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[数据库]如何找回SQL Server实例安装时的序列号

当需要再次安装SQL Server时,如果序列号找不到了,可以试着从已经安装的实例里找回序列号,因为安装完SQL Server后,序列号(Product Key)被保存在注册表里;

MSDN订阅下载的安装包是内置序列号的,则没有这个困扰。

 

. 序列号保存在哪

通过无文档记载的扩展存储过程xp_regread读取注册表:

--For SQL Server 2008, 2008 R2use masterGOexec xp_regread 'HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE','SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Microsoft SQL Server\100\Tools\Setup','ProductCode'exec xp_regread 'HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE','SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Microsoft SQL Server\100\Tools\Setup','DigitalProductID'GO--For SQL Server 2012use masterGOexec xp_regread 'HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE','SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Microsoft SQL Server\110\Tools\Setup','ProductCode'exec xp_regread 'HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE','SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Microsoft SQL Server\110\Tools\Setup','DigitalProductId'GO

不要被ProductCode迷惑,就算只安装了SQL Server客户端,注册表里也会有这个键值,并不是序列号,DigitalProductID才是,但经过了Base24编码,需要解码才行。

可以看到,对于不同版本,注册表的路径不一样,但是键是一致的。

Express版是免费的,没有序列号,从而注册表也没DigitalProductID这个键。

 

. 如何解码序列号

1. Base24, Base64 编码简介

可能很多人听说过Base64编码,它用于对比较长的字符串进行编码,以方便传输;

Base24编码主要应用在序列号生成上,两者的实现思路是类似的,只是编码的模式有点变化。

 

Base64所对应的编码表是:

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789+/=

共计64个字符。

 

Base24所对应的编码表是:

BCDFGHJKMPQRTVWXY2346789

共计24个字符,这里主要去掉了一些对于序列号来说不容易识别和容易混淆的字符。

 

SQL Server的序列号采用的是Base24编码,对编码后的字符进行解码,即可以得到原文。

编码/解码并不是加密/解密,没有秘钥的说法,只有字符转换的规则,Base24, Base64详细的算法可以在网上找到。

 

2. 利用Powershell 解码

以下powershell函数用于解码/找回SQL Server序列号,在SQL Server 2008, 2008 R2实例上测试通过:

function Get-SQLServerKey {  ## function to retrieve the license key of a SQL 2008 Server.   param ($targets = ".")  $hklm = 2147483650  $regPath = "SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Microsoft SQL Server\100\Tools\Setup"  $regValue1 = "DigitalProductId"  $regValue2 = "PatchLevel"  $regValue3 = "Edition"  Foreach ($target in $targets) {    $productKey = $null    $win32os = $null    $wmi = [WMIClass]"\\$target\root\default:stdRegProv"    $data = $wmi.GetBinaryValue($hklm,$regPath,$regValue1)    [string]$SQLver = $wmi.GetstringValue($hklm,$regPath,$regValue2).svalue    [string]$SQLedition = $wmi.GetstringValue($hklm,$regPath,$regValue3).svalue    $binArray = ($data.uValue)[52..66]    $charsArray = "B","C","D","F","G","H","J","K","M","P","Q","R","T","V","W","X","Y","2","3","4","6","7","8","9"    ## decrypt base24 encoded binary data    For ($i = 24; $i -ge 0; $i--) {      $k = 0      For ($j = 14; $j -ge 0; $j--) {        $k = $k * 256 -bxor $binArray[$j]        $binArray[$j] = [math]::truncate($k / 24)        $k = $k % 24     }      $productKey = $charsArray[$k] + $productKey      If (($i % 5 -eq 0) -and ($i -ne 0)) {        $productKey = "-" + $productKey      }    }    $win32os = Get-WmiObject Win32_OperatingSystem -computer $target    $obj = New-Object Object    $obj | Add-Member Noteproperty Computer -value $target    $obj | Add-Member Noteproperty OSCaption -value $win32os.Caption    $obj | Add-Member Noteproperty OSArch -value $win32os.OSArchitecture    $obj | Add-Member Noteproperty SQLver -value $SQLver    $obj | Add-Member Noteproperty SQLedition -value $SQLedition    $obj | Add-Member Noteproperty ProductKey -value $productkey    $obj  }}

 

SQL Server 2012序列号里字符的格式发生了变化,$binArray = ($data.uValue)[0..16] 不同于SQL Server 2008的$binArray = ($data.uValue)[52..66],同时别忘了改下注册表路径$regPath = "SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Microsoft SQL Server\110\Tools\Setup",修改后如下,在SQL Server 2012实例上测试通过: 

function Get-SQLServerKey {## function to retrieve the license key of a SQL 2012 Server.## by Jakob Bindslet ([email protected])## 2012 Modification by Xian Wang ([email protected])param ($targets = ".")$hklm = 2147483650$regPath = "SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Microsoft SQL Server\110\Tools\Setup"$regValue1 = "DigitalProductId"$regValue2 = "PatchLevel"$regValue3 = "Edition"Foreach ($target in $targets) {$productKey = $null$win32os = $null$wmi = [WMIClass]"\\$target\root\default:stdRegProv"$data = $wmi.GetBinaryValue($hklm,$regPath,$regValue1)[string]$SQLver = $wmi.GetstringValue($hklm,$regPath,$regValue2).svalue[string]$SQLedition = $wmi.GetstringValue($hklm,$regPath,$regValue3).svalue$binArray = ($data.uValue)[0..16]$charsArray = "B","C","D","F","G","H","J","K","M","P","Q","R","T","V","W","X","Y","2","3","4","6","7","8","9"## decrypt base24 encoded binary dataFor ($i = 24; $i -ge 0; $i--) {$k = 0For ($j = 14; $j -ge 0; $j--) {$k = $k * 256 -bxor $binArray[$j]$binArray[$j] = [math]::truncate($k / 24)$k = $k % 24}$productKey = $charsArray[$k] + $productKeyIf (($i % 5 -eq 0) -and ($i -ne 0)) {$productKey = "-" + $productKey}}$win32os = Get-WmiObject Win32_OperatingSystem -computer $target$obj = New-Object Object$obj | Add-Member Noteproperty Computer -value $target$obj | Add-Member Noteproperty OSCaption -value $win32os.Caption$obj | Add-Member Noteproperty OSArch -value $win32os.OSArchitecture$obj | Add-Member Noteproperty SQLver -value $SQLver$obj | Add-Member Noteproperty SQLedition -value $SQLedition$obj | Add-Member Noteproperty ProductKey -value $productkey$obj}}

 

3. 调用powershell函数并输出序列号

打开powershell,把上面的函数贴进去,回车,输入Get-SQLServerKey 并回车;

或者把上面的函数存为.ps1文件直接引用:

PS C:\Windows\system32> . C:\Users\username\Desktop\pk.ps1PS C:\Windows\system32> Get-SQLserverKey

 

输出结果如下,首尾几个字符被人为改成星号,没有贴出来。

Computer  : .OSCaption : Microsoft Windows Server 2012 R2 StandardOSArch   : 64-bitSQLver   : 11.2.5058.0SQLedition : Developer EditionProductKey : *****-G8T4R-QW4XX-BVH62-*****

 

对于SQL Server 2000, 2005,由于手头没有环境,没有测试;对于Office,Windows系统,应该也都可以通过类似的方式拿到序列号。