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[数据库]MongoDB3.0.x版本用户授权配置(单机环境)

      MongoDB数据库默认情况下是没有做权限控制的,只要能够连接所开放的端口就能进行访问,而且拥有root级别的权限;对于生产环境而言是极不安全的,所以需要建立用户,进行授权控制。

  • 单机环境下的用户授权模块配置:

MongoDB的社区版本中有两个模块可以控制用户的访问:

--auth: 在mongod启动项中加入--auth,mongodb启动后,就可以完成授权模块的启用);
PS:虽然auth模块启用后本机还能否登陆到数据库,但是不具备增删改查的权限了,所以启动auth模块之前就应该创建一个超级用户
--keyFile <file>: 主要用于分片集群与副本集相互之间的授权使用,在单机情况下只要用到auth,如果是在集群(分片+副本集)环境下,就必须要用到该参数;
security.authorization: 在MongoDB 2.6版本开始,mongod/mongos的启动配置文件增加了YAML格式的写法,功能更auth是一样的,后面的操作中,都是采用该格式
security.keyFile: 格式与security.authorization相同,功能与--keyFile相同。
  • 首先验证下非配置认证模块的访问:

[[email protected] bin]# ./mongoMongoDB shell version: 3.0.7connecting to: testServer has startup warnings:2015-10-29T15:12:14.257+0800 I CONTROL [initandlisten] ** WARNING: You are running this process as the root user, which is not recommended.2015-10-29T15:12:14.257+0800 I CONTROL [initandlisten]> show dbslocal 0.000GB

 在没有配置的情况下,登录到数据库后,可以做任何操作。

  • 配置认证模块及重启服务: 

编写了一个启动配置文件:mongodb.conf(文件中标红部分就为auth的授权模块)

[[email protected] bin]# cat mongodb.conf systemLog:  destination: file  path: "/data/auth/log/mongod.log"                   logAppend: truestorage:  journal:                                  enabled: true  dbPath: "/data/auth/db"                           directoryPerDB: true                          engine: wiredTiger                               wiredTiger:                                  engineConfig:     cacheSizeGB: 4                                 directoryForIndexes: true                          journalCompressor: zlib   collectionConfig:                                blockCompressor: zlib   indexConfig:                                     prefixCompression: truenet:                                    port: 27017processManagement:                               fork: truesecurity:  authorization: enabled                           

  • 创建授权用户(超级管理员): 

MongoDB在V3.0版本之后内置了root 角色,也就是结合了readWriteAnyDatabase、dbAdminAnyDatabase、userAdminAnyDatabase、clusterAdmin4个角色权限,类似于ORACLE的sysdba角色,但是MongoDB的超级管理员用户名称是可以随便定义的:

[[email protected] bin]# ./mongoMongoDB shell version: 3.0.7connecting to: testServer has startup warnings: 2015-10-30T16:24:36.127+0800 I CONTROL [initandlisten] ** WARNING: You are running this process as the root user, which is not recommended.2015-10-30T16:24:36.127+0800 I CONTROL [initandlisten] > use adminswitched to db admin> db.createUser(...  {...   user: "ljaiadmin",...   pwd: "123456",...   roles: [ { role: "root", db: "admin" } ]...  }... )Successfully added user: {    "user" : "ljaiadmin",    "roles" : [        {            "role" : "root",            "db" : "admin"        }    ]}

这样就创建好一个ljaiadmin的超级管理员用户,创建全局用户或者超级用户,需要在MongoDB的admin数据库中创建(在其他库也可以创建,但是没有该角色功能),重启完mongod进程后,接下来做一下权限的验证:

[[email protected] bin]# ./mongoMongoDB shell version: 3.0.7connecting to: test> show dbs (注:此时查看已提示没有授权执行listDatabases命令了)2015-10-30T16:41:31.131+0800 E QUERY  Error: listDatabases failed:{    "ok" : 0,    "errmsg" : "not authorized on admin to execute command { listDatabases: 1.0 }",    "code" : 13}  at Error (<anonymous>)  at Mongo.getDBs (src/mongo/shell/mongo.js:47:15)  at shellHelper.show (src/mongo/shell/utils.js:630:33)  at shellHelper (src/mongo/shell/utils.js:524:36)  at (shellhelp2):1:1 at src/mongo/shell/mongo.js:47> use adminswitched to db admin> db.auth('ljaiadmin','123456') (注:切换到admin用户进行授权验证)1> show dbs           (注:验证完成后,就可以读写等操作)admin  0.000GBlocal  0.000GBtest100 0.000GBtest2  0.000GB> use test2switched to db test2> show tablestesttest2> db.test2.find(){ "_id" : ObjectId("5632cf116207909a76446af7"), "name" : "1" }> db.test2.drop()true> db.dropDatabase(){ "dropped" : "test2", "ok" : 1 }> show dbsadmin  0.000GBlocal  0.000GBtest100 0.000GB> use test100switched to db test100> db.test111.insert({"test":"test"})WriteResult({ "nInserted" : 1 })> db.test111.find(){ "_id" : ObjectId("56332db373f771b3d95638bb"), "test" : "test" }> use adminswitched to db admin> show users{    "_id" : "admin.ljaiadmin",    "user" : "ljaiadmin",    "db" : "admin",    "roles" : [        {            "role" : "root",            "db" : "admin"        }    ]}> 

  • 创建普通用户

用可以对test123数据库读写的rwtest123用户为例:

> use test123switched to db test123> db.createUser(...  {...   user: "rwtest123",...   pwd: "123456",...   roles: [ { role: "readWrite", db: "test123" } ]...  }... )Successfully added user: {    "user" : "rwtest123",    "roles" : [        {            "role" : "readWrite",            "db" : "test123"        }    ]}
#所建的rwtest123用户可以在test123数据库中进行增删改查操作,但是其他操作就不行了>db.auth('rwtest123','123456')switched to db test123> db.test123.insert({"test":"test"})WriteResult({ "nInserted" : 1 })> db.test123.find(){ "_id" : ObjectId("563332ebc8a59ae4fe96bbf5"), "test" : "test" }> db.test123.drop()true> use test100switched to db test100> db.test100.find()Error: error: { "$err" : "not authorized for query on test100.test100", "code" : 13 }>

  • 配置参考:

 MongoDB数据库的用户权限控制权限还是比较多的,有系统自带的,已经定义好的角色,也可以自己定义角色权限,需要根据业务需要进行权限分配:

自带角色的说明(一般内置的角色基本上就可以满足生产环境需求了):

https://docs.mongodb.org/manual/core/security-built-in-roles/

用户自行定义角色的说明:

https://docs.mongodb.org/manual/core/security-user-defined-roles/

用户管理配置的说明

https://docs.mongodb.org/manual/reference/method/#user-management-methods