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[操作系统]Linux内核的文件预读readahead


Linux的文件预读readahead,指Linux系统内核将指定文件的某区域预读进页缓存起来,便于接下来对该区域进行读取时,不会因缺页(page fault)而阻塞。因为从内存读取比从磁盘读取要快很多。预读可以有效的减少磁盘的寻道次数和应用程序的I/O等待时间,是改进磁盘读I/O性能的重要优化手段之一。

维基百科上关于readhead的介绍资料:

readahead is a system call of the Linux kernel that loads a file's contents into the page cache, providing that way a file prefetching technology. When a file is subsequently accessed, its contents are read from the main memory (RAM) rather than from a hard disk drive (HDD), resulting in much lower file access latencies due to much higher performance of the main memory.[1][2]

Many Linux distributions use readahead on a list of commonly used files to speed up booting. In such a setup, if the kernel is booted with the profile boot parameter, it will record all file accesses during bootup and write a new list of files to be read during later boot sequences. This will make additional installed services start faster, because they are not included in the default readahead list.[3]

In Linux distributions that use systemd, readahead binary (as part of the boot sequence) is replaced by systemd-readahead.[4][5] However, support for readahead was removed from systemd in its version 219, being described as unmaintained and unable to provide expected performance benefits.[6]

Certain experimental page-level prefetching systems have been developed to further improve performance.[7]

查看、设置readhead使用命令blockdev。如下所示:

[root@localhost ~]# /sbin/blockdev
 
Usage:
  blockdev -V
  blockdev --report [devices]
  blockdev [-v|-q] commands devices
 
Available commands:
        --getsz                        get size in 512-byte sectors
        --setro                        set read-only
        --setrw                        set read-write
        --getro                        get read-only
        --getss                        get logical block (sector) size
        --getpbsz                      get physical block (sector) size
        --getiomin                     get minimum I/O size
        --getioopt                     get optimal I/O size
        --getalignoff                  get alignment offset
        --getmaxsect                   get max sectors per request
        --getbsz                       get blocksize
        --setbsz BLOCKSIZE             set blocksize on file descriptor opening the block device
        --getsize                      get 32-bit sector count
        --getsize64                    get size in bytes
        --setra READAHEAD              set readahead
        --getra                        get readahead
        --setfra FSREADAHEAD           set filesystem readahead
        --getfra                       get filesystem readahead
        --flushbufs                    flush buffers
        --rereadpt                     reread partition table


查看磁盘的预读扇区

[root@localhost ~]# /sbin/blockdev --getra /dev/sda
 
256
 
[root@localhost ~]# /sbin/blockdev --getra /dev/sdb
 
256
 
[root@localhost ~]# 


clip_image001

 

设置磁盘的预读扇区

[root@localhost ~]# /sbin/blockdev --getra /dev/sda
256
[root@localhost ~]# /sbin/blockdev --setra 2048 /dev/sda
[root@localhost ~]# /sbin/blockdev --getra /dev/sda
2048
[root@localhost ~]# /sbin/blockdev --getra /dev/sdb
256
[root@localhost ~]# /sbin/blockdev --setra 2048 /dev/sdb
[root@localhost ~]# /sbin/blockdev --getra /dev/sdb
2048
[root@localhost ~]# 


 

clip_image002

必须将其写入配置文件/etc/rc.local,否则重启就会失效。

 
[root@localhost ~]# echo '/sbin/blockdev --setra 2048 /dev/sda' >> /etc/rc.local
[root@localhost ~]# more /etc/rc.local
#!/bin/sh
#
# This script will be executed *after* all the other init scripts.
# You can put your own initialization stuff in here if you don't
# want to do the full Sys V style init stuff.
 
touch /var/lock/subsys/local
/sbin/blockdev --setra 2048 /dev/sda
[root@localhost ~]# echo '/sbin/blockdev --setra 2048 /dev/sdb' >> /etc/rc.local
[root@localhost ~]# more /etc/rc.local
#!/bin/sh
#
# This script will be executed *after* all the other init scripts.
# You can put your own initialization stuff in here if you don't
# want to do the full Sys V style init stuff.
 
touch /var/lock/subsys/local
/sbin/blockdev --setra 2048 /dev/sda
/sbin/blockdev --setra 2048 /dev/sdb


 

参考资料:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Readahead

http://www.hustyx.com/cpp/96/