZwjCert" -ss TrustedPeople -sr LocalMachine -sky exchange

上述命令中除了我标粗的部份可改成你实际的请求外(为证书名称),其余的均可以保持不变,命令的意思是:创建一个名为ZwjCert的证书将将其加入到本地计算机的受信任人区域中。

如果需要查看该证书,那么可以通过MMC控制台查询证书,具体操作步骤如下:

运行->MMC,第一次打开Windows没有给我们准备好直接的管理证书的入口,需要自行添加,添加方法如下:

1. 在控制台菜单,文件→添加/删除管理单元→添加按钮→选”证书”→添加→选”我的用户账户”→关闭→确定
2. 在控制台菜单,文件→添加/删除管理单元→添加按钮→选”证书”→添加→选”计算机账户”→关闭→确定

这样MMC中左边就有菜单了,然后依次展开:证书(本地计算机)->受信任人->证书,最后就可以在右边的证书列表中看到自己的证书了,如下图示:

 

证书创建好,我们就可以开始编码了,本文主要讲的就是WCF,所以我们首先定义一个WCF服务契约及服务实现类(后面的各种验证均采用该WCF服务),我这里直接采用默认的代码,如下:

namespace WcfAuthentications{  [ServiceContract]  public interface IService1  {    [OperationContract]    string GetData(int value);    [OperationContract]    CompositeType GetDataUsingDataContract(CompositeType composite);  }  [DataContract]  public class CompositeType  {    bool boolValue = true;    string stringValue = "Hello ";    [DataMember]    public bool BoolValue    {      get { return boolValue; }      set { boolValue = value; }    }    [DataMember]    public string StringValue    {      get { return stringValue; }      set { stringValue = value; }    }  }}namespace WcfAuthentications{  public class Service1 : IService1  {    public string GetData(int value)    {      return string.Format("You entered: {0}", value);    }    public CompositeType GetDataUsingDataContract(CompositeType composite)    {      if (composite == null)      {        throw new ArgumentNullException("composite");      }      if (composite.BoolValue)      {        composite.StringValue += "Suffix";      }      return composite;    }  }}

要实现用户名及密码验证,就需要定义一个继承自UserNamePasswordValidator的用户名及密码验证器类CustomUserNameValidator,代码如下:

namespace WcfAuthentications{  public class CustomUserNameValidator : UserNamePasswordValidator  {    public override void Validate(string userName, string password)    {      if (null == userName || null == password)      {        throw new ArgumentNullException();      }      if (userName != "admin" && password != "wcf.admin") //这里可依实际情况下实现用户名及密码判断      {        throw new System.IdentityModel.Tokens.SecurityTokenException("Unknown Username or Password");      }    }  }}

代码很简单,只是重写其Validate方法,下面就是将创建WCF宿主,我这里采用控制台程序

代码部份:

namespace WcfHost{  class Program  {    static void Main(string[] args)    {      using (var host = new ServiceHost(typeof(Service1)))      {        host.Opened += delegate        {          Console.WriteLine("Service1 Host已开启!");        };        host.Open();        Console.ReadKey();      }    }  }}

APP.CONFIG部份(这是重点,可以使用WCF配置工具来进行可视化操作配置,参见:http://www.cnblogs.com/Moosdau/archive/2011/04/17/2019002.html):

 <system.serviceModel>  <bindings>   <wsHttpBinding>    <binding name="Service1Binding">     <security mode="Message">      <message clientCredentialType="UserName" />     </security>    </binding>   </wsHttpBinding>  </bindings>  <services>   <service behaviorConfiguration="Service1Behavior" name="WcfAuthentications.Service1">    <endpoint address="" binding="wsHttpBinding" bindingConfiguration="Service1Binding"     contract="WcfAuthentications.IService1">     <identity>      <dns value="ZwjCert" />     </identity>    </endpoint>    <endpoint address="mex" binding="mexHttpBinding" contract="IMetadataExchange" />    <host>     <baseAddresses>      <add baseAddress="http://localhost:8732/WcfAuthentications/Service1/" />     </baseAddresses>    </host>   </service>  </services>  <behaviors>   <serviceBehaviors>    <behavior name="Service1Behavior">     <serviceMetadata httpGetEnabled="true" />     <serviceDebug includeExceptionDetailInFaults="false" />     <serviceCredentials>      <serviceCertificate findValue="ZwjCert" x509FindType="FindBySubjectName" storeLocation="LocalMachine" storeName="TrustedPeople" />      <userNameAuthentication userNamePasswordValidationMode="Custom"       customUserNamePasswordValidatorType="WcfAuthentications.CustomUserNameValidator,WcfAuthentications" />     </serviceCredentials>    </behavior>   </serviceBehaviors>  </behaviors> </system.serviceModel>

这里面有几个需要注意的点:

1.<dns value="ZwjCert" />与<serviceCertificate findValue="ZwjCert" ..>中的value必需都为证书的名称,即:ZwjCert;

2.Binding节点中需配置security节点,message子节点中的clientCredentialType必需设为:UserName;

3.serviceBehavior节点中,需配置serviceCredentials子节点,其中serviceCertificate 中各属性均需与证书相匹配,userNameAuthentication的userNamePasswordValidationMode必需为Custom,customUserNamePasswordValidatorType为上面自定义的用户名及密码验证器类的类型及其程序集

最后就是在客户端使用了,先引用服务,然后看下App.Config,并进行适当的修改,如下:

  <system.serviceModel>    <bindings>      <wsHttpBinding>        <binding name="WSHttpBinding_IService1" >          <security mode="Message">            <transport clientCredentialType="Windows" proxyCredentialType="None"              realm="" />            <message clientCredentialType="UserName" negotiateServiceCredential="true"              algorithmSuite="Default" />          </security>        </binding>      </wsHttpBinding>    </bindings>    <client>      <endpoint address="http://localhost:8732/WcfAuthentications/Service1/"        binding="wsHttpBinding" bindingConfiguration="WSHttpBinding_IService1"        contract="ServiceReference1.IService1" name="WSHttpBinding_IService1">        <identity>          <dns value="ZwjCert" />        </identity>      </endpoint>    </client>  </system.serviceModel>

为了突出重点,我这里对Binding节点进行了精简,去掉了许多的属性配置,仅保留重要的部份,如:security节点,修改其endpoint下面的identity中<dns value="ZwjCert" />,这里的value与服务中所说的相同节点相同,就是证书名称,如果不相同,那么就会报错,具体的错误消息大家可以自行试下,我这里限于篇幅内容就不贴出来了。

客户端使用服务代码如下:

namespace WCFClient{  class Program  {    static void Main(string[] args)    {      using (var proxy = new ServiceReference1.Service1Client())      {        proxy.ClientCredentials.UserName.UserName = "admin";        proxy.ClientCredentials.UserName.Password = "wcf.admin";        string result = proxy.GetData(1);        Console.WriteLine(result);        var compositeObj = proxy.GetDataUsingDataContract(new CompositeType() { BoolValue = true, StringValue = "test" });        Console.WriteLine(SerializerToJson(compositeObj));      }      Console.ReadKey();    }    /// <summary>    /// 序列化成JSON字符串    /// </summary>    static string SerializerToJson<T>(T obj) where T:class    {      var serializer = new DataContractJsonSerializer(typeof(T));      var stream = new MemoryStream();      serializer.WriteObject(stream,obj);      byte[] dataBytes = new byte[stream.Length];      stream.Position = 0;      stream.Read(dataBytes, 0, (int)stream.Length);      string dataString = Encoding.UTF8.GetString(dataBytes);      return dataString;    }  }}

运行结果如下图示:

  

如果不传入用户名及密码或传入不正确的用户名及密码,均会报错:

第二种:X509证书验证


首先创建一个证书,我这里就用上面创建的一个证书:ZwjCert;由于服务器端及客户端均需要用到该证书,所以需要导出证书,在客户端的电脑上导入该证书,以便WCF可进行验证。

WCF服务契约及服务实现类与第一种方法相同,不再重贴代码。

WCF服务器配置如下:

 <system.serviceModel>  <bindings>   <wsHttpBinding>    <binding name="Service1Binding">     <security mode="Message">      <message clientCredentialType="Certificate" />     </security>    </binding>   </wsHttpBinding>  </bindings>  <services>   <service behaviorConfiguration="Service1Behavior" name="WcfAuthentications.Service1">    <endpoint address="" binding="wsHttpBinding" bindingConfiguration="Service1Binding"     contract="WcfAuthentications.IService1">    </endpoint>    <endpoint address="mex" binding="mexHttpBinding" contract="IMetadataExchange" />    <host>     <baseAddresses>      <add baseAddress="http://127.0.0.1:8732/WcfAuthentications/Service1/" />     </baseAddresses>    </host>   </service>  </services>  <behaviors>   <serviceBehaviors>    <behavior name="Service1Behavior">     <serviceMetadata httpGetEnabled="true" />     <serviceDebug includeExceptionDetailInFaults="false" />     <serviceCredentials>      <serviceCertificate findValue="ZwjCert" x509FindType="FindBySubjectName" storeLocation="LocalMachine" storeName="TrustedPeople" />      <clientCertificate>       <authentication certificateValidationMode="None"/>      </clientCertificate>     </serviceCredentials>    </behavior>   </serviceBehaviors>  </behaviors> </system.serviceModel>

这里需注意如下几点:

1.<message clientCredentialType="Certificate" />clientCredentialType设为:Certificate;

2.需配置serviceCredentials节点,其中serviceCertificate 中各属性均需与证书相匹配,clientCertificate里面我将authentication.certificateValidationMode="None",不设置采用默认值其实也可以;

客户端引用服务,自动生成如下配置信息:

  <system.serviceModel>    <bindings>      <wsHttpBinding>        <binding name="WSHttpBinding_IService1">          <security mode="Message">            <transport clientCredentialType="Windows" proxyCredentialType="None"              realm="" />            <message clientCredentialType="Certificate" negotiateServiceCredential="true"              algorithmSuite="Default" />          </security>        </binding>      </wsHttpBinding>    </bindings>    <client>      <endpoint address="http://127.0.0.1:8732/WcfAuthentications/Service1/"        binding="wsHttpBinding" bindingConfiguration="WSHttpBinding_IService1"        contract="ServiceReference1.IService1" name="WSHttpBinding_IService1" behaviorConfiguration="Service1Nehavior">        <identity>          <certificate encodedValue="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" />        </identity>      </endpoint>    </client>   <behaviors>    <endpointBehaviors>     <behavior name="Service1Nehavior">      <clientCredentials>       <clientCertificate findValue="ZwjCert" x509FindType="FindBySubjectName" storeLocation="LocalMachine" storeName="TrustedPeople" />      </clientCredentials>     </behavior>    </endpointBehaviors>   </behaviors>  </system.serviceModel>

可以看出endpoint节点下的identity.certificate的encodedValue包含了加密的数据,另外需要手动增加clientCertificate配置信息,该信息表示证书在本地电脑存放的位置,当然也可以通过代码来动态指定,如:proxy.ClientCredentials.ClientCertificate.SetCertificate("ZwjCert", StoreLocation.LocalMachine, StoreName.My);

客户端使用服务代码如下:

    static void Main(string[] args)    {      using (var proxy = new ServiceReference1.Service1Client())      {        //proxy.ClientCredentials.ClientCertificate.SetCertificate("ZwjCert", StoreLocation.LocalMachine, StoreName.My); //直接动态指定证书存储位置        string result = proxy.GetData(1);        Console.WriteLine(result);        var compositeObj = proxy.GetDataUsingDataContract(new CompositeType() { BoolValue = true, StringValue = "test" });        Console.WriteLine(SerializerToJson(compositeObj));      }      Console.ReadKey();    }

网上还有另类的针对X509证书验证,主要是采用了自定义的证书验证器类,有兴趣的可以参见这篇文章:http://www.cnblogs.com/ejiyuan/archive/2010/05/31/1748363.html

第三种:ASP.NET成员资格(membership)验证

 由于该验证需要借助于X509证书,所以仍然需要创建一个证书(方法如第一种中创建证书方法相同):ZwjCert;

由于该种验证方法是基于ASP.NET的membership,所以需要创建相应的数据库及创建账号,创建数据库,请通过运行aspnet_regsql.exe向导来创建数据库及其相关的表,通过打开ASP.NET 网站管理工具(是一个自带的管理网站),并在上面创建角色及用户,用于后续的验证;

这里特别说明一下,若采用VS2013,VS上是没有自带的GUI按钮来启动该管理工具网站,需要通过如下命令来动态编译该网站:

cd C:\Program Files\IIS Expressiisexpress.exe /path:C:\Windows\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v4.0.30319\ASP.NETWebAdminFiles /vpath:/WebAdmin /port:12345 /clr:4.0 /ntlm

编译时若出现报错:“System.Configuration.StringUtil”不可访问,因为它受保护级别限制,请将WebAdminPage.cs中代码作如下修改:

//取消部份:string appId = StringUtil.GetNonRandomizedHashCode(String.Concat(appPath, appPhysPath)).ToString("x", CultureInfo.InvariantCulture);//新增加部份:Assembly sysConfig = Assembly.LoadFile(@"C:\Windows\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v4.0.30319\System.Configuration.dll");Type sysConfigType = sysConfig.GetType("System.Configuration.StringUtil");string appId = ((int)sysConfigType.GetMethod("GetNonRandomizedHashCode").Invoke(null, new object[] { String.Concat(appPath, appPhysPath), true })).ToString("x", CultureInfo.InvariantCulture);

这样就可以按照命令生生成的网址进行访问就可以了。如果像我一样,操作系统为:WINDOWS 10,那么不好意思,生成的网站虽然能够打开,但仍会报错:

遇到错误。请返回上一页并重试。

目前没有找到解决方案,网上有说ASP.NET网站管理工具在WIN10下不被支持,到底为何暂时无解,若大家有知道的还请分享一下(CSDN有别人的求问贴:http://bbs.csdn.net/topics/391819719),非常感谢,我这里就只好换台电脑来运行ASP.NET管理工具网站了。

 WCF服务端配置如下:

 <connectionStrings>  <add name="SqlConn" connectionString="Server=.;Database=aspnetdb;Uid=sa;Pwd=www.zuowenjun.cn;"/> </connectionStrings> <system.web>  <compilation debug="true" targetFramework="4.5" />  <httpRuntime targetFramework="4.5"/>  <membership defaultProvider="SqlMembershipProvider">   <providers>    <clear/>    <add name="SqlMembershipProvider" type="System.Web.Security.SqlMembershipProvider" connectionStringName="SqlConn" applicationName="/" enablePasswordRetrieval="false" enablePasswordReset="false" requiresQuestionAndAnswer="false" requiresUniqueEmail="true" passwordFormat="Hashed"/>   </providers>  </membership> </system.web> <system.serviceModel>  <behaviors>   <serviceBehaviors>    <behavior name="Service1Behavior">     <serviceCredentials>      <serviceCertificate findValue="ZwjCert" storeLocation="LocalMachine"       storeName="TrustedPeople" x509FindType="FindBySubjectName" />      <userNameAuthentication userNamePasswordValidationMode="MembershipProvider"       membershipProviderName="SqlMembershipProvider" />     </serviceCredentials>      <serviceMetadata httpGetEnabled="true" httpsGetEnabled="true" />     <serviceDebug includeExceptionDetailInFaults="false" />    </behavior>   </serviceBehaviors>  </behaviors>  <bindings>   <wsHttpBinding>    <binding name="Service1Binding">     <security mode="Message">      <message clientCredentialType="UserName"/>     </security>    </binding>   </wsHttpBinding>  </bindings>  <serviceHostingEnvironment aspNetCompatibilityEnabled="true" multipleSiteBindingsEnabled="true" /> <services>  <service name="WcfService1.Service1" behaviorConfiguration="Service1Behavior">   <endpoint address="" binding="wsHttpBinding" contract="WcfService1.IService1" bindingConfiguration="Service1Binding">   </endpoint>  </service> </services> </system.serviceModel>

这里需注意几点:

1.配置connectionString,连接到membership所需的数据库; 

2.配置membership,增加SqlMembershipProvider属性配置;

3.配置serviceCredential,与第一种基本相同,不同的是userNameAuthentication的配置:userNamePasswordValidationMode="MembershipProvider",membershipProviderName="SqlMembershipProvider";

4.配置Binding节点<message clientCredentialType="UserName"/>,这与第一种相同; 

客户端引用WCF服务,查看生成的配置文件内容,需确保Binding节点有以下配置信息:

<security mode="Message">    <message clientCredentialType="UserName" /> </security>

最后使用WCF服务,使用代码与第一种相同,唯一需要注意的是,传入的UserName和Password均为ASP.NET网站管理工具中创建的用户信息。

另外我们也可以采用membership+Form验证,利用ASP.NET的身份验证机制,要实现这种模式,是需要采用svc文件,并寄宿在IIS上,具体实现方法,参见:http://www.cnblogs.com/danielWise/archive/2011/01/30/1947912.html

由于WCF的验证方法很多,本文无法一次性全部写完,敬请期待续篇!