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[Java教程]Eclipse上基于JUnit进行Android单元测试


在本教程中,您将学习如何使用Eclipse创建Android JUnit测试项目,创建自动化单元测试并在各种条件下运行它们。

预置条件

Android基础

能使用Eclipse和 Android SDK之类的工具。

代码下载:https://simple-calc-unit-testing.googlecode.com/files/FullCodeDownload.zip

需要FQ,如果不能FQ像看源码,请跟帖注明邮箱地址,多谢!

 

SimpleCalc简介

  

屏幕具有两个简单的功能:它允许用户输入的两个值,求和或者积。

屏幕布局如下main.

<?

 简单解析一下这个界面设计,我们使用了LinearLayout,以使得控件能在垂直方向竖向排列。界面中包括了显示标题“Unit Testing Sample”的textview,两个输入数字的edittext控件,一个FrameLayout控件中包含了一个水平的LinearLayout,在这个LinearLayout包含了一个显示结果的textview以及其提示文字“Result”,注意的是FrameLayout的背景颜色设置为红色,而LinearLayou设置成了黑色背景。

layout针对Nexus One设计,分辨率800x480。

代码MainActivity.java:

/* * Copyright (c) 2010, Lauren Darcey and Shane Conder * All rights reserved. * * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are * permitted provided that the following conditions are met: * * * Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of *  conditions and the following disclaimer. *  * * Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list *  of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other *  materials provided with the distribution. *  * * Neither the name of the <ORGANIZATION> nor the names of its contributors may be used *  to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior *  written permission. *  * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND ANY * EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES * OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT * SHALL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, * INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED * TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR * BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, * STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF * THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE. * * <ORGANIZATION> = Mamlambo */package com.mamlambo.article.simplecalc;import android.app.Activity;import android.os.Bundle;import android.util.Log;import android.view.View;import android.view.View.OnClickListener;import android.widget.Button;import android.widget.EditText;import android.widget.TextView;public class MainActivity extends Activity {  /** Called when the activity is first created. */  @Override  public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {    final String LOG_TAG = "MainScreen";    super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);    setContentView(R.layout.main);    final EditText value1 = (EditText) findViewById(R.id.value1);    final EditText value2 = (EditText) findViewById(R.id.value2);    final TextView result = (TextView) findViewById(R.id.result);    Button addButton = (Button) findViewById(R.id.addValues);    addButton.setOnClickListener(new OnClickListener() {      public void onClick(View v) {        try {          int val1 = Integer.parseInt(value1.getText().toString());          int val2 = Integer.parseInt(value2.getText().toString());          Integer answer = val1 + val2;          result.setText(answer.toString());        } catch (Exception e) {          Log.e(LOG_TAG, "Failed to add numbers", e);        }      }    });    Button multiplyButton = (Button) findViewById(R.id.multiplyValues);    multiplyButton.setOnClickListener(new OnClickListener() {      public void onClick(View v) {        try {          int val1 = Integer.parseInt(value1.getText().toString());          int val2 = Integer.parseInt(value2.getText().toString());          Integer answer = val1 * val2;          result.setText(answer.toString());        } catch (Exception e) {          Log.e(LOG_TAG, "Failed to multiply numbers", e);        }      }    });  }}

 上面的代码十分简单,分别在两个按钮的onclick事件中,对用户输入的数进行了相加和相乘,看上去代码似乎没问题,但接下来,我们将通过Junit去发现其中的bug。

创建Android测试项目

您可以通过两种方式添加一个测试项目,添加Android测试项目或从Android Tools添加项目。我们演示后者。

在项目资源管理器中,右键单击要测试的项目,选择Android Tools->New Test Project。

 

 

 

接下来需要对单元测试的工程进行设置,我们采用如下的设置方法:

测试工程名称:我们采用SimpleCalcTest

工程的位置:这个可以随便设置

选择被测试的工程:这里我们选择已经存在的SimpleCalc

构建的目标版本:这里我们选择Android 2.1

测试用例的包名:设置为com.mamlambo.article.simplecalc.test,

设置界面如下图所示:

 

这一步会在AndroidManifest.

  <instrumentation    android:name="android.test.InstrumentationTestRunner"    android:targetPackage="com.mamlambo.article.simplecalc" />

 

创建单元测试

 

 

接下来对单元测试进行如下设置

设置选择使用Junit 3

源代码目录:这里要设置为SimpleCalcTest工程的代码目录

Package:这里设置为com.mamlambo.article.simplecalc.test,

测试用例名称:设置为MathValidation

测试的父类:这里选择“android.test.ActivityInstrumentationTestCase2.",这个是用来测试activity的Android的测试用例

将多选框中的setup,constructor两个都勾选上

如下图所示

 

 在上图中,点”Finish”按钮后,MathVlidatiton.java测试用例就创建了。在单元测试中包括如下几个部分:construction, setUp(), 针对方法的测试用例, tearDown(), 和destruction。在setup()方法中,主要是实现一些在测试工作前的资源及环境设置等的初始化设置;而针对方法的测试用例中,需要用户自己编写,一般是以“test+方法名”;而tearDown()在每个测试方法之后运行,用来撤消其初始化的测试环境。

生成的代码如下:

package com.mamlambo.article.simplecalc.test;import android.test.ActivityInstrumentationTestCase2;public class MathValidation extends    ActivityInstrumentationTestCase2<MainActivity> {   public MathValidation(String name) {    super(name);  }  protected void setUp() throws Exception {    super.setUp();  }}

注意:忽视“Superclass does not exist.”告警即可。

 

在构建方法关联被测应用:

public MathValidation() {    super("com.mamlambo.article.simplecalc", MainActivity.class);}

 初始化

package com.mamlambo.article.simplecalc.test;import android.test.ActivityInstrumentationTestCase2;import android.widget.TextView;import com.mamlambo.article.simplecalc.MainActivity;import com.mamlambo.article.simplecalc.R;public class MathValidation extends ActivityInstrumentationTestCase2<MainActivity> {  private TextView result;  public MathValidation() {    super ("com.mamlambo.article.simplecalc", MainActivity.class);  }  @Override  protected void setUp() throws Exception {    super.setUp();    MainActivity mainActivity = getActivity();    result = (TextView) mainActivity.findViewById(R.id.result);  }}

 

第一个测试用例

private static final String NUMBER_24 = "2 4 ENTER ";private static final String NUMBER_74 = "7 4 ENTER ";private static final String ADD_RESULT = "98";public void testAddValues() {  sendKeys(NUMBER_24);  // now on value2 entry  sendKeys(NUMBER_74);  // now on Add button  sendKeys("ENTER");  // get result  String mathResult = result.getText().toString();  assertTrue("Add result should be 98", mathResult.equals(ADD_RESULT));}

执行测试

 

检查结果:

 

在单元测试中进行层测试

 

参考资料

英文原版:http://code.tutsplus.com/tutorials/android-sdk-unit-testing-with-the-junit-testing-framework--mobile-421