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[Java教程]AngularJS表单验证,手动验证或自动验证


 

AngularJS的表单验证大致有两种,一种是手动验证,一种是自动验证。


手动验证


所谓手动验证是通过AngularJS表单的属性来验证。而成为AngularJS表单必须满足两个条件:1、给form元素加上novalidate="novalidate";2、给form元素加上name="theForm",如下:

 

<!DOCTYPE html><html lang="en" ng-app="myApp1"><head> <meta charset="UTF-8"> <title></title> <link rel="stylesheet" href="../node_modules/bootstrap/dist/css/bootstrap.min.css"/> <link rel="stylesheet" href="../css/main.css"/></head><body><nav class="navbar navbar-inverse navbar-fixed-top"> <div class="container">  <div class="navbar-header">   <a href="http://www.cnblogs.com//" class="navbar-brand">Form Submitting</a>  </div> </div></nav><div class="container main-content" ng-controller="myCtrl1"> <!--novalidate让表单不要使用html验证--> <!--theForm变成scope的一个字段--> <form ng-submit="onSubmit(theForm.$valid)" novalidate="novalidate" name="theForm">  <div class="form-group">   <label for="name">Name</label>   <input type="text" class="form-control" id="name" ng-model="formModel.name"/>  </div>  <div class="form-group" ng-class="{   'has-error': !theForm.email.$valid && (!theForm.$pristine || theForm.$submitted),   'has-success': theForm.email.$valid && (!theForm.$pristine || theForm.$submitted)   }">   <label for="email">Email</label>   <input type="email" class="form-control" id="email" ng-model="formModel.email" required="required" name="email"/>   <p class="help-block" ng-show="theForm.email.$error.required && (!theForm.$pristine || theForm.$submitted)">必填</p>   <p class="help-block" ng-show="theForm.email.$error.email && (!theForm.$pristine || theForm.$submitted)">email格式不正确</p>  </div>  <div class="form-group">   <label for="username">Username</label>   <input type="text" class="form-control" id="username" ng-model="formModel.username"/>  </div>  <div class="form-group">   <label for="age">Age</label>   <input type="number" class="form-control" id="age" ng-model="formModel.age"/>  </div>  <div class="form-group">   <label for="sex">Sex</label>   <select name="sex" id="sex" class="form-control" ng-model="formModel.sex">    <option value="">Please choose</option>    <option value="male">Mail</option>    <option value="femail">Femail</option>   </select>  </div>  <div class="form-group">   <label for="password">Password</label>   <input type="text" class="form-control" id="password" ng-model="formModel.password"/>  </div>  <div class="form-group">   <button class="btn btn-primary" type="submit">Register</button>  </div>   <pre>    {{theForm | json}}   </pre> </form></div><script src="../node_modules/angular/angular.min.js"></script><script src="second.js"></script></body></html>

 


以上,

● 给form加上novalidate="novalidate"意味着表单将不再使用HTML5验证特性
● 给form加上name="theForm"意味着表单的名称是theForm。如何使用theForm,比如我们验证表单是否被修改过theForm.$submitted
● 通过ng-submit提交表单
● formModel是$scope中的一个属性
● 对表单的Email进行了手动验证,使用了AngularJS表单的众多属性,比如theForm.email.$valid,theForm.$pristine,theForm.$submitted, theForm.email.$error.required,theForm.email.$error.email
● 通过<pre>{{theForm | json}}</pre>把AngularJS表单的所有属性都打印出来

 

{ "$error": {  "required": [   {    "$validators": {},    "$asyncValidators": {},    "$parsers": [],    "$formatters": [     null    ],    "$viewChangeListeners": [],    "$untouched": true,    "$touched": false,    "$pristine": true,    "$dirty": false,    "$valid": false,    "$invalid": true,    "$error": {     "required": true    },    "$name": "email",    "$options": null   }  ] }, "$name": "theForm", "$dirty": false, "$pristine": true, "$valid": false, "$invalid": true, "$submitted": false, "email": {  "$validators": {},  "$asyncValidators": {},  "$parsers": [],  "$formatters": [   null  ],  "$viewChangeListeners": [],  "$untouched": true,  "$touched": false,  "$pristine": true,  "$dirty": false,  "$valid": false,  "$invalid": true,  "$error": {   "required": true  },  "$name": "email",  "$options": null }, "sex": {  "$validators": {},  "$asyncValidators": {},  "$parsers": [],  "$formatters": [],  "$viewChangeListeners": [],  "$untouched": true,  "$touched": false,  "$pristine": true,  "$dirty": false,  "$valid": true,  "$invalid": false,  "$error": {},  "$name": "sex",  "$options": null }}

 

以上,凡是有name属性的input都被显示在上面。

在second.js文件中定义了module,controller以及提交表单的方法。

 

var myApp1 = angular.module('myApp1',[]);myApp1.controller('myCtrl1', function($scope, $http){  $scope.formModel = {};  $scope.onSubmit = function(){    $http.post('someurl',$scope.formModel)      .success(function(data){        console.log(':)');      })      .error(function(data){        console.log(':(');      });    console.log($scope.formModel);  };});

 

以上的表单验证方式好处是可控性强,但相对繁琐。

自动验证



AngularJS的另外一种表单验证方式是自动验证,即通过directive来实现,除了AngularJS自带的directive,还需要用到angular-auto-validate这个第三方module。


有关angular-auto-validate:

 

● 网址:https://github.com/jonsamwell/angular-auto-validate
● 安装:npm i angular-auto-validate
● 引用:<script src="../node_modules/angular-auto-validate/dist/jcs-auto-validate.min.js"></script>
● module依赖:var myApp = angular.module("app", ["jcs-autoValidate"]);


为了实现错误信息本地化,还需要angular-localize这个第三方module:

● 安装:npm install angular-localize --save
● module依赖:var myApp = angular.module("app", ["localize"]);
● 引用:

<script src="../node_modules/angular-sanitize/angular-sanitize.min.js"></script>
<script src="../node_modules/angular-localize/angular-localize.min.js"></script>


此外,当点击提交表单按钮,需要禁用按钮并显示一种等待效果,需要用到angular-ladda这个第三方module:

● 安装:bower install angular-ladda --save
● module依赖:var myApp = angular.module("app", ["angular-ladda"]);
● 引用:
<link rel="stylesheet" href="../bower_components/ladda/dist/ladda-themeless.min.css"/>

<script src="../bower_components/ladda/dist/spin.min.js"></script>
<script src="../bower_components/ladda/dist/ladda.min.js"></script>
<script src="../bower_components/angular-ladda/dist/angular-ladda.min.js"></script>

页面如下:

 

<!DOCTYPE html><html lang="en" ng-app="myApp1"><head> <meta charset="gb2312"> <title></title> <link rel="stylesheet" href="../node_modules/bootstrap/dist/css/bootstrap.min.css"/> <link rel="stylesheet" href="../bower_components/ladda/dist/ladda-themeless.min.css"/> <link rel="stylesheet" href="../css/main.css"/></head><body><nav class="navbar navbar-inverse navbar-fixed-top"> <div class="container">  <div class="navbar-header">   <a href="http://www.cnblogs.com//" class="navbar-brand">Form Validating Auto</a>  </div> </div></nav><div class="container main-content" ng-controller="myCtrl1"> <!--novalidate让表单不要使用html验证--> <!--theForm变成scope的一个字段--> <form ng-submit="onSubmit()" novalidate="novalidate">  <div class="form-group">   <label for="name" class="control-label">Name</label>   <input type="text" class="form-control" id="name" ng-model="formModel.name" required="required"/>  </div>  <div class="form-group">   <label for="email" class="control-label">Email</label>   <input type="email" class="form-control" id="email" ng-model="formModel.email" required="required"/>  </div>  <div class="form-group">   <label for="username" class="control-label">Username</label>   <input type="text"       class="form-control"       id="username"       ng-model="formModel.username"       required="required"       ng-pattern="/^[A-Za-z0-9_]{1,32}$/"       ng-minlength="7"       ng-pattern-err-type="badUsername"    />  </div>  <div class="form-group">   <label for="age" class="control-label">Age</label>   <input type="number"       class="form-control"       id="age"       ng-model="formModel.age"       required="required"       min="18"       max="65"       ng-min-err-type="tooYoung"       ng-max-err-type="tooOld"    />  </div>  <div class="form-group">   <label for="sex" class="control-label">Sex</label>   <select name="sex" id="sex" class="form-control" ng-model="formModel.sex" required="required">    <option value="">Please choose</option>    <option value="male">Mail</option>    <option value="femail">Femail</option>   </select>  </div>  <div class="form-group">   <label for="password" class="control-label">Password</label>   <input type="text" class="form-control" id="password" ng-model="formModel.password" required="required" ng-minlength="6"/>  </div>  <div class="form-group">   <!--<button ng-click="onSubmit()">Register</button>-->   <button class="btn btn-primary"       ladda = "submitting"       data-style="expand-right"       type="submit">    <span ng-show="submitting">正在注册...</span>    <span ng-show="!submitting">注册</span>   </button>  </div>   <pre>    {{formModel | json}}   </pre> </form></div><script src="../node_modules/angular/angular.min.js"></script><script src="form_validation_auto.js"></script><script src="../node_modules/angular-auto-validate/dist/jcs-auto-validate.min.js"></script><script src="../node_modules/angular-sanitize/angular-sanitize.min.js"></script><script src="../node_modules/angular-localize/angular-localize.min.js"></script><script src="../bower_components/ladda/dist/spin.min.js"></script><script src="../bower_components/ladda/dist/ladda.min.js"></script><script src="../bower_components/angular-ladda/dist/angular-ladda.min.js"></script></body></html>

 

以上,先看提交按钮:

 

<div class="form-group"> <!--<button ng-click="onSubmit()">Register</button>--> <button class="btn btn-primary"     ladda = "submitting"     data-style="expand-right"     type="submit">  <span ng-show="submitting">正在注册...</span>  <span ng-show="!submitting">注册</span> </button></div>

 

● ladda属性值为bool值,true表示显示动态等待效果,false不显示动态等待效果,这里的submitting是scope中的一个属性
● data-表示在按钮的右侧显示动态等待效果

再拿表单中的Age字段来说:

 

<div class="form-group"> <label for="age" class="control-label">Age</label> <input type="number"     class="form-control"     id="age"     ng-model="formModel.age"     required="required"     min="18"     max="65"     ng-min-err-type="tooYoung"     ng-max-err-type="tooOld"  /></div>

 

其中,min, max为AgularJS的directive,而ng-min-err-type是angular-auto-validate的directive。这里遵循的惯例是ng-AngularJS表单验证的directive名称-err-type,而tooYoung和tooOld的作用是什么,又是在哪里用上了呢?


是在module层面用上了,定义在了form_validation_auto.js文件中。

 

var myApp1 = angular.module('myApp1',['jcs-autoValidate','localize','angular-ladda']);myApp1.run(function(defaultErrorMessageResolver){  defaultErrorMessageResolver.getErrorMessages().then(function(errorMessages){    errorMessages['tooYoung'] = '年龄必须小于{0}';    errorMessages['tooOld'] = '年龄不能大于{0}';    errorMessages['badUsername'] = '用户名只能包含数字、字母或下划线';  });});myApp1.controller('myCtrl1', function($scope, $http){  $scope.formModel = {};  $scope.submitting = false;  $scope.onSubmit = function(){    $scope.submitting = true;    console.log('已提交');    console.log($scope.formModel);    $http.post('url',$scope.formModel)      .success(function(data){        console.log(':)');        $scope.submitting = false;      })      .error(function(data){        console.log(':(');        $scope.submitting = false;      });  };});

 


以上,在run方法中使用angular-auto-validate的defaultErrorMessageResolver服务,对错误信息进行为了自定义。页面上的tooYoung和tooOld和这里的errorMessages['tooYoung']和errorMessages['badUsername']对应。