你的位置:首页 > 数据库

[数据库]使用 xtrabackup 进行MySQL数据库物理备份


0. xtrabackup的功能
能实现的功能:
非阻塞备份innodb等事务引擎数据库、
备份myisam表会阻塞(需要锁)、
支持全备、增量备份、压缩备份、
快速增量备份(xtradb,原理类似于oracle:tracking 上次备份之后发生修改的page.)、
percona支持归档redo log的备份、
percona5.6+支持轻量级的backup-lock替代原来重量级的FTWRL,此时即使备份非事务引擎表也不会阻塞innodb的DML语句了、
支持加密备份、流备份(备份到远程机器)、并行本地备份、并行压缩、并行加密、并行应用备份期间产生的redo日志、并行copy-back
支持部分备份,只备份某个库,某个表
支持部分恢复
支持备份单个表分区
支持备份速度限制,指备份产生的IO速度的限制
支持point-in-time恢复
支持compat备份,也即使不备份索引数据,索引在prepare时--rebuild-indexs
支持备份buffer pool
支持单表export, import到其它库
支持 rsync 来缩短备份非事务引擎表的锁定时间
1. 物理备份需要的权限
使用innobackupex/xtrabackup进行备份,必须先配置好权限。需要的权限分为两部分:
1>系统层面的权限: 执行 innobackupex/xtrabackup 命令的Linux用户需要对mysql datadir和保存备份的目录有读写执行的权限,当然需要对这些命令要有执行权限;
2>mysqld层面的权限:innobackupex/xtrabackup --user=bkpuser 该用户bkpuser是指mysql.user表中的用户,不是系统层面的用户;需要一些基本的权限来执行备份过程:
最基本的权限:
create user 'bkpuser'@'localhost' identified by 'xxx';
grant reload,lock tables,replication client on *.* to 'bkpuser'@'localhost';
这些权限仅仅只能完成:全备,增量备份,恢复;
一般如果需要部分备份,export表,import表,还需要:grant create tablespace on *.* to 'bkpuser'@'localhost';
如果还需要对备份的过程中对锁进行一些优化,防止发生阻塞所有DML的情况,则还需要:
grant process,super on *.* to 'bkpuser'@'localhost';
(root@localhost)[(none)]mysql>show grants for 'bkpuser'@'localhost'\G*************************** 1. row ***************************Grants for bkpuser@localhost: GRANT RELOAD, PROCESS, SUPER, LOCK TABLES, REPLICATION CLIENT, CREATE TABLESPACE ON *.* TO 'bkpuser'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY PASSWORD '*BDC62F68AF8F0B8BFAE27FF782C5D8CE9F4BAFCB'1 row in set (0.00 sec)

2. innobackupex 命令选项:

[root@localhost ~]# innobackupex --helpOpen source backup tool for InnoDB and XtraDB[... ...]innobackupex - Non-blocking backup tool for InnoDB, XtraDB and HailDB databasesSYNOPOSIS(使用方法)innobackupex [--compress] [--compress-threads=NUMBER-OF-THREADS] [--compress-chunk-size=CHUNK-SIZE]       [--encrypt=ENCRYPTION-ALGORITHM] [--encrypt-threads=NUMBER-OF-THREADS] [--encrypt-chunk-size=CHUNK-SIZE]       [--encrypt-key=LITERAL-ENCRYPTION-KEY] | [--encryption-key-file=MY.KEY]       [--include=REGEXP] [--user=NAME]       [--password=WORD] [--port=PORT] [--socket=SOCKET]       [--no-timestamp] [--ibbackup=IBBACKUP-BINARY]       [--slave-info] [--galera-info] [--stream=tar|xbstream]       [--defaults-file=MY.CNF] [--defaults-group=GROUP-NAME]       [--databases=LIST] [--no-lock]       [--tmpdir=DIRECTORY] [--tables-file=FILE]       [--history=NAME]       [--incremental] [--incremental-basedir]       [--incremental-dir] [--incremental-force-scan] [--incremental-lsn]       [--incremental-history-name=NAME] [--incremental-history-uuid=UUID]       [--close-files] [--compact]       BACKUP-ROOT-DIRinnobackupex --apply-log [--use-memory=B]       [--defaults-file=MY.CNF]       [--export] [--redo-only] [--ibbackup=IBBACKUP-BINARY]       BACKUP-DIRinnobackupex --copy-back [--defaults-file=MY.CNF] [--defaults-group=GROUP-NAME] BACKUP-DIRinnobackupex --move-back [--defaults-file=MY.CNF] [--defaults-group=GROUP-NAME] BACKUP-DIRinnobackupex [--decompress] [--decrypt=ENCRYPTION-ALGORITHM]       [--encrypt-key=LITERAL-ENCRYPTION-KEY] | [--encryption-key-file=MY.KEY]       [--parallel=NUMBER-OF-FORKS] BACKUP-DIRDESCRIPTIONThe first command line above makes a hot backup of a MySQL database.By default it creates a backup directory (named by the current date    and time) in the given backup root directory. With the --no-timestampoption it does not create a time-stamped backup directory, but it putsthe backup in the given directory (which must not exist). Thiscommand makes a complete backup of all MyISAM and InnoDB tables andindexes in all databases or in all of the databases specified with the--databases option. The created backup contains .frm, .MRG, .MYD,.MYI, .MAD, .MAI, .TRG, .TRN, .ARM, .ARZ, .CSM, CSV, .opt, .par, andInnoDB data and log files. The MY.CNF options file defines thelocation of the database. This command connects to the MySQL serverusing the mysql client program, and runs xtrabackup as a childprocess.The --apply-log command prepares a backup for starting a MySQLserver on the backup. This command recovers InnoDB data files as specifiedin BACKUP-DIR/backup-my.cnf using BACKUP-DIR/xtrabackup_logfile,and creates new InnoDB log files as specified in BACKUP-DIR/backup-my.cnf.The BACKUP-DIR should be the path to a backup directory created byxtrabackup. This command runs xtrabackup as a child process, but it does notconnect to the database server.The --copy-back command copies data, index, and log filesfrom the backup directory back to their original locations.The MY.CNF options file defines the original location of the database.The BACKUP-DIR is the path to a backup directory created by xtrabackup.The --move-back command is similar to --copy-back with the only difference thatit moves files to their original locations rather than copies them. As thisoption removes backup files, it must be used with caution. It may be useful incases when there is not enough free disk space to copy files.The --decompress --decrypt command will decrypt and/or decompress a backup madewith the --compress and/or --encrypt options. When decrypting, the encryptionalgorithm and key used when the backup was taken MUST be provided via thespecified options. --decrypt and --decompress may be used together at the sametime to completely normalize a previously compressed and encrypted backup. The--parallel option will allow multiple files to be decrypted and/or decompressedsimultaneously. In order to decompress, the qpress utility MUST be installedand accessable within the path. This process will remove the originalcompressed/encrypted files and leave the results in the same location.On success the exit code innobackupex is 0. A non-zero exit codeindicates an error.Usage: [innobackupex [--defaults-file=#] --backup | innobackupex [--defaults-file=#] --prepare] [OPTIONS] -v, --version    print xtrabackup version information -?, --help     This option displays a help screen and exits. --apply-log     Prepare a backup in BACKUP-DIR by applying the           transaction log file named "xtrabackup_logfile" located           in the same directory. Also, create new transaction logs.           The InnoDB configuration is read from the file           "backup-my.cnf". --redo-only     This option should be used when preparing the base full           backup and when merging all incrementals except the last           one. This forces xtrabackup to skip the "rollback" phase           and do a "redo" only. This is necessary if the backup           will have incremental changes applied to it later. See           the xtrabackup documentation for details. --copy-back     Copy all the files in a previously made backup from the           backup directory to their original locations. --move-back     Move all the files in a previously made backup from the           backup directory to the actual datadir location. Use with           caution, as it removes backup files. --galera-info    This options creates the xtrabackup_galera_info file           which contains the local node state at the time of the           backup. Option should be used when performing the backup           of Percona-XtraDB-Cluster. Has no effect when backup           locks are used to create the backup. --slave-info    This option is useful when backing up a replication slave           server. It prints the binary log position and name of the           master server. It also writes this information to the           "xtrabackup_slave_info" file as a "CHANGE MASTER"           command. A new slave for this master can be set up by           starting a slave server on this backup and issuing a           "CHANGE MASTER" command with the binary log position           saved in the "xtrabackup_slave_info" file. --incremental    This option tells xtrabackup to create an incremental           backup, rather than a full one. It is passed to the           xtrabackup child process. When this option is specified,           either --incremental-lsn or --incremental-basedir can           also be given. If neither option is given, option           --incremental-basedir is passed to xtrabackup by default,           set to the first timestamped backup directory in the           backup base directory. --no-lock      Use this option to disable table lock with "FLUSH TABLES           WITH READ LOCK". Use it only if ALL your tables are           InnoDB and you DO NOT CARE about the binary log position           of the backup. This option shouldn't be used if there are           any DDL statements being executed or if any updates are           happening on non-InnoDB tables (this includes the system           MyISAM tables in the mysql database), otherwise it could           lead to an inconsistent backup. If you are considering to           use --no-lock because your backups are failing to acquire           the lock, this could be because of incoming replication           events preventing the lock from succeeding. Please try           using --safe-slave-backup to momentarily stop the           replication slave thread, this may help the backup to           succeed and you then don't need to resort to using this           option. --safe-slave-backup Stop slave SQL thread and wait to start backup until           Slave_open_temp_tables in "SHOW STATUS" is zero. If there           are no open temporary tables, the backup will take place,           otherwise the SQL thread will be started and stopped           until there are no open temporary tables. The backup will           fail if Slave_open_temp_tables does not become zero after           --safe-slave-backup-timeout seconds. The slave SQL thread           will be restarted when the backup finishes. --rsync       Uses the rsync utility to optimize local file transfers.           When this option is specified, innobackupex uses rsync to           copy all non-InnoDB files instead of spawning a separate           cp for each file, which can be much faster for servers           with a large number of databases or tables. This option           cannot be used together with --stream. --force-non-empty-directories           This option, when specified, makes --copy-back or           --move-back transfer files to non-empty directories. Note           that no existing files will be overwritten. If           --copy-back or --nove-back has to copy a file from the           backup directory which already exists in the destination           directory, it will still fail with an error. --no-timestamp   This option prevents creation of a time-stamped           subdirectory of the BACKUP-ROOT-DIR given on the command           line. When it is specified, the backup is done in           BACKUP-ROOT-DIR instead. --no-version-check This option disables the version check which is enabled           by the --version-check option. --no-backup-locks  This option controls if backup locks should be used           instead of FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK on the backup           stage. The option has no effect when backup locks are not           supported by the server. This option is enabled by           default, disable with --no-backup-locks. --decompress    Decompresses all files with the .qp extension in a backup           previously made with the --compress option. --user=name     This option specifies the MySQL username used when           connecting to the server, if that's not the current user.           The option accepts a string argument. See mysql --help           for details. --host=name     This option specifies the host to use when connecting to           the database server with TCP/IP. The option accepts a           string argument. See mysql --help for details. --port=#      This option specifies the port to use when connecting to           the database server with TCP/IP. The option accepts a           string argument. See mysql --help for details. --password=name   This option specifies the password to use when connecting           to the database. It accepts a string argument. See mysql           --help for details. --socket=name    This option specifies the socket to use when connecting           to the local database server with a UNIX domain socket.           The option accepts a string argument. See mysql --help           for details. --incremental-history-name=name           This option specifies the name of the backup series           stored in the PERCONA_SCHEMA.xtrabackup_history history           record to base an incremental backup on. Xtrabackup will           search the history table looking for the most recent           (highest innodb_to_lsn), successful backup in the series           and take the to_lsn value to use as the starting lsn for           the incremental backup. This will be mutually exclusive           with --incremental-history-uuid, --incremental-basedir           and --incremental-lsn. If no valid lsn can be found (no           series by that name, no successful backups by that name)           xtrabackup will return with an error. It is used with the           --incremental option. --incremental-history-uuid=name           This option specifies the UUID of the specific history           record stored in the PERCONA_SCHEMA.xtrabackup_history to           base an incremental backup on.           --incremental-history-name, --incremental-basedir and           --incremental-lsn. If no valid lsn can be found (no           success record with that uuid) xtrabackup will return           with an error. It is used with the --incremental option. --decrypt=name   Decrypts all files with the .xbcrypt extension in a           backup previously made with --encrypt option. --ftwrl-wait-query-type=name           This option specifies which types of queries are allowed           to complete before innobackupex will issue the global           lock. Default is all. --kill-long-query-type=name           This option specifies which types of queries should be           killed to unblock the global lock. Default is "all". --history[=name]  This option enables the tracking of backup history in the           PERCONA_SCHEMA.xtrabackup_history table. An optional           history series name may be specified that will be placed           with the history record for the current backup being           taken. --include=name   This option is a regular expression to be matched against           table names in databasename.tablename format. It is           passed directly to xtrabackup's --tables option. See the           xtrabackup documentation for details. --databases=name  This option specifies the list of databases that           innobackupex should back up. The option accepts a string           argument or path to file that contains the list of           databases to back up. The list is of the form           "databasename1[.table_name1] databasename2[.table_name2]           . . .". If this option is not specified, all databases           containing MyISAM and InnoDB tables will be backed up.           Please make sure that --databases contains all of the           InnoDB databases and tables, so that all of the           innodb.frm files are also backed up. In case the list is           very long, this can be specified in a file, and the full           path of the file can be specified instead of the list.           (See option --tables-file.) --kill-long-queries-timeout=#           This option specifies the number of seconds innobackupex           waits between starting FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK and           killing those queries that block it. Default is 0           seconds, which means innobackupex will not attempt to           kill any queries. --ftwrl-wait-timeout=#           This option specifies time in seconds that innobackupex           should wait for queries that would block FTWRL before           running it. If there are still such queries when the           timeout expires, innobackupex terminates with an error.           Default is 0, in which case innobackupex does not wait           for queries to complete and starts FTWRL immediately. --ftwrl-wait-threshold=#           This option specifies the query run time threshold which           is used by innobackupex to detect long-running queries           with a non-zero value of --ftwrl-wait-timeout. FTWRL is           not started until such long-running queries exist. This           option has no effect if --ftwrl-wait-timeout is 0.           Default value is 60 seconds. --debug-sleep-before-unlock=#           This is a debug-only option used by the XtraBackup test           suite. --safe-slave-backup-timeout=#           How many seconds --safe-slave-backup should wait for           Slave_open_temp_tables to become zero. (default 300) --close-files    Do not keep files opened. This option is passed directly           to xtrabackup. Use at your own risk. --compact      Create a compact backup with all secondary index pages           omitted. This option is passed directly to xtrabackup.           See xtrabackup documentation for details. --compress[=name]  This option instructs xtrabackup to compress backup           copies of InnoDB data files. It is passed directly to the           xtrabackup child process. Try 'xtrabackup --help' for           more details. --compress-threads=#           This option specifies the number of worker threads that           will be used for parallel compression. It is passed           directly to the xtrabackup child process. Try 'xtrabackup           --help' for more details. --compress-chunk-size=#           Size of working buffer(s) for compression threads in           bytes. The default value is 64K. --encrypt=name   This option instructs xtrabackup to encrypt backup copies           of InnoDB data files using the algorithm specified in the           ENCRYPTION-ALGORITHM. It is passed directly to the           xtrabackup child process. Try 'xtrabackup --help' for           more details. --encrypt-key=name This option instructs xtrabackup to use the given           ENCRYPTION-KEY when using the --encrypt or --decrypt           options. During backup it is passed directly to the           xtrabackup child process. Try 'xtrabackup --help' for           more details. --encrypt-key-file=name           This option instructs xtrabackup to use the encryption           key stored in the given ENCRYPTION-KEY-FILE when using           the --encrypt or --decrypt options. --encrypt-threads=# This option specifies the number of worker threads that           will be used for parallel encryption. It is passed           directly to the xtrabackup child process. Try 'xtrabackup           --help' for more details. --encrypt-chunk-size=#           This option specifies the size of the internal working           buffer for each encryption thread, measured in bytes. It           is passed directly to the xtrabackup child process. Try           'xtrabackup --help' for more details. --export      This option is passed directly to xtrabackup's --export           option. It enables exporting individual tables for import           into another server. See the xtrabackup documentation for           details. --extra-lsndir=name This option specifies the directory in which to save an           extra copy of the "xtrabackup_checkpoints" file. The           option accepts a string argument. It is passed directly           to xtrabackup's --extra-lsndir option. See the xtrabackup           documentation for details. --incremental-basedir=name           This option specifies the directory containing the full           backup that is the base dataset for the incremental           backup. The option accepts a string argument. It is used           with the --incremental option. --incremental-dir=name           This option specifies the directory where the incremental           backup will be combined with the full backup to make a           new full backup. The option accepts a string argument.           It is used with the --incremental option. --incremental-force-scan           This options tells xtrabackup to perform full scan of           data files for taking an incremental backup even if full           changed page bitmap data is available to enable the           backup without the full scan. --log-copy-interval=#           This option specifies time interval between checks done           by log copying thread in milliseconds. --incremental-lsn=name           This option specifies the log sequence number (LSN) to           use for the incremental backup. The option accepts a           string argument. It is used with the --incremental           option. It is used instead of specifying           --incremental-basedir. For databases created by MySQL and           Percona Server 5.0-series versions, specify the LSN as           two 32-bit integers in high:low format. For databases           created in 5.1 and later, specify the LSN as a single           64-bit integer. --parallel=#    On backup, this option specifies the number of threads           the xtrabackup child process should use to back up files           concurrently. The option accepts an integer argument. It           is passed directly to xtrabackup's --parallel option. See           the xtrabackup documentation for details. --rebuild-indexes  This option only has effect when used together with the           --apply-log option and is passed directly to xtrabackup.           When used, makes xtrabackup rebuild all secondary indexes           after applying the log. This option is normally used to           prepare compact backups. See the XtraBackup manual for           more information. --rebuild-threads=# Use this number of threads to rebuild indexes in a           compact backup. Only has effect with --prepare and           --rebuild-indexes. --stream=name    This option specifies the format in which to do the           streamed backup. The option accepts a string argument.           The backup will be done to STDOUT in the specified           format. Currently, the only supported formats are tar and           xbstream. This option is passed directly to xtrabackup's           --stream option. --tables-file=name This option specifies the file in which there are a list           of names of the form database. The option accepts a           string argument.table, one per line. The option is passed           directly to xtrabackup's --tables-file option. --throttle=#    This option specifies a number of I/O operations (pairs           of read+write) per second. It accepts an integer           argument. It is passed directly to xtrabackup's           --throttle option. -t, --tmpdir=name  This option specifies the location where a temporary           files will be stored. If the option is not specified, the           default is to use the value of tmpdir read from the           server configuration. --use-memory=#   This option accepts a string argument that specifies the           amount of memory in bytes for xtrabackup to use for crash           recovery while preparing a backup. Multiples are           supported providing the unit (e.g. 1MB, 1GB). It is used           only with the option --apply-log. It is passed directly           to xtrabackup's --use-memory option. See the xtrabackup           documentation for details.[root@localhost ~]#

innobackupex --help
3. 使用 innobackupex 备份
3.1 全备
(这里系统层面使用的root用户备份,msyql层面使用的是bkpuser用户,root需要对datadir /var/lib/mysql, 备份目录/backup/xtrabackup/full有读写执行权限;bkpuser也需在mysql中有相关权限)
[root@localhost ~]# innobackupex  /backup/xtrabackup/full --user=bkpuser --password=digdeep
[root@localhost ~]# innobackupex /backup/xtrabackup/full --user=bkpuser --password=digdeep151105 22:38:55 innobackupex: Starting the backup operationIMPORTANT: Please check that the backup run completes successfully.      At the end of a successful backup run innobackupex      prints "completed OK!".151105 22:38:55 version_check Connecting to MySQL server with DSN 'dbi:mysql:;mysql_read_default_group=xtrabackup;mysql_socket=/tmp/mysql.sock' as 'bkpuser' (using password: YES).151105 22:38:56 version_check Connected to MySQL server151105 22:38:56 version_check Executing a version check against the server...151105 22:38:56 version_check Done.151105 22:38:56 Connecting to MySQL server host: localhost, user: bkpuser, password: set, port: 0, socket: /tmp/mysql.sockUsing server version 5.6.26-loginnobackupex version 2.3.2 based on MySQL server 5.6.24 Linux (i686) (revision id: 306a2e0)xtrabackup: uses posix_fadvise().xtrabackup: cd to /var/lib/mysqlxtrabackup: open files limit requested 0, set to 10240xtrabackup: using the following InnoDB configuration:xtrabackup:  innodb_data_home_dir = ./xtrabackup:  innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:12M:autoextendxtrabackup:  innodb_log_group_home_dir = ./xtrabackup:  innodb_log_files_in_group = 2xtrabackup:  innodb_log_file_size = 50331648151105 22:38:56 >> log scanned up to (731470240)xtrabackup: Generating a list of tablespaces151105 22:38:56 [01] Copying ./ibdata1 to /backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-05_22-38-55/ibdata1151105 22:38:57 >> log scanned up to (731470240)151105 22:38:58 >> log scanned up to (731470240)151105 22:38:58 [01]    ...done151105 22:38:58 [01] Copying ./mysql/slave_master_info.ibd to /backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-05_22-38-55/mysql/slave_master_info.ibd151105 22:38:58 [01]    ...done151105 22:38:58 [01] Copying ./mysql/innodb_index_stats.ibd to /backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-05_22-38-55/mysql/innodb_index_stats.ibd151105 22:38:58 [01]    ...done[... ...]151105 22:38:59 [01] Copying ./aazj/group_union.ibd to /backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-05_22-38-55/aazj/group_union.ibd151105 22:38:59 [01]    ...done151105 22:38:59 [01] Copying ./aazj/SYS_PARAM.ibd to /backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-05_22-38-55/aazj/SYS_PARAM.ibd151105 22:38:59 >> log scanned up to (731470240)151105 22:38:59 [01]    ...done151105 22:38:59 [01] Copying ./aazj/GroupBlog.ibd to /backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-05_22-38-55/aazj/GroupBlog.ibd151105 22:38:59 [01]    ...done[... ...]151105 22:39:01 [01] Copying ./aazj/Accounting_paylog.ibd to /backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-05_22-38-55/aazj/Accounting_paylog.ibd151105 22:39:01 [01]    ...done151105 22:39:01 [01] Copying ./aazj/Customer.ibd to /backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-05_22-38-55/aazj/Customer.ibd151105 22:39:01 [01]    ...done151105 22:39:01 [01] Copying ./aazj/uuu.ibd to /backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-05_22-38-55/aazj/uuu.ibd151105 22:39:02 >> log scanned up to (731634905)151105 22:39:03 >> log scanned up to (731634905)151105 22:39:04 >> log scanned up to (731634905)151105 22:39:04 [01]    ...done151105 22:39:04 [01] Copying ./aazj/Members.ibd to /backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-05_22-38-55/aazj/Members.ibd151105 22:39:05 [01]    ...done151105 22:39:05 [01] Copying ./aazj/tttt.ibd to /backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-05_22-38-55/aazj/tttt.ibd151105 22:39:05 [01]    ...done151105 22:39:05 [01] Copying ./aazj/uu_test.ibd to /backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-05_22-38-55/aazj/uu_test.ibd151105 22:39:05 >> log scanned up to (731634905)151105 22:39:06 >> log scanned up to (731685874)151105 22:39:07 >> log scanned up to (731686008)151105 22:39:08 >> log scanned up to (731686008)151105 22:39:08 [01]    ...done151105 22:39:08 [01] Copying ./aazj/Mess_Receive.ibd to /backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-05_22-38-55/aazj/Mess_Receive.ibd151105 22:39:09 [01]    ...done[... ...]151105 22:39:09 >> log scanned up to (731686008)Executing FLUSH NO_WRITE_TO_BINLOG TABLES...151105 22:39:09 Executing FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK...151105 22:39:09 Starting to backup non-InnoDB tables and files151105 22:39:09 [01] Copying ./mysql/columns_priv.frm to /backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-05_22-38-55/mysql/columns_priv.frm151105 22:39:09 [01]    ...done151105 22:39:09 [01] Copying ./mysql/user.MYI to /backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-05_22-38-55/mysql/user.MYI151105 22:39:09 [01]    ...done[... ...]151105 22:39:10 [01] Copying ./mysql/help_category.frm to /backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-05_22-38-55/mysql/help_category.frm151105 22:39:10 [01]    ...done151105 22:39:10 >> log scanned up to (731686008)151105 22:39:10 [01] Copying ./mysql/proc.MYD to /backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-05_22-38-55/mysql/proc.MYD151105 22:39:10 [01]    ...done[... ...]151105 22:39:10 [01]    ...done151105 22:39:10 [01] Copying ./mysql/proxies_priv.MYI to /backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-05_22-38-55/mysql/proxies_priv.MYI151105 22:39:10 [01]    ...done151105 22:39:10 [01] Copying ./aazj/model_order.frm to /backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-05_22-38-55/aazj/model_order.frm151105 22:39:10 [01]    ...done151105 22:39:10 [01] Copying ./aazj/Comment.frm to /backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-05_22-38-55/aazj/Comment.frm151105 22:39:10 [01]    ...done[... ...]151105 22:39:11 [01] Copying ./performance_schema/events_waits_summary_by_host_by_event_name.frm to /backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-05_22-38-55/performance_schema/events_waits_summary_by_host_by_event_name.frm151105 22:39:11 [01]    ...done[... ...]151105 22:39:11 [01] Copying ./performance_schema/events_statements_summary_by_account_by_event_name.frm to /backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-05_22-38-55/performance_schema/events_statements_summary_by_account_by_event_name.frm151105 22:39:11 [01]    ...done151105 22:39:11 [01] Copying ./t/city.frm to /backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-05_22-38-55/t/city.frm151105 22:39:11 [01]    ...done151105 22:39:11 [01] Copying ./t/db.opt to /backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-05_22-38-55/t/db.opt151105 22:39:11 [01]    ...done151105 22:39:11 [01] Copying ./t/t.frm to /backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-05_22-38-55/t/t.frm151105 22:39:11 [01]    ...done151105 22:39:11 Finished backing up non-InnoDB tables and files151105 22:39:11 [00] Writing xtrabackup_binlog_info151105 22:39:11 [00]    ...done151105 22:39:11 Executing FLUSH NO_WRITE_TO_BINLOG ENGINE LOGS...xtrabackup: The latest check point (for incremental): '731686008'xtrabackup: Stopping log copying thread..151105 22:39:11 >> log scanned up to (731686008)151105 22:39:11 Executing UNLOCK TABLES151105 22:39:11 All tables unlocked151105 22:39:11 Backup created in directory '/backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-05_22-38-55'MySQL binlog position: filename 'mysql-bin.000015', position '117940'151105 22:39:11 [00] Writing backup-my.cnf151105 22:39:11 [00]    ...done151105 22:39:11 [00] Writing xtrabackup_info151105 22:39:11 [00]    ...donextrabackup: Transaction log of lsn (731470240) to (731686008) was copied.151105 22:39:11 completed OK!

View Code
3.2 恢复

1> 第一步prepare(两次prepare,第一次应用备份期间产生的redo log,进行前滚和回滚:replay在redo log中已经提交的事务,rollback没有提交的事务)
注意这里的路径,必须要包括最后那个timestamp目录,不然会下面的错误:
[root@localhost ~]# innobackupex --apply-log /backup/xtrabackup/full/ --user=bkpuser --password=digdeep151106 10:41:48 innobackupex: Starting the apply-log operationIMPORTANT: Please check that the apply-log run completes successfully.      At the end of a successful apply-log run innobackupex      prints "completed OK!".innobackupex version 2.3.2 based on MySQL server 5.6.24 Linux (i686) (revision id: 306a2e0)xtrabackup: cd to /backup/xtrabackup/fullxtrabackup: Error: cannot open ./xtrabackup_checkpointsxtrabackup: error: xtrabackup_read_metadata()xtrabackup: This target seems not to have correct metadata...2015-11-06 10:41:48 b771e6d0 InnoDB: Operating system error number 2 in a file operation.InnoDB: The error means the system cannot find the path specified.xtrabackup: Warning: cannot open ./xtrabackup_logfile. will try to find.2015-11-06 10:41:48 b771e6d0 InnoDB: Operating system error number 2 in a file operation.InnoDB: The error means the system cannot find the path specified. xtrabackup: Fatal error: cannot find ./xtrabackup_logfile.xtrabackup: Error: xtrabackup_init_temp_log() failed.

--apply-log会调用 xtrabackup --prepare两次,第一次前滚和回滚,第二次生成iblogfile[0|1]
[root@localhost ~]# innobackupex --apply-log /backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-05_22-38-55/ --user=bkpuser --password=digdeep

[root@localhost ~]# innobackupex --apply-log /backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-05_22-38-55/ --user=bkpuser --password=digdeep 151106 10:43:32 innobackupex: Starting the apply-log operationIMPORTANT: Please check that the apply-log run completes successfully.      At the end of a successful apply-log run innobackupex      prints "completed OK!".innobackupex version 2.3.2 based on MySQL server 5.6.24 Linux (i686) (revision id: 306a2e0)xtrabackup: cd to /backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-05_22-38-55/xtrabackup: This target seems to be not prepared yet.xtrabackup: xtrabackup_logfile detected: size=2097152, start_lsn=(731470240)xtrabackup: using the following InnoDB configuration for recovery:xtrabackup:  innodb_data_home_dir = ./xtrabackup:  innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:10M:autoextendxtrabackup:  innodb_log_group_home_dir = ./xtrabackup:  innodb_log_files_in_group = 1xtrabackup:  innodb_log_file_size = 2097152xtrabackup: using the following InnoDB configuration for recovery:xtrabackup:  innodb_data_home_dir = ./xtrabackup:  innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:10M:autoextendxtrabackup:  innodb_log_group_home_dir = ./xtrabackup:  innodb_log_files_in_group = 1xtrabackup:  innodb_log_file_size = 2097152xtrabackup: Starting InnoDB instance for recovery.xtrabackup: Using 104857600 bytes for buffer pool (set by --use-memory parameter)InnoDB: Using atomics to ref count buffer pool pagesInnoDB: The InnoDB memory heap is disabledInnoDB: Mutexes and rw_locks use GCC atomic builtinsInnoDB: Memory barrier is not usedInnoDB: Compressed tables use zlib 1.2.3InnoDB: Not using CPU crc32 instructionsInnoDB: Initializing buffer pool, size = 100.0MInnoDB: Completed initialization of buffer poolInnoDB: Highest supported file format is Barracuda.InnoDB: Log scan progressed past the checkpoint lsn 731470240InnoDB: Database was not shutdown normally!InnoDB: Starting crash recovery.InnoDB: Reading tablespace information from the .ibd files...InnoDB: Restoring possible half-written data pagesInnoDB: from the doublewrite buffer...InnoDB: Doing recovery: scanned up to log sequence number 731686008 (11%)InnoDB: Starting an apply batch of log records to the database...InnoDB: Progress in percent: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99InnoDB: Apply batch completedInnoDB: 128 rollback segment(s) are active.InnoDB: Waiting for purge to startInnoDB: 5.6.24 started; log sequence number 731686008xtrabackup: Last MySQL binlog file position 117940, file name mysql-bin.000015 ()xtrabackup: starting shutdown with innodb_fast_shutdown = 1InnoDB: FTS optimize thread exiting.InnoDB: Starting shutdown...InnoDB: Shutdown completed; log sequence number 731724574xtrabackup: using the following InnoDB configuration for recovery:xtrabackup:  innodb_data_home_dir = ./xtrabackup:  innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:10M:autoextendxtrabackup:  innodb_log_group_home_dir = ./xtrabackup:  innodb_log_files_in_group = 2xtrabackup:  innodb_log_file_size = 50331648InnoDB: Using atomics to ref count buffer pool pagesInnoDB: The InnoDB memory heap is disabledInnoDB: Mutexes and rw_locks use GCC atomic builtinsInnoDB: Memory barrier is not usedInnoDB: Compressed tables use zlib 1.2.3InnoDB: Not using CPU crc32 instructionsInnoDB: Initializing buffer pool, size = 100.0MInnoDB: Completed initialization of buffer poolInnoDB: Setting log file ./ib_logfile101 size to 48 MBInnoDB: Setting log file ./ib_logfile1 size to 48 MBInnoDB: Renaming log file ./ib_logfile101 to ./ib_logfile0InnoDB: New log files created, LSN=731724574InnoDB: Highest supported file format is Barracuda.InnoDB: 128 rollback segment(s) are active.InnoDB: Waiting for purge to startInnoDB: 5.6.24 started; log sequence number 731724812xtrabackup: starting shutdown with innodb_fast_shutdown = 1InnoDB: FTS optimize thread exiting.InnoDB: Starting shutdown...InnoDB: Shutdown completed; log sequence number 731724822151106 10:43:40 completed OK![root@localhost ~]#

View Code
3.3 恢复 --copy-back

直接将上面prepare好的所有文件,复制到mysqld的datadir目录(会读取my.cnf中的配置信息)。
--copy--back的注意事项:
1> datadir必须是空的,或者使用--force-non-empty-directories选项;
2> mysqld必须关闭,如果是--import部分恢复,则不能关闭;
3> --copy-back完成之后,需要修改datadir目录下的文件权限: chown -R mysql:mysql /var/lib/mysql
[root@localhost ~]# mysqladmin -uroot -pxxx shutdown (关闭mysqld)
[root@localhost ~]# cd /var/lib/mysql
[root@localhost mysql]# ls
aazj         ib_logfile1         mysql-bin.000003  mysql-bin.000008  mysql-bin.000013  performance_schema
auto.cnf     localhost-slow.log  mysql-bin.000004  mysql-bin.000009  mysql-bin.000014  t
general.log  mysql               mysql-bin.000005  mysql-bin.000010  mysql-bin.000015  xtrabackup_binlog_pos_innodb
ibdata1      mysql-bin.000001    mysql-bin.000006  mysql-bin.000011  mysql-bin.000016  xtrabackup_info
ib_logfile0  mysql-bin.000002    mysql-bin.000007  mysql-bin.000012  mysql-bin.index
[root@localhost mysql]# mv * /backup/xtrabackup/  (进行清空)
[root@localhost mysql]# ls
[root@localhost mysql]# innobackupex --copy-back /backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-05_22-38-55/ --user=bkpuser --password=digdeep


[root@localhost mysql]# innobackupex --copy-back /backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-05_22-38-55/ --user=bkpuser --password=digdeep 151106 11:07:38 innobackupex: Starting the copy-back operationIMPORTANT: Please check that the copy-back run completes successfully.      At the end of a successful copy-back run innobackupex      prints "completed OK!".innobackupex version 2.3.2 based on MySQL server 5.6.24 Linux (i686) (revision id: 306a2e0)151106 11:07:38 [01] Copying ib_logfile0 to /var/lib/mysql/ib_logfile0151106 11:07:40 [01]    ...done151106 11:07:40 [01] Copying ib_logfile1 to /var/lib/mysql/ib_logfile1151106 11:07:41 [01]    ...done151106 11:07:41 [01] Copying ibdata1 to /var/lib/mysql/ibdata1151106 11:07:45 [01]    ...done151106 11:07:45 [01] Copying ./xtrabackup_info to /var/lib/mysql/xtrabackup_info151106 11:07:45 [01]    ...done151106 11:07:45 [01] Copying ./mysql/slave_master_info.ibd to /var/lib/mysql/mysql/slave_master_info.ibd151106 11:07:45 [01]    ...done[... ...]151106 11:07:57 [01] Copying ./t/db.opt to /var/lib/mysql/t/db.opt151106 11:07:57 [01]    ...done151106 11:07:57 [01] Copying ./t/t.frm to /var/lib/mysql/t/t.frm151106 11:07:57 [01]    ...done151106 11:07:57 completed OK![root@localhost mysql]# pwd/var/lib/mysql[root@localhost mysql]# lsaazj ibdata1 ib_logfile0 ib_logfile1 mysql performance_schema t xtrabackup_binlog_pos_innodb xtrabackup_info

可以看到恢复之后,没有 binlog 文件盒index文件
启动myqld之前需要修改权限:
[root@localhost mysql]# ls -ltotal 176164drwx------ 2 root root   4096 Nov 6 11:07 aazj-rw-rw---- 1 mysql mysql   543 Nov 6 11:13 general.log-rw-r----- 1 root root 79691776 Nov 6 11:07 ibdata1-rw-r----- 1 root root 50331648 Nov 6 11:07 ib_logfile0-rw-r----- 1 root root 50331648 Nov 6 11:07 ib_logfile1-rw-rw---- 1 mysql mysql   543 Nov 6 11:13 localhost-slow.logdrwx------ 2 root root   4096 Nov 6 11:07 mysql-rw-rw---- 1 mysql mysql    0 Nov 6 11:12 mysql-bin.indexdrwx------ 2 root root   4096 Nov 6 11:07 performance_schemadrwx------ 2 root root   4096 Nov 6 11:07 t-rw-r----- 1 root root    24 Nov 6 11:07 xtrabackup_binlog_pos_innodb-rw-r----- 1 root root    487 Nov 6 11:07 xtrabackup_info[root@localhost mysql]# chown -R mysql:mysql /var/lib/mysql[root@localhost mysql]# ls -ltotal 176164drwx------ 2 mysql mysql   4096 Nov 6 11:07 aazj-rw-rw---- 1 mysql mysql   543 Nov 6 11:13 general.log-rw-r----- 1 mysql mysql 79691776 Nov 6 11:07 ibdata1-rw-r----- 1 mysql mysql 50331648 Nov 6 11:07 ib_logfile0-rw-r----- 1 mysql mysql 50331648 Nov 6 11:07 ib_logfile1-rw-rw---- 1 mysql mysql   543 Nov 6 11:13 localhost-slow.logdrwx------ 2 mysql mysql   4096 Nov 6 11:07 mysql-rw-rw---- 1 mysql mysql    0 Nov 6 11:12 mysql-bin.indexdrwx------ 2 mysql mysql   4096 Nov 6 11:07 performance_schemadrwx------ 2 mysql mysql   4096 Nov 6 11:07 t-rw-r----- 1 mysql mysql    24 Nov 6 11:07 xtrabackup_binlog_pos_innodb-rw-r----- 1 mysql mysql   487 Nov 6 11:07 xtrabackup_info

不然启动会在error.log中报错:
2015-11-06 11:13:55 3542 [ERROR] InnoDB: ./ibdata1 can't be opened in read-write mode
2015-11-06 11:13:55 3542 [ERROR] InnoDB: The system tablespace must be writable!
2015-11-06 11:13:55 3542 [ERROR] Plugin 'InnoDB' init function returned error.
2015-11-06 11:13:55 3542 [ERROR] Plugin 'InnoDB' registration as a STORAGE ENGINE failed.
2015-11-06 11:13:55 3542 [ERROR] Unknown/unsupported storage engine: InnoDB
2015-11-06 11:13:55 3542 [ERROR] Aborting
 

启动成功之后,datadir目录下各种文件都产生了:
[root@localhost mysql]# pwd
/var/lib/mysql
[root@localhost mysql]# ls
aazj      general.log  ib_logfile0  localhost-slow.log  mysql-bin.000001  performance_schema  xtrabackup_binlog_pos_innodb
auto.cnf  ibdata1      ib_logfile1  mysql               mysql-bin.index   t                   xtrabackup_info
3.4 innobackupex 增量备份
增量备份之前,必须建立一个全备,第一次增量备份是在全备的基础之上,第二次增量备份是在第一次增量备份的基础之上的,一次类推
全备:
[root@localhost mysql]# innobackupex --user=bkpuser --password=digdeep /backup/xtrabackup/full
[root@localhost mysql]# innobackupex --user=bkpuser --password=digdeep /backup/xtrabackup/full第一次增量备份:--incremental /backup/xtrabackup/incr1/ 指定增量备份的位置;--incremental-basedir=指定上一次的全备或者增量备份:[root@localhost mysql]# innobackupex --incremental /backup/xtrabackup/incr1/ --incremental-basedir=/backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-06_11-29-51/ --user=bkpuser --password=digdeep 151106 11:33:16 innobackupex: Starting the backup operationIMPORTANT: Please check that the backup run completes successfully.      At the end of a successful backup run innobackupex      prints "completed OK!".151106 11:33:16 version_check Connecting to MySQL server with DSN 'dbi:mysql:;mysql_read_default_group=xtrabackup;mysql_socket=/tmp/mysql.sock' as 'bkpuser' (using password: YES).151106 11:33:16 version_check Connected to MySQL server151106 11:33:16 version_check Executing a version check against the server...151106 11:33:16 version_check Done.151106 11:33:16 Connecting to MySQL server host: localhost, user: bkpuser, password: set, port: 0, socket: /tmp/mysql.sockUsing server version 5.6.26-loginnobackupex version 2.3.2 based on MySQL server 5.6.24 Linux (i686) (revision id: 306a2e0)incremental backup from 731724832 is enabled.xtrabackup: uses posix_fadvise().xtrabackup: cd to /var/lib/mysqlxtrabackup: open files limit requested 0, set to 10240xtrabackup: using the following InnoDB configuration:xtrabackup:  innodb_data_home_dir = ./xtrabackup:  innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:12M:autoextendxtrabackup:  innodb_log_group_home_dir = ./xtrabackup:  innodb_log_files_in_group = 2xtrabackup:  innodb_log_file_size = 50331648151106 11:33:16 >> log scanned up to (732153217)xtrabackup: Generating a list of tablespacesxtrabackup: using the full scan for incremental backup151106 11:33:17 [01] Copying ./ibdata1 to /backup/xtrabackup/incr1//2015-11-06_11-33-16/ibdata1.delta151106 11:33:17 >> log scanned up to (732153217)151106 11:33:18 [01]    ...done151106 11:33:18 >> log scanned up to (732153217)151106 11:33:18 [01] Copying ./mysql/slave_master_info.ibd to /backup/xtrabackup/incr1//2015-11-06_11-33-16/mysql/slave_master_info.ibd.delta151106 11:33:18 [01]    ...done151106 11:33:19 >> log scanned up to (732153217)[... ...]151106 11:33:30 [01] Copying ./aazj/Configuration.ibd to /backup/xtrabackup/incr1//2015-11-06_11-33-16/aazj/Configuration.ibd.delta151106 11:33:30 [01]    ...done151106 11:33:31 [01] Copying ./aazj/lx_test.ibd to /backup/xtrabackup/incr1//2015-11-06_11-33-16/aazj/lx_test.ibd.delta151106 11:33:31 >> log scanned up to (732231774)151106 11:33:32 [01]    ...done151106 11:33:32 >> log scanned up to (732231774)151106 11:33:32 [01] Copying ./aazj/Users.ibd to /backup/xtrabackup/incr1//2015-11-06_11-33-16/aazj/Users.ibd.delta151106 11:33:32 [01]    ...done[... ...]151106 11:33:42 [01] Copying ./aazj/tttt.ibd to /backup/xtrabackup/incr1//2015-11-06_11-33-16/aazj/tttt.ibd.delta151106 11:33:42 [01]    ...done151106 11:33:42 >> log scanned up to (732501432)151106 11:33:42 [01] Copying ./aazj/uu_test.ibd to /backup/xtrabackup/incr1//2015-11-06_11-33-16/aazj/uu_test.ibd.delta[... ...]151106 11:33:47 [01] Copying ./t/t.ibd to /backup/xtrabackup/incr1//2015-11-06_11-33-16/t/t.ibd.delta151106 11:33:48 [01]    ...done151106 11:33:48 >> log scanned up to (732501432)Executing FLUSH NO_WRITE_TO_BINLOG TABLES...151106 11:33:48 Executing FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK...151106 11:33:48 Starting to backup non-InnoDB tables and files151106 11:33:48 [01] Copying ./mysql/columns_priv.frm to /backup/xtrabackup/incr1//2015-11-06_11-33-16/mysql/columns_priv.frm151106 11:33:48 [01]    ...done[... ...]151106 11:33:51 [01] Copying ./t/t.frm to /backup/xtrabackup/incr1//2015-11-06_11-33-16/t/t.frm151106 11:33:51 [01]    ...done151106 11:33:51 Finished backing up non-InnoDB tables and files151106 11:33:51 [00] Writing xtrabackup_binlog_info151106 11:33:51 [00]    ...done151106 11:33:51 Executing FLUSH NO_WRITE_TO_BINLOG ENGINE LOGS...xtrabackup: The latest check point (for incremental): '732501432'xtrabackup: Stopping log copying thread..151106 11:33:51 >> log scanned up to (732501432)151106 11:33:51 Executing UNLOCK TABLES151106 11:33:51 All tables unlocked151106 11:33:51 Backup created in directory '/backup/xtrabackup/incr1//2015-11-06_11-33-16'MySQL binlog position: filename 'mysql-bin.000001', position '157893'151106 11:33:51 [00] Writing backup-my.cnf151106 11:33:51 [00]    ...done151106 11:33:51 [00] Writing xtrabackup_info151106 11:33:51 [00]    ...donextrabackup: Transaction log of lsn (732153217) to (732501432) was copied.151106 11:33:51 completed OK![root@localhost mysql]#

View Code
第二次增量备份:

[root@localhost mysql]# innobackupex --incremental /backup/xtrabackup/incr2 --incremental-basedir=/backup/xtrabackup/incr1/2015-11-06_11-33-16/ --user=bkpuser --password=digdeep
[root@localhost mysql]# innobackupex --incremental /backup/xtrabackup/incr2 --incremental-basedir=/backup/xtrabackup/incr1/2015-11-06_11-33-16/ --user=bkpuser --password=digdeep151106 11:43:22 innobackupex: Starting the backup operationIMPORTANT: Please check that the backup run completes successfully.      At the end of a successful backup run innobackupex      prints "completed OK!".151106 11:43:22 version_check Connecting to MySQL server with DSN 'dbi:mysql:;mysql_read_default_group=xtrabackup;mysql_socket=/tmp/mysql.sock' as 'bkpuser' (using password: YES).151106 11:43:22 version_check Connected to MySQL server151106 11:43:22 version_check Executing a version check against the server...151106 11:43:22 version_check Done.151106 11:43:22 Connecting to MySQL server host: localhost, user: bkpuser, password: set, port: 0, socket: /tmp/mysql.sockUsing server version 5.6.26-loginnobackupex version 2.3.2 based on MySQL server 5.6.24 Linux (i686) (revision id: 306a2e0)incremental backup from 732501432 is enabled.xtrabackup: uses posix_fadvise().xtrabackup: cd to /var/lib/mysqlxtrabackup: open files limit requested 0, set to 10240xtrabackup: using the following InnoDB configuration:xtrabackup:  innodb_data_home_dir = ./xtrabackup:  innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:12M:autoextendxtrabackup:  innodb_log_group_home_dir = ./xtrabackup:  innodb_log_files_in_group = 2xtrabackup:  innodb_log_file_size = 50331648151106 11:43:23 >> log scanned up to (732501432)xtrabackup: Generating a list of tablespaces151106 11:43:23 [01] Copying ./ibdata1 to /backup/xtrabackup/incr2/2015-11-06_11-43-22/ibdata1.delta151106 11:43:23 [01]    ...done151106 11:43:24 >> log scanned up to (732552856)151106 11:43:24 [01] Copying ./mysql/slave_master_info.ibd to /backup/xtrabackup/incr2/2015-11-06_11-43-22/mysql/slave_master_info.ibd.delta151106 11:43:24 [01]    ...done151106 11:43:25 >> log scanned up to (732552974)151106 11:43:25 [01] Copying ./mysql/innodb_index_stats.ibd to /backup/xtrabackup/incr2/2015-11-06_11-43-22/mysql/innodb_index_stats.ibd.delta151106 11:43:25 [01]    ...done151106 11:43:25 [01] Copying ./mysql/slave_relay_log_info.ibd to /backup/xtrabackup/incr2/2015-11-06_11-43-22/mysql/slave_relay_log_info.ibd.delta151106 11:43:25 [01]    ...done151106 11:43:26 >> log scanned up to (732552974)151106 11:43:26 [01] Copying ./mysql/slave_worker_info.ibd to /backup/xtrabackup/incr2/2015-11-06_11-43-22/mysql/slave_worker_info.ibd.delta151106 11:43:26 [01]    ...done151106 11:43:26 [01] Copying ./mysql/innodb_table_stats.ibd to /backup/xtrabackup/incr2/2015-11-06_11-43-22/mysql/innodb_table_stats.ibd.delta151106 11:43:26 [01]    ...done151106 11:43:27 >> log scanned up to (732716925)151106 11:43:27 [01] Copying ./aazj/u_test.ibd to /backup/xtrabackup/incr2/2015-11-06_11-43-22/aazj/u_test.ibd.delta151106 11:43:27 [01]    ...done[... ...]151106 11:43:50 [01] Copying ./t/t.frm to /backup/xtrabackup/incr2/2015-11-06_11-43-22/t/t.frm151106 11:43:50 [01]    ...done151106 11:43:50 Finished backing up non-InnoDB tables and files151106 11:43:50 [00] Writing xtrabackup_binlog_info151106 11:43:50 [00]    ...done151106 11:43:50 Executing FLUSH NO_WRITE_TO_BINLOG ENGINE LOGS...xtrabackup: The latest check point (for incremental): '732777035'xtrabackup: Stopping log copying thread..151106 11:43:50 >> log scanned up to (732777035)151106 11:43:50 Executing UNLOCK TABLES151106 11:43:50 All tables unlocked151106 11:43:50 Backup created in directory '/backup/xtrabackup/incr2/2015-11-06_11-43-22'MySQL binlog position: filename 'mysql-bin.000001', position '254400'151106 11:43:50 [00] Writing backup-my.cnf151106 11:43:50 [00]    ...done151106 11:43:50 [00] Writing xtrabackup_info151106 11:43:50 [00]    ...donextrabackup: Transaction log of lsn (732501432) to (732777035) was copied.151106 11:43:50 completed OK![root@localhost mysql]#

View Code
3.5 innobackupex 增量备份的恢复

1> 应用全备的redo log:
[root@localhost ~]# innobackupex --apply-log --redo-only /backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-06_11-29-51/ --user=bkpuser --password=digdeep
[root@localhost ~]# innobackupex --apply-log --redo-only /backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-06_11-29-51/ --user=bkpuser --password=digdeep151106 14:48:26 innobackupex: Starting the apply-log operationIMPORTANT: Please check that the apply-log run completes successfully.      At the end of a successful apply-log run innobackupex      prints "completed OK!".innobackupex version 2.3.2 based on MySQL server 5.6.24 Linux (i686) (revision id: 306a2e0)xtrabackup: cd to /backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-06_11-29-51/xtrabackup: This target seems to be not prepared yet.xtrabackup: xtrabackup_logfile detected: size=2097152, start_lsn=(731724832)xtrabackup: using the following InnoDB configuration for recovery:xtrabackup:  innodb_data_home_dir = ./xtrabackup:  innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:10M:autoextendxtrabackup:  innodb_log_group_home_dir = ./xtrabackup:  innodb_log_files_in_group = 1xtrabackup:  innodb_log_file_size = 2097152xtrabackup: using the following InnoDB configuration for recovery:xtrabackup:  innodb_data_home_dir = ./xtrabackup:  innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:10M:autoextendxtrabackup:  innodb_log_group_home_dir = ./xtrabackup:  innodb_log_files_in_group = 1xtrabackup:  innodb_log_file_size = 2097152xtrabackup: Starting InnoDB instance for recovery.xtrabackup: Using 104857600 bytes for buffer pool (set by --use-memory parameter)InnoDB: Using atomics to ref count buffer pool pagesInnoDB: The InnoDB memory heap is disabledInnoDB: Mutexes and rw_locks use GCC atomic builtinsInnoDB: Memory barrier is not usedInnoDB: Compressed tables use zlib 1.2.3InnoDB: Not using CPU crc32 instructionsInnoDB: Initializing buffer pool, size = 100.0MInnoDB: Completed initialization of buffer poolInnoDB: Highest supported file format is Barracuda.InnoDB: The log sequence numbers 731724822 and 731724822 in ibdata files do not match the log sequence number 731724832 in the ib_logfiles!InnoDB: Database was not shutdown normally!InnoDB: Starting crash recovery.InnoDB: Reading tablespace information from the .ibd files...InnoDB: Restoring possible half-written data pagesInnoDB: from the doublewrite buffer...xtrabackup: Last MySQL binlog file position 117940, file name mysql-bin.000015xtrabackup: starting shutdown with innodb_fast_shutdown = 1InnoDB: Starting shutdown...InnoDB: Shutdown completed; log sequence number 731724832151106 14:48:28 completed OK!

View Code
2> 应用第一次增量备份的redo log:
[root@localhost ~]# innobackupex --apply-log --redo-only /backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-06_11-29-51/ --incremental-dir=/backup/xtrabackup/incr1/2015-11-06_11-33-16/ --user=bkpuser --password=digdeep
[root@localhost ~]# innobackupex --apply-log --redo-only /backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-06_11-29-51/ --incremental-dir=/backup/xtrabackup/incr1/2015-11-06_11-33-16/ --user=bkpuser --password=digdeep151106 14:51:08 innobackupex: Starting the apply-log operationIMPORTANT: Please check that the apply-log run completes successfully.      At the end of a successful apply-log run innobackupex      prints "completed OK!".innobackupex version 2.3.2 based on MySQL server 5.6.24 Linux (i686) (revision id: 306a2e0)incremental backup from 731724832 is enabled.xtrabackup: cd to /backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-06_11-29-51/xtrabackup: This target seems to be already prepared with --apply-log-only.xtrabackup: xtrabackup_logfile detected: size=2097152, start_lsn=(732153217)xtrabackup: using the following InnoDB configuration for recovery:xtrabackup:  innodb_data_home_dir = ./xtrabackup:  innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:10M:autoextendxtrabackup:  innodb_log_group_home_dir = /backup/xtrabackup/incr1/2015-11-06_11-33-16/xtrabackup:  innodb_log_files_in_group = 1xtrabackup:  innodb_log_file_size = 2097152xtrabackup: Generating a list of tablespacesxtrabackup: page size for /backup/xtrabackup/incr1/2015-11-06_11-33-16//ibdata1.delta is 16384 bytesApplying /backup/xtrabackup/incr1/2015-11-06_11-33-16//ibdata1.delta to ./ibdata1...xtrabackup: page size for /backup/xtrabackup/incr1/2015-11-06_11-33-16//mysql/innodb_index_stats.ibd.delta is 16384 bytes[... ...]xtrabackup: page size for /backup/xtrabackup/incr1/2015-11-06_11-33-16//aazj/tttt.ibd.delta is 16384 bytesApplying /backup/xtrabackup/incr1/2015-11-06_11-33-16//aazj/tttt.ibd.delta to ./aazj/tttt.ibd...xtrabackup: page size for /backup/xtrabackup/incr1/2015-11-06_11-33-16//aazj/Users.ibd.delta is 16384 bytesApplying /backup/xtrabackup/incr1/2015-11-06_11-33-16//aazj/Users.ibd.delta to ./aazj/Users.ibd...xtrabackup: page size for /backup/xtrabackup/incr1/2015-11-06_11-33-16//aazj/Gis.ibd.delta is 16384 bytesApplying /backup/xtrabackup/incr1/2015-11-06_11-33-16//aazj/Gis.ibd.delta to ./aazj/Gis.ibd...[... ...]xtrabackup: page size for /backup/xtrabackup/incr1/2015-11-06_11-33-16//t/t.ibd.delta is 16384 bytesApplying /backup/xtrabackup/incr1/2015-11-06_11-33-16//t/t.ibd.delta to ./t/t.ibd...xtrabackup: using the following InnoDB configuration for recovery:xtrabackup:  innodb_data_home_dir = ./xtrabackup:  innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:10M:autoextendxtrabackup:  innodb_log_group_home_dir = /backup/xtrabackup/incr1/2015-11-06_11-33-16/xtrabackup:  innodb_log_files_in_group = 1xtrabackup:  innodb_log_file_size = 2097152xtrabackup: Starting InnoDB instance for recovery.xtrabackup: Using 104857600 bytes for buffer pool (set by --use-memory parameter)InnoDB: Using atomics to ref count buffer pool pagesInnoDB: The InnoDB memory heap is disabledInnoDB: Mutexes and rw_locks use GCC atomic builtinsInnoDB: Memory barrier is not usedInnoDB: Compressed tables use zlib 1.2.3InnoDB: Not using CPU crc32 instructionsInnoDB: Initializing buffer pool, size = 100.0MInnoDB: Completed initialization of buffer poolInnoDB: Highest supported file format is Barracuda.InnoDB: Log scan progressed past the checkpoint lsn 732153217InnoDB: Database was not shutdown normally!InnoDB: Starting crash recovery.InnoDB: Reading tablespace information from the .ibd files...InnoDB: Restoring possible half-written data pagesInnoDB: from the doublewrite buffer...InnoDB: Doing recovery: scanned up to log sequence number 732501432 (18%)InnoDB: Starting an apply batch of log records to the database...InnoDB: Progress in percent: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39  40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 8 6 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99InnoDB: Apply batch completedxtrabackup: Last MySQL binlog file position 157893, file name mysql-bin.000001xtrabackup: starting shutdown with innodb_fast_shutdown = 1InnoDB: Starting shutdown...InnoDB: Shutdown completed; log sequence number 732501432151106 14:51:12 [01] Copying /backup/xtrabackup/incr1/2015-11-06_11-33-16/mysql/columns_priv.frm to ./mysql/columns_priv.frm151106 14:51:12 [01]    ...done151106 14:51:12 [01] Copying /backup/xtrabackup/incr1/2015-11-06_11-33-16/mysql/user.MYI to ./mysql/user.MYI151106 14:51:12 [01]    ...done151106 14:51:12 [01] Copying /backup/xtrabackup/incr1/2015-11-06_11-33-16/mysql/general_log.frm to ./mysql/general_log.frm151106 14:51:12 [01]    ...done[... ...]151106 14:51:14 [01] Copying /backup/xtrabackup/incr1/2015-11-06_11-33-16/t/city.frm to ./t/city.frm151106 14:51:14 [01]    ...done151106 14:51:14 [01] Copying /backup/xtrabackup/incr1/2015-11-06_11-33-16/t/db.opt to ./t/db.opt151106 14:51:14 [01]    ...done151106 14:51:14 [01] Copying /backup/xtrabackup/incr1/2015-11-06_11-33-16/t/t.frm to ./t/t.frm151106 14:51:14 [01]    ...done151106 14:51:14 completed OK!

View Code
3> 应用第二次(最后一次)增量备份的redo log,并且回滚进行崩溃恢复过程(没有--redo-only选项):
[root@localhost ~]# innobackupex --apply-log /backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-06_11-29-51/ --incremental-dir=/backup/xtrabackup/incr2/2015-1  1-06_11-43-22/ --user=bkpuser --password=digdeep
[root@localhost ~]# innobackupex --apply-log /backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-06_11-29-51/ --incremental-dir=/backup/xtrabackup/incr2/2015-1 1-06_11-43-22/ --user=bkpuser --password=digdeep151106 14:55:43 innobackupex: Starting the apply-log operationIMPORTANT: Please check that the apply-log run completes successfully.      At the end of a successful apply-log run innobackupex      prints "completed OK!".innobackupex version 2.3.2 based on MySQL server 5.6.24 Linux (i686) (revision id: 306a2e0)incremental backup from 732501432 is enabled.xtrabackup: cd to /backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-06_11-29-51/xtrabackup: This target seems to be already prepared with --apply-log-only.xtrabackup: xtrabackup_logfile detected: size=2097152, start_lsn=(732501432)xtrabackup: using the following InnoDB configuration for recovery:xtrabackup:  innodb_data_home_dir = ./xtrabackup:  innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:10M:autoextendxtrabackup:  innodb_log_group_home_dir = /backup/xtrabackup/incr2/2015-11-06_11-43-22/xtrabackup:  innodb_log_files_in_group = 1xtrabackup:  innodb_log_file_size = 2097152xtrabackup: Generating a list of tablespacesxtrabackup: page size for /backup/xtrabackup/incr2/2015-11-06_11-43-22//ibdata1.delta is 16384 bytesApplying /backup/xtrabackup/incr2/2015-11-06_11-43-22//ibdata1.delta to ./ibdata1...xtrabackup: page size for /backup/xtrabackup/incr2/2015-11-06_11-43-22//mysql/innodb_index_stats.ibd.delta is 16384 bytesApplying /backup/xtrabackup/incr2/2015-11-06_11-43-22//mysql/innodb_index_stats.ibd.delta to ./mysql/innodb_index_stats.ibd...[... ...]Applying /backup/xtrabackup/incr2/2015-11-06_11-43-22//t/city.ibd.delta to ./t/city.ibd...xtrabackup: page size for /backup/xtrabackup/incr2/2015-11-06_11-43-22//t/t.ibd.delta is 16384 bytesApplying /backup/xtrabackup/incr2/2015-11-06_11-43-22//t/t.ibd.delta to ./t/t.ibd...xtrabackup: using the following InnoDB configuration for recovery:xtrabackup:  innodb_data_home_dir = ./xtrabackup:  innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:10M:autoextendxtrabackup:  innodb_log_group_home_dir = /backup/xtrabackup/incr2/2015-11-06_11-43-22/xtrabackup:  innodb_log_files_in_group = 1xtrabackup:  innodb_log_file_size = 2097152xtrabackup: Starting InnoDB instance for recovery.xtrabackup: Using 104857600 bytes for buffer pool (set by --use-memory parameter)InnoDB: Using atomics to ref count buffer pool pagesInnoDB: The InnoDB memory heap is disabledInnoDB: Mutexes and rw_locks use GCC atomic builtinsInnoDB: Memory barrier is not usedInnoDB: Compressed tables use zlib 1.2.3InnoDB: Not using CPU crc32 instructionsInnoDB: Initializing buffer pool, size = 100.0MInnoDB: Completed initialization of buffer poolInnoDB: Highest supported file format is Barracuda.InnoDB: Log scan progressed past the checkpoint lsn 732501432InnoDB: Database was not shutdown normally!InnoDB: Starting crash recovery.InnoDB: Reading tablespace information from the .ibd files...InnoDB: Restoring possible half-written data pagesInnoDB: from the doublewrite buffer...InnoDB: Doing recovery: scanned up to log sequence number 732777035 (14%)InnoDB: Starting an apply batch of log records to the database...InnoDB: Progress in percent: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39  40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 8 6 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99InnoDB: Apply batch completedInnoDB: 128 rollback segment(s) are active.InnoDB: Waiting for purge to startInnoDB: 5.6.24 started; log sequence number 732777035xtrabackup: Last MySQL binlog file position 254400, file name mysql-bin.000001xtrabackup: starting shutdown with innodb_fast_shutdown = 1InnoDB: FTS optimize thread exiting.InnoDB: Starting shutdown...InnoDB: Shutdown completed; log sequence number 732817046151106 14:55:47 [01] Copying /backup/xtrabackup/incr2/2015-11-06_11-43-22/mysql/columns_priv.frm to ./mysql/columns_priv.frm151106 14:55:47 [01]    ...done151106 14:55:47 [01] Copying /backup/xtrabackup/incr2/2015-11-06_11-43-22/mysql/user.MYI to ./mysql/user.MYI151106 14:55:47 [01]    ...done[... ...]151106 14:55:50 [01] Copying /backup/xtrabackup/incr2/2015-11-06_11-43-22/t/db.opt to ./t/db.opt151106 14:55:50 [01]    ...done151106 14:55:50 [01] Copying /backup/xtrabackup/incr2/2015-11-06_11-43-22/t/t.frm to ./t/t.frm151106 14:55:50 [01]    ...donextrabackup: using the following InnoDB configuration for recovery:xtrabackup:  innodb_data_home_dir = ./xtrabackup:  innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:10M:autoextendxtrabackup:  innodb_log_group_home_dir = /backup/xtrabackup/incr2/2015-11-06_11-43-22/xtrabackup:  innodb_log_files_in_group = 2xtrabackup:  innodb_log_file_size = 50331648InnoDB: Using atomics to ref count buffer pool pagesInnoDB: The InnoDB memory heap is disabledInnoDB: Mutexes and rw_locks use GCC atomic builtinsInnoDB: Memory barrier is not usedInnoDB: Compressed tables use zlib 1.2.3InnoDB: Not using CPU crc32 instructionsInnoDB: Initializing buffer pool, size = 100.0MInnoDB: Completed initialization of buffer poolInnoDB: Setting log file /backup/xtrabackup/incr2/2015-11-06_11-43-22/ib_logfile101 size to 48 MBInnoDB: Setting log file /backup/xtrabackup/incr2/2015-11-06_11-43-22/ib_logfile1 size to 48 MBInnoDB: Renaming log file /backup/xtrabackup/incr2/2015-11-06_11-43-22/ib_logfile101 to /backup/xtrabackup/incr2/2015-11-06_11-43-22/ib_logfile0InnoDB: New log files created, LSN=732817046InnoDB: Highest supported file format is Barracuda.InnoDB: 128 rollback segment(s) are active.InnoDB: Waiting for purge to startInnoDB: 5.6.24 started; log sequence number 732817420xtrabackup: starting shutdown with innodb_fast_shutdown = 1InnoDB: FTS optimize thread exiting.InnoDB: Starting shutdown...InnoDB: Shutdown completed; log sequence number 732817430151106 14:55:54 completed OK!

View Code
[root@localhost ~]#
然后 --copy-back:


先关闭mysqld: mysqladmin -uroot -pxxx shutdown
[root@localhost mysql]# innobackupex --copy-back /backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-06_11-29-51/ --user=bkpuser --password=digdeep
[root@localhost mysql]# innobackupex --copy-back /backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-06_11-29-51/ --user=bkpuser --password=digdeep151106 15:10:23 innobackupex: Starting the copy-back operationIMPORTANT: Please check that the copy-back run completes successfully.      At the end of a successful copy-back run innobackupex      prints "completed OK!".innobackupex version 2.3.2 based on MySQL server 5.6.24 Linux (i686) (revision id: 306a2e0)151106 15:10:23 [01] Copying ibdata1 to /var/lib/mysql/ibdata1151106 15:10:28 [01]    ...done151106 15:10:28 [01] Copying ./xtrabackup_info to /var/lib/mysql/xtrabackup_info151106 15:10:28 [01]    ...done[... ...]151106 15:10:41 [01]    ...done151106 15:10:41 [01] Copying ./t/db.opt to /var/lib/mysql/t/db.opt151106 15:10:41 [01]    ...done151106 15:10:41 [01] Copying ./t/t.frm to /var/lib/mysql/t/t.frm151106 15:10:41 [01]    ...done151106 15:10:42 completed OK!

View Code
修改权限:
chown -R mysql:mysql /var/lib/mysql
启动:mysqld_safe --user=mysql &
最后验证还原成功。
4. 部分备份
需要启用 innodb_file_per_table,5.6默认启用。另外在还原时,prepare之后,并不能直接 --copy-back,而只能一个表一个表的import来还原。
[root@localhost xtrabackup]# innobackupex --databases t /backup/xtrabackup/ --user=bkpuser --password=digdeep
[root@localhost xtrabackup]# innobackupex --databases t /backup/xtrabackup/ --user=bkpuser --password=digdeep151106 15:39:34 innobackupex: Starting the backup operationIMPORTANT: Please check that the backup run completes successfully.      At the end of a successful backup run innobackupex      prints "completed OK!".151106 15:39:35 version_check Connecting to MySQL server with DSN 'dbi:mysql:;mysql_read_default_group=xtrabackup;mysql_socket=/tmp/mysql. sock' as 'bkpuser' (using password: YES).151106 15:39:35 version_check Connected to MySQL server151106 15:39:35 version_check Executing a version check against the server...151106 15:39:35 version_check Done.151106 15:39:35 Connecting to MySQL server host: localhost, user: bkpuser, password: set, port: 0, socket: /tmp/mysql.sockUsing server version 5.6.26-loginnobackupex version 2.3.2 based on MySQL server 5.6.24 Linux (i686) (revision id: 306a2e0)xtrabackup: uses posix_fadvise().xtrabackup: cd to /var/lib/mysqlxtrabackup: open files limit requested 0, set to 10240xtrabackup: using the following InnoDB configuration:xtrabackup:  innodb_data_home_dir = ./xtrabackup:  innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:12M:autoextendxtrabackup:  innodb_log_group_home_dir = ./xtrabackup:  innodb_log_files_in_group = 2xtrabackup:  innodb_log_file_size = 50331648151106 15:39:35 >> log scanned up to (732817942)xtrabackup: Generating a list of tablespaces151106 15:39:35 [01] Copying ./ibdata1 to /backup/xtrabackup//2015-11-06_15-39-34/ibdata1151106 15:39:36 >> log scanned up to (732817942)151106 15:39:37 >> log scanned up to (732817942)151106 15:39:38 [01]    ...done151106 15:39:38 [01] Copying ./t/city.ibd to /backup/xtrabackup//2015-11-06_15-39-34/t/city.ibd151106 15:39:38 [01]    ...done151106 15:39:38 [01] Copying ./t/t.ibd to /backup/xtrabackup//2015-11-06_15-39-34/t/t.ibd151106 15:39:38 [01]    ...done151106 15:39:38 >> log scanned up to (732817942)Executing FLUSH NO_WRITE_TO_BINLOG TABLES...151106 15:39:38 Executing FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK...151106 15:39:38 Starting to backup non-InnoDB tables and files151106 15:39:38 [01] Skipping ./mysql/slave_master_info.ibd.151106 15:39:38 [01] Skipping ./mysql/columns_priv.frm.[... ...]151106 15:39:38 [01] Skipping ./aazj/model_buyers_credit.ibd.151106 15:39:38 [01] Skipping ./aazj/Users.frm.151106 15:39:38 [01] Skipping ./aazj/model_recruiting_program.ibd.151106 15:39:38 [01] Skipping ./aazj/model_model.ibd.151106 15:39:38 [01] Skipping ./aazj/Customer.frm.151106 15:39:38 [01] Skipping ./performance_schema/events_waits_summary_by_host_by_event_name.frm.[... ...]151106 15:39:38 [01] Skipping ./performance_schema/events_statements_summary_by_account_by_event_name.frm.151106 15:39:38 [01] Copying ./t/city.frm to /backup/xtrabackup//2015-11-06_15-39-34/t/city.frm151106 15:39:38 [01]    ...done151106 15:39:38 [01] Copying ./t/db.opt to /backup/xtrabackup//2015-11-06_15-39-34/t/db.opt151106 15:39:38 [01]    ...done151106 15:39:38 [01] Copying ./t/t.frm to /backup/xtrabackup//2015-11-06_15-39-34/t/t.frm151106 15:39:38 [01]    ...done151106 15:39:38 Finished backing up non-InnoDB tables and files151106 15:39:38 [00] Writing xtrabackup_binlog_info151106 15:39:38 [00]    ...done151106 15:39:38 Executing FLUSH NO_WRITE_TO_BINLOG ENGINE LOGS...xtrabackup: The latest check point (for incremental): '732817942'xtrabackup: Stopping log copying thread..151106 15:39:38 >> log scanned up to (732817942)151106 15:39:39 Executing UNLOCK TABLES151106 15:39:39 All tables unlocked151106 15:39:39 Backup created in directory '/backup/xtrabackup//2015-11-06_15-39-34'MySQL binlog position: filename 'mysql-bin.000001', position '120'151106 15:39:39 [00] Writing backup-my.cnf151106 15:39:39 [00]    ...done151106 15:39:39 [00] Writing xtrabackup_info151106 15:39:39 [00]    ...donextrabackup: Transaction log of lsn (732817942) to (732817942) was copied.151106 15:39:39 completed OK!

View Code
数据库 t 中只有两个表:city, t 都被备份了。

下面我们来看如何还原:
4.1 部分prepare:
[root@localhost xtrabackup]# innobackupex --apply-log --export /backup/xtrabackup/2015-11-06_15-39-34/ --user=bkpuser --password=digdeep
[root@localhost xtrabackup]# innobackupex --apply-log --export /backup/xtrabackup/2015-11-06_15-39-34/ --user=bkpuser --password=digdeep151106 15:49:43 innobackupex: Starting the apply-log operationIMPORTANT: Please check that the apply-log run completes successfully.      At the end of a successful apply-log run innobackupex      prints "completed OK!".innobackupex version 2.3.2 based on MySQL server 5.6.24 Linux (i686) (revision id: 306a2e0)xtrabackup: auto-enabling --innodb-file-per-table due to the --export optionxtrabackup: cd to /backup/xtrabackup/2015-11-06_15-39-34/xtrabackup: This target seems to be not prepared yet.xtrabackup: xtrabackup_logfile detected: size=2097152, start_lsn=(732817942)xtrabackup: using the following InnoDB configuration for recovery:xtrabackup:  innodb_data_home_dir = ./xtrabackup:  innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:10M:autoextendxtrabackup:  innodb_log_group_home_dir = ./xtrabackup:  innodb_log_files_in_group = 1xtrabackup:  innodb_log_file_size = 2097152xtrabackup: using the following InnoDB configuration for recovery:xtrabackup:  innodb_data_home_dir = ./xtrabackup:  innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:10M:autoextendxtrabackup:  innodb_log_group_home_dir = ./xtrabackup:  innodb_log_files_in_group = 1xtrabackup:  innodb_log_file_size = 2097152xtrabackup: Starting InnoDB instance for recovery.xtrabackup: Using 104857600 bytes for buffer pool (set by --use-memory parameter)InnoDB: Using atomics to ref count buffer pool pagesInnoDB: The InnoDB memory heap is disabledInnoDB: Mutexes and rw_locks use GCC atomic builtinsInnoDB: Memory barrier is not usedInnoDB: Compressed tables use zlib 1.2.3InnoDB: Not using CPU crc32 instructionsInnoDB: Initializing buffer pool, size = 100.0MInnoDB: Completed initialization of buffer poolInnoDB: Highest supported file format is Barracuda.InnoDB: The log sequence numbers 732817430 and 732817430 in ibdata files do not match the log sequence number 732817942 in the ib_logfiles!InnoDB: Database was not shutdown normally!InnoDB: Starting crash recovery.InnoDB: Reading tablespace information from the .ibd files...InnoDB: Restoring possible half-written data pagesInnoDB: from the doublewrite buffer...InnoDB: Table aazj/Accounting_journal in the InnoDB data dictionary has tablespace id 117, but tablespace with that id or name does not exi st. Have you deleted or moved .ibd files? This may also be a table created with CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE whose .ibd and .frm files MySQL auto matically removed, but the table still exists in the InnoDB internal data dictionary.InnoDB: It will be removed from the data dictionary.InnoDB: Please refer toInnoDB: http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.6/en/innodb-troubleshooting-datadict.htmlInnoDB: for how to resolve the issue.[... ...]InnoDB: Table mysql/slave_relay_log_info in the InnoDB data dictionary has tablespace id 3, but tablespace with that id or name does not ex ist. Have you deleted or moved .ibd files? This may also be a table created with CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE whose .ibd and .frm files MySQL aut omatically removed, but the table still exists in the InnoDB internal data dictionary.InnoDB: It will be removed from the data dictionary.InnoDB: Please refer toInnoDB: http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.6/en/innodb-troubleshooting-datadict.htmlInnoDB: for how to resolve the issue.InnoDB: Table mysql/slave_worker_info in the InnoDB data dictionary has tablespace id 5, but tablespace with that id or name does not exist . Have you deleted or moved .ibd files? This may also be a table created with CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE whose .ibd and .frm files MySQL automa tically removed, but the table still exists in the InnoDB internal data dictionary.InnoDB: It will be removed from the data dictionary.InnoDB: Please refer toInnoDB: http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.6/en/innodb-troubleshooting-datadict.htmlInnoDB: for how to resolve the issue.InnoDB: 128 rollback segment(s) are active.InnoDB: Waiting for purge to startInnoDB: 5.6.24 started; log sequence number 732817942xtrabackup: export option is specified.xtrabackup: export metadata of table 't/city' to file `./t/city.exp` (2 indexes)xtrabackup:   name=PRIMARY, id.low=267, page=3xtrabackup:   name=PK_CITY, id.low=268, page=4xtrabackup: export metadata of table 't/t' to file `./t/t.exp` (1 indexes)xtrabackup:   name=GEN_CLUST_INDEX, id.low=131, page=3xtrabackup: Last MySQL binlog file position 254400, file name mysql-bin.000001xtrabackup: starting shutdown with innodb_fast_shutdown = 0InnoDB: FTS optimize thread exiting.InnoDB: Starting shutdown...InnoDB: Shutdown completed; log sequence number 732957307xtrabackup: using the following InnoDB configuration for recovery:xtrabackup:  innodb_data_home_dir = ./xtrabackup:  innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:10M:autoextendxtrabackup:  innodb_log_group_home_dir = ./xtrabackup:  innodb_log_files_in_group = 2xtrabackup:  innodb_log_file_size = 50331648InnoDB: Using atomics to ref count buffer pool pagesInnoDB: The InnoDB memory heap is disabledInnoDB: Mutexes and rw_locks use GCC atomic builtinsInnoDB: Memory barrier is not usedInnoDB: Compressed tables use zlib 1.2.3InnoDB: Not using CPU crc32 instructionsInnoDB: Initializing buffer pool, size = 100.0MInnoDB: Completed initialization of buffer poolInnoDB: Setting log file ./ib_logfile101 size to 48 MBInnoDB: Setting log file ./ib_logfile1 size to 48 MBInnoDB: Renaming log file ./ib_logfile101 to ./ib_logfile0InnoDB: New log files created, LSN=732957307InnoDB: Highest supported file format is Barracuda.InnoDB: 128 rollback segment(s) are active.InnoDB: Waiting for purge to startInnoDB: 5.6.24 started; log sequence number 732957708xtrabackup: starting shutdown with innodb_fast_shutdown = 0InnoDB: FTS optimize thread exiting.InnoDB: Starting shutdown...InnoDB: Shutdown completed; log sequence number 732957718151106 15:49:49 completed OK!

View Code
4.2 下面我们将其 import 到一个新的数据库中:

(root@localhost)[t]mysql>create database partial;

(root@localhost)[t]mysql>use partial;
Database changed
(root@localhost)[partial]mysql>create table city like t.city;

(root@localhost)[partial]mysql>alter table partial.city discard tablespace;

然后将 city.exp 和 city.ibd 拷贝到 /var/lib/mysql/partial/ 目录下,并修改权限:
[root@localhost t]# cp city.exp city.ibd /var/lib/mysql/partial/

[root@localhost partial]# chown -R mysql:mysql /var/lib/mysql

然后 
(root@localhost)[aazj]mysql>alter table partial.city import tablespace;
Query OK, 0 rows affected, 1 warning (0.11 sec)
 
(root@localhost)[aazj]mysql>select count(*) from partial.city;
+----------+
| count(*) |
+----------+
|     3285 |
+----------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)
 

可以看到import 成功了。部分恢复成功。
低于t表也同样操作就行了。
(root@localhost)[partial]mysql>select count(*) from t;
+----------+
| count(*) |
+----------+
|       11 |
+----------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

 
可以看到,这种部分备份/恢复,操作起来比较麻烦,步骤比较多,还需要一个表一个表的处理。对少数表处理还可以,如果很多表,就不方面了。
5. point-in-time 恢复
利用全备、增量备份最多只能恢复到全备完成时的那一刻,或者增量备份完成时的那一刻的数据。备份之后产生的数据,我们需要结合binlog,来恢复。我们可以从binlog中获得innobackupex最后一次备份完成时的position,它之后的所有的sql,应用完,这些sql,就能将数据库恢复到最新的状态,或者我们想要的某个时间的状态。
1> 先来一个全备:
[root@localhost xtrabackup]# innobackupex /backup/xtrabackup/full --user=bkpuser --password=digdeep

2> 再来一个增量:
将t表数据删除一行:delete from t where i=11;
[root@localhost xtrabackup]# innobackupex --incremental /backup/xtrabackup/incr1/ --incremental-basedir=/backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-06_16-26-08 --user=bkpuser --password=digdeep

3> 再来一个增量:
将t表数据删除一行:delete from t where i=10;
[root@localhost xtrabackup]# innobackupex --incremental /backup/xtrabackup/incr2/ --incremental-basedir=/backup/xtrabackup/incr1/2015-11-06_16-31-13/ --user=bkpuser --password=digdeep

4> 备份完成之后,我们再来操作 t 表:
(root@localhost)[t]mysql>delete from t where i>3;

此时的状态:
(root@localhost)[t]mysql>show binary logs;
+------------------+-----------+
| Log_name         | File_size |
+------------------+-----------+
| mysql-bin.000001 |       927 |
| mysql-bin.000002 |       688 |
+------------------+-----------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)
 
(root@localhost)[t]mysql>show master status;
+------------------+----------+--------------+------------------+-------------------+
 | File                       | Position | Binlog_Do_DB | Binlog_Ignore_DB | Executed_Gtid_Set |
+------------------+----------+--------------+------------------+-------------------+
| mysql-bin.000002 |      688 |              |                  |                   |
+------------------+----------+--------------+------------------+-------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

 
假设此时数据库表数据所在的磁盘发生故障,但是 binlog 文件是好的。那么此时,我们就可以使用上面的全备、增量备份、还有binlog文件一起来将数据库恢复到磁盘发生故障那一刻的最新状态来。
5> 首先从全备、增量备份得到最后一次备份完成时的数据:
1)应用全备的redo log:
[root@localhost xtrabackup]# innobackupex --apply-log --redo-only /backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-06_16-26-08 --user=bkpuser --password=digdeep

2)应用第一次增量备份的redo log:
[root@localhost xtrabackup]# innobackupex --apply-log --redo-only /backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-06_16-26-08 --incremental-dir=/backup/xtr  abackup/incr1/2015-11-06_16-31-13/ --user=bkpuser --password=digdeep

3)应用第二次增量备份的 redo log,并且仅限回滚(去掉 --redo-only选项):
[root@localhost xtrabackup]# innobackupex --apply-log /backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-06_16-26-08 --incremental-dir=/backup/xtrabackup/incr2/2015-11-06_16-33-57/ --user=bkpuser --password=digdeep

此时已经恢复到了最后一次备份完成时的状态了。
我们看一下最后一次增量备份时的 xtrabackup_binlog_info 文件信息:
[root@localhost xtrabackup]# cat incr2/2015-11-06_16-33-57/xtrabackup_binlog_info
mysql-bin.000002        482

可以看到对应的binlog postion为:mysql-bin.000002        482
而崩溃那一刻的binlog postion为: mysql-bin.000002      688
 
所以我们需要应用 mysql-bin.000002 文件的 482 到 688之间的sql:
4)先 --copy-back
[root@localhost mysql]# innobackupex --copy-back /backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-06_16-26-08 --user=bkpuser --password=digdeep

修改权限:
[root@localhost ~]# chown -R mysql:mysql /var/lib/mysql

启动msyqld:  mysqld_safe --user=mysql &
然后验证,t 表的数据,应该有i<10 & i>3 的数据:
(root@localhost)[t]mysql>select * from t;
+------+
| i    |
+------+
|    1 |
|    2 |
|    3 |
|    4 |
|    5 |
|    6 |
|    7 |
|    8 |
|    9 |
+------+
9 rows in set (0.00 sec)

如我们所期待的结果一样。说明到此时,前面的操作完全是正确的。
5)应用 mysql-bin.000002 文件的 482 到 688之间的sql
[root@localhost mysql]#  mysqlbinlog /backup/xtrabackup/mysql-bin.000002 --start-position=482 > bin.sql

(root@localhost)[(none)]mysql>source /var/lib/mysql/bin.sql

然后在查看 t 表数据:
(root@localhost)[t]mysql>select * from t;
+------+
| i    |
+------+
|    1 |
|    2 |
|    3 |
+------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

一切完美完成,数据库被我们回复到了最新的状态。
6. innobackupex 选项优化/最佳实践
6.1 优化FTWRL锁:
在备份非innodb数据库时,会使用:flush tables with read lock 全局锁锁住整个数据库。如果数据库中有一个长查询在运行,那么FTWRL就不能获得,会被阻塞,进而阻塞所有的DML操作。此时即使我们kill掉FTWRL全局锁也是无法从阻塞中恢复出来的。另外在我们成功的获得了FTWRL全局锁之后,在copy非事务因为的文件的过程中,整个数据库也是被锁住的。所以我们应该让FTWRL的过程尽量的短。(在copy非事务引擎数据的文件时,会阻塞innodb事务引擎。当然也会阻塞所有其他非事务引擎。)
1> 防止阻塞:
innobackupex 提供了多个选项来避免发生阻塞:
  --ftwrl-wait-timeout=# 替换 --lock-wait-timeout
                      This option specifies time in seconds that innobackupex
                      should wait for queries that would block FTWRL before
                      running it. If there are still such queries when the
                      timeout expires, innobackupex terminates with an error.
                      Default is 0, in which case innobackupex does not wait
                      for queries to complete and starts FTWRL immediately.
  --ftwrl-wait-threshold=# 替换 --lock-wait-threshold
                      This option specifies the query run time threshold which
                      is used by innobackupex to detect long-running queries
                      with a non-zero value of --ftwrl-wait-timeout. FTWRL is
                      not started until such long-running queries exist. This
                      option has no effect if --ftwrl-wait-timeout is 0.
                      Default value is 60 seconds.

--lock-wait-timeout=60 该选项表示:我们在FTWRL时,如果有长查询,那么我们可以最多等待60S的时间,如果60秒之内长查询执行完了,我们就可以成功执行FTWRL了,如果60秒之内没有执行完,那么就直接报错退出,放弃。默认值为0
--lock-wait-threshold=10 该选项表示运行了多久的时间的sql当做长查询;对于长查询最多再等待 --lock-wait-timeout 秒。
--kill-long-queries-timeout=10 该选项表示发出FTWRL之后,再等待多时秒,如果还有长查询,那么就将其kill掉。默认为0,not to kill.
--kill-long-query-type={all|select} 该选项表示我们仅仅kill select语句,还是kill所有其他的类型的长sql语句。
这几个选项,我们没有必要都是有,一般仅仅使用 --lock-wait-timeout=60 就行了。
注意 --lock-* 和 --kill-* 选项的不同,一个是等待多时秒再来执行FTWRL,如果还是不能成功执行就报错退出;一个是已经执行了FTWRL,超时就进行kill。
 
2> 缩短FTWRL全局锁的时间:
--rsync 使用该选项来缩短备份非事务引擎表的锁定时间,如果需要备份的数据库和表数量很多时,可以加快速度。
--rsync           Uses the rsync utility to optimize local file transfers.
                      When this option is specified, innobackupex uses rsync to
                      copy all non-InnoDB files instead of spawning a separate
                      cp for each file, which can be much faster for servers
                      with a large number of databases or tables.  This option
                      cannot be used together with --stream.

3> 并行优化:
  --parallel=# 在备份阶段,压缩/解压阶段,加密/解密阶段,--apply-log,--copy-back 阶段都可以并行       
                      On backup, this option specifies the number of threads
                      the xtrabackup child process should use to back up files
                      concurrently.  The option accepts an integer argument. It
                      is passed directly to xtrabackup's --parallel option. See
                      the xtrabackup documentation for details.


4> 内存优化:
  --use-memory=# 在crash recovery 阶段,也就是 --apply-log 阶段使用该选项
                      This option accepts a string argument that specifies the
                      amount of memory in bytes for xtrabackup to use for crash
                      recovery while preparing a backup. Multiples are
                      supported providing the unit (e.g. 1MB, 1GB). It is used
                      only with the option --apply-log. It is passed directly
                      to xtrabackup's --use-memory option. See the xtrabackup
                      documentation for details.

3> 备份slave:
--safe-slave-backup 
                      Stop slave SQL thread and wait to start backup until
                      Slave_open_temp_tables in "SHOW STATUS" is zero. If there
                      are no open temporary tables, the backup will take place,
                      otherwise the SQL thread will be started and stopped
                      until there are no open temporary tables. The backup will
                      fail if Slave_open_temp_tables does not become zero after
                      --safe-slave-backup-timeout seconds. The slave SQL thread
                      will be restarted when the backup finishes.
 
--safe-slave-backup-timeout=#
                      How many seconds --safe-slave-backup should wait for
                      Slave_open_temp_tables to become zero. (default 300)
 
--slave-info   This option is useful when backing up a replication slave
                      server. It prints the binary log position and name of the
                      master server. It also writes this information to the
                      "xtrabackup_slave_info" file as a "CHANGE MASTER"
                      command. A new slave for this master can be set up by
                      starting a slave server on this backup and issuing a
                      "CHANGE MASTER" command with the binary log position
                      saved in the "xtrabackup_slave_info" file.
 
7. 备份原理:
1)innobackupex 是perl写的脚本,它调用xtrabackup来备份innodb数据库。而xtrabackup是C语言写的程序,它调用了innodb的函数库和mysql客户端的函数库。innodb函数库提供了向数据文件应用的redo log的功能,而mysql客户端函数库提供了解析命令行参数的功能。innobackupex备份innodb数据库的功能,都是通过调用 xtrabackup --backup和xtrabackup --prepare来完成的。我们没有必要直接使用xtrabackup来备份,通过innobackupex更方便。xtrabakup 通过跳转到datadir目录,然后通过两个线程来完成备份过程:
1> log-copy thread: 备份开始时,该后台线程一直监控redo log(每秒check一次redo log),将redo log的修改复制到备份之后的文件 xtrabackup_logfile 中。如果redo log生成极快时,有可能log-copy线程跟不上redo log的产生速度,那么在redo log文件切换进行覆盖时,xtrabakcup会报错。
2> data-file-copy thread: 前后有一个复制data file的线程,注意这里并不是简单的复制,而是调用了innodb函数库,像innodb数据库那样打开数据文件,进行读取,然后每次复制一个page,然后对page进行验证,如果验证错误,会最多重复十次。
当数据文件复制完成时,xtrabackup 停止log-copy 线程,并建立一个文件 xtrabackup_checkpoints记录备份的类型,开始时的lsn和结束时的lsn等信息。
而备份生成的 xtrabackup_binlog_info 文件则含义备份完成时对应的binlog的position信息,类似于:mysql-bin.000002        120
 
在备份开始时记录下LSN,然后一个线程复制数据文件,一个线程监控redo log,复制在备份过程中新产生的redo log。虽然我们的到的数据文件显然不是一致性的,但是利用innodb的crash-recovery功能,应用备份过程中产生的redo log文件,就能得到备份完成时那一刻对应的一致性的数据。
 
注意复制数据文件分成了两个过程:
一个是复制innodb事务引擎的数据文件,是不需要持有锁的;另一个是复制非事务引擎的数据文件和table的定义文件.frm,复制这些文件时,是需要先通过FTWRL,然后在进行复制的,所以会导致整个数据库被阻塞。
增量备份时,是通过对表进行全扫描,比较LSN,如果该page的LSN大于上一次别分时的LSN,那么就将该page复制到table_name.ibd.delta文件中。回复时.delta会和redo log应用到全备是的数据文件中。
增量备份在恢复时,除了最后一次增量备份文件之外,其它的增量备份在应用时,只能前滚,不能执行回滚操作,因为没有提交的事务,可能在下一个增量备份中进行了提交,如果你在上一个增量备份时回滚了,那么下一个增量备份应用时,显然就报错了,因为他无法提交事务,该事务以及被回滚了。
 
8. 总结:
1)权限:
备份需要两个层面的权限,Linux层面的权限,mysql层面的权限。
2)全备和恢复
全备:innobackupex  /backup/xtrabackup/full --user=bkpuser --password=digdeep
应用日志进行prepare: innobackupex --apply-log /backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-05_22-38-55/ --user=bkpuser --password=digdeep 
关闭mysqld:
copy-back: innobackupex --copy-back /backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-05_22-38-55/ --user=bkpuser --password=digdeep 
修改权限:chown -R mysql:mysql /var/lib/mysql
3)增量备份和恢复:
全备:
innobackupex --user=bkpuser --password=digdeep /backup/xtrabackup/full
第一次增量备份:
innobackupex --incremental /backup/xtrabackup/incr1/ --incremental-basedir=/backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-06_11-29-51/ 
--user=bkpuser --password=digdeep 
第二次增量备份:
innobackupex --incremental /backup/xtrabackup/incr2 --incremental-basedir=/backup/xtrabackup/incr1/2015-11-06_11-33-16/ 
--user=bkpuser --password=digdeep
恢复:
应用全备redo log:
innobackupex --apply-log --redo-only /backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-06_11-29-51/ --user=bkpuser --password=digdeep
应用第一次增量备份的redo log:
innobackupex --apply-log --redo-only /backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-06_11-29-51/ --incremental-dir=/backup/xtrabackup/incr1/2015-11-06_11-33-16/ 
--user=bkpuser --password=digdeep
应用第二次(最后一次)增量备份的redo log:
innobackupex --apply-log /backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-06_11-29-51/ --incremental-dir=/backup/xtrabackup/incr2/2015-11-06_11-43-22/ 
--user=bkpuser --password=digdeep
关闭mysqld,
innobackupex --copy-back /backup/xtrabackup/full/2015-11-06_11-29-51/ --user=bkpuser --password=digdeep
4)部分备份 
innobackupex --databases t /backup/xtrabackup/ --user=bkpuser --password=digdeep
innobackupex --apply-log --export /backup/xtrabackup/2015-11-06_15-39-34/ --user=bkpuser --password=digdeep
新建表结构:create table city like t.city;
alter table partial.city discard tablespace;
然后将 city.exp 和 city.ibd 拷贝到 /var/lib/mysql/partial/ 目录下,并修改权限:chown -R mysql:mysql /var/lib/mysql
alter table partial.city import tablespace;
5)point-in-time 恢复
在--copy-back之后,引用binlog文件
mysqlbinlog /backup/xtrabackup/mysql-bin.000002 --start-position=482 > bin.sql
(root@localhost)[(none)]mysql>source bin.sql
6) innobackupex 选项优化/最佳实践
--ftwrl-wait-timeout=60 防止发生阻塞
--rsync 减少FTWRL时间 缩短备份非事务引擎表的锁定时间
--parallel=4  开并行
--use-memory=4G crash recovery 期间使用的内存