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[操作系统]利用httpd对tomcat进行负载均衡配置

实验系统:CentOS 6.6_x86_64

实验前提:提前准备好编译环境,防火墙和selinux都关闭

实验说明:本实验共有2台主机,IP分配如拓扑

实验软件:jdk-8u60-linux-x64  apache-tomcat-8.0.24  tomcat-connectors-1.2.41  httpd-2.2.15  httpd-devel-2.2.15

实验拓扑:

    

一、两台机器安装JAVA环境

  1.安装JAVA:

wget http://download.oracle.com/otn-pub/java/jdk/8u60-b27/jdk-8u60-linux-x64.tar.gztar xf jdk-8u60-linux-x64.tar.gz -C /usr/local/cd /usr/local/ln -sv jdk1.8.0_60 jdk

  2.配置环境变量:

vim /etc/profile.d/jdk.sh--------------------------------------------------->JAVA_HOME=/usr/local/jdkPATH=$JAVA_HOME/bin:$PATHexport JAVA_HOME PATH<---------------------------------------------------. /etc/profile.d/jdk.sh

二、两台机器安装tomcat

  1.安装tomcat:

wget http://mirrors.cnnic.cn/apache/tomcat/tomcat-8/v8.0.24/bin/apache-tomcat-8.0.24.tar.gztar xf apache-tomcat-8.0.24.tar.gz -C /usr/local/cd /usr/local/ln -sv apache-tomcat-8.0.24 tomcat

  2.配置环境变量:

vim /etc/profile.d/tomcat.sh--------------------------------------------------->CATALINA_BASE=/usr/local/tomcatPATH=$CATALINA_BASE/bin:$PATHexport PATH CATALINA_BASE<---------------------------------------------------. /etc/profile.d/tomcat.sh

  3.查看tomcat及JAVA状态:

catalina.sh version

    

  4.提供启动脚本:

vim /etc/init.d/tomcat-------------------------------------------------------->#!/bin/sh# Tomcat init script for Linux.## chkconfig: 2345 96 14# description: The Apache Tomcat servlet/JSP container.# JAVA_OPTS='-Xms64m -Xmx128m'JAVA_HOME=/usr/local/jdkCATALINA_HOME=/usr/local/tomcatexport JAVA_HOME CATALINA_HOMEcase $1 instart) exec $CATALINA_HOME/bin/catalina.sh start ;;stop) exec $CATALINA_HOME/bin/catalina.sh stop;;restart) $CATALINA_HOME/bin/catalina.sh stop sleep 2 exec $CATALINA_HOME/bin/catalina.sh start ;;*) echo "Usage: `basename $0` {start|stop|restart}" exit 1 ;;esac<--------------------------------------------------------chmod +x /etc/init.d/tomcatchkconfig --add tomcat

  5.编辑tomcat配置文件,只添加jvmRoute参数:

    在19.66上:

vim /usr/local/tomcat/conf/server.-----------------------------------------------><Engine name="Catalina" defaultHost="localhost" jvmRoute="TomcatA">       //指明这是TomcatA主机

    在19.74上:

vim /usr/local/tomcat/conf/server.-----------------------------------------------><Engine name="Catalina" defaultHost="localhost" jvmRoute="TomcatB">

  6.提供测试页面:

     在19.66上:

mkdir -pv /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/test/WEB-INF/{classes,lib}vim /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/test/index.jsp------------------------------------------------------------------------><%@ page language="java" %><%@ page import="java.util.*" %><html>  <head>    <title>test</title>  </head>  <body>    <%      out.println("This is TomcatA");    %>  </body></html>------------------------------------------------------------------------>service tomcat start

    在19.74上:

mkdir -pv /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/test/WEB-INF/{classes,lib}vim /usr/local/tomcat/webapps/test/index.jsp------------------------------------------------------------------------><%@ page language="java" %><%@ page import="java.util.*" %><html>  <head>    <title>test</title>  </head>  <body>    <%      out.println("This is TomcatB");    %>  </body></html>------------------------------------------------------------------------>service tomcat start

三、利用mod_jk模块对tomcat进行负载均衡

  利用httpd反向代理tomcat时有两种方法,分别要用到mod_proxy和mod_jk这两个模块。mod_jk需要额外编译安装,而mod_proxy需要用到httpd的proxy_module、proxy_balancer_module、proxy_http_module、proxy_ajp_module模块,确保安装时这些模块都被安装了。从httpd2.2开始,这些模块默认就是安装的,所以这里我们直接用yum安装即可。

  下面先演示利用mod_jk模块对tomcat进行负载均衡。此模块只需要在一台机器上安装,我们这里在19.66上安装。

  1.安装httpd:

yum -y install httpd httpd-devel     //安装httpd-devel为了提供apxs

  2.安装mod_jk.so模块:

wget http://mirrors.cnnic.cn/apache/tomcat/tomcat-connectors/jk/tomcat-connectors-1.2.41-src.tar.gztar xf tomcat-connectors-1.2.41-src.tar.gzcd tomcat-connectors-1.2.41-src/native/./configure --with-apxs=/usr/sbin/apxsmake && make install

  3.提供额外的httpd模块配置文件:

vim /etc/httpd/conf.d/httpd-jk.conf------------------------------------------------------># Load the mod_jkLoadModule jk_module modules/mod_jk.so        //加载mod_jk.so模块JkWorkersFile /etc/httpd/conf.d/workers.properties   //此模块自己要用到的配置文件JkLogFile logs/mod_jk.logJkLogLevel debugJkMount /* lb1                     //访问根下的所有内容都发到集群lb1中来JkMount /status/ stat1

  4.配置mod_jk模块的配置文件workers.properties:

vim /etc/httpd/conf.d/workers.properties-------------------------------------------------------->worker.list = lb1,stat1worker.TomcatA.type = ajp13            //httpd连接tomcat所用的模式worker.TomcatA.host = 192.168.19.66worker.TomcatA.port = 8009worker.TomcatA.lbfactor = 1            //权重worker.TomcatB.type = ajp13worker.TomcatB.host = 192.168.19.74worker.TomcatB.port = 8009worker.TomcatB.lbfactor = 1worker.lb1.type = lb               //调度方式worker.lb1.sticky_session = 0           //是否使用session绑定worker.lb1.balance_workers = TomcatA, TomcatBworker.stat1.type = status

   5.启动测试:

service httpd start

    用浏览器打开http://192.168.19.66/test,我们不断刷新,可以看到实验效果。

       

四、利用mod_proxy模块对tomcat进行负载均衡

  1.仍然在19.66上编辑即可,使用http协议:

cd /etc/httpd/conf.d/mv httpd-jk.conf httpd-jk.conf.bakvim httpd-proxy.conf--------------------------------------------------------------><Proxy balancer://lb1>  BalancerMember http://192.168.19.66:8080 loadfactor=1 route=TomcatA  BalancerMember http://192.168.19.74:8080 loadfactor=1 route=TomcatB  ProxySet lbmethod=byrequests        //基于权重将统计请求个数进行调度</Proxy>ProxyPass / balancer://lb1/ProxyPassReverse / balancer://lb1/<--------------------------------------------------------------service httpd restart

  2.使用ajp协议:

cd /etc/httpd/conf.d/mv httpd-jk.conf httpd-jk.conf.bakvim httpd-proxy.conf--------------------------------------------------------------><Proxy balancer://lb1>  BalancerMember ajp://192.168.19.66:8009 loadfactor=1 route=TomcatA  BalancerMember ajp://192.168.19.74:8009 loadfactor=1 route=TomcatB  ProxySet lbmethod=byrequests</Proxy>ProxyPass / balancer://lb1/ProxyPassReverse / balancer://lb1/<--------------------------------------------------------------service httpd restart

  以上两种办法都可以实现负载均衡,刷新页面仍然可以看到效果,这里就不在给出图片了。至此,实验全部结束,谢谢!如有问题,请联系我,QQ:82800452.