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[数据库]Oracle Data Pump 导出和导入数据


  Data pump export/import(hereinafter referred to as Export/Import for ease of reading)是一种将元数据和数据导出到系统文件集/从系统文件集导入数据的服务端工具;导出的文件可以移动到其它服务器上,但只能使用impdp导入;使用前要先建立目录(directory)和授权:

conn / as sysdbaCREATE DIRECTORY PUMP_DIR AS '/u01/backup';

创建后即可查询出目录信息,包括目录名称、所有者、目录位置:

SQL> column directory_path format a50SQL>select * from dba_directories where directory_name='PUMP_DIR';OWNER             DIRECTORY_NAME         DIRECTORY_PATH------------------------------ ------------------------------ --------------------------------------------------SYS              PUMP_DIR            /u01/backup

删除已有的目录

drop directory pump_dir;

向某些用户授权使用目录,可以授权read或write权限,或者两个权限同时授予:

grant read,write on directory pump_dir to frdc;

撤销权限

revoke read,write on directory pump_dir from frdc;

1导出数据

1.1基本说明

EXPDP USERID='sywu/sywu' job_name=export_tb parallel=3 tables=(tb01,tb02,tb03) dumpfile=pump_dir:dw_20150602.dmp logfile=pump_dir:exptb.log version='11.2.0.1.0' exclude=''

userid 表示数据库连接信息,可以是as sysdba权限,非sysdba权限用户可以省略;
job_name 表示导出任务名,未指定默认格式为: SYS_EXPORT_TABLE _*;
parallel 表示并行数,默认为1;
tables 表示导出的表名,可以指定所有者owner.tab,导出分区表的某个分区owner.tab:part01;
dumpfile 表示导出的dump文件名,格式目录名:dump文件名,注:某些版本可能不兼容报错(ORA-39145),可以把目录独立出来用directory参数指定(directory=pump_dir);
version 表示导入目的地数据库版本,在非同一版本数据库之间导出导入数据这个比较重要;
exclude 表示导入排除的对象,DATABASE_EXPORT_OBJECTS表中记录所有的(数据库级别)排除模式,SCHEMA_EXPORT_OBJECTS表中记录schema级别排除对象模式,TABLE_EXPORT_OBJECTS表中记录table级别排除对象模式;

1.2带条件导出数据

有时候只想导出特定的数据,比如id=10或id in(10,20,30),这种情况下可以用条件限定导出数据(注意字符转义)

expdp userid='ops$sywu/sywu' tables=tb01 query=tb01:\"where object_id in\(10,20,30\)\" dumpfile=query_tab.dump directory=pump_dir Export: Release 11.2.0.3.0 - Production on Tue Jun 2 17:09:24 2015Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.Connected to: Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.3.0 - 64bit ProductionWith the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing optionsStarting "OPS$SYWU"."SYS_EXPORT_TABLE_01": userid=ops$sywu/******** tables=tb01 query=tb01:"where object_id in(10,20,30)" dumpfile=query_tab.dump directory=pump_dir Estimate in progress using BLOCKS method...Processing object type TABLE_EXPORT/TABLE/TABLE_DATATotal estimation using BLOCKS method: 88 MBProcessing object type TABLE_EXPORT/TABLE/TABLEProcessing object type TABLE_EXPORT/TABLE/STATISTICS/TABLE_STATISTICS. . exported "OPS$SYWU"."TB01"              25.70 KB   192 rowsMaster table "OPS$SYWU"."SYS_EXPORT_TABLE_01" successfully loaded/unloaded******************************************************************************Dump file set for OPS$SYWU.SYS_EXPORT_TABLE_01 is: /u01/backup/query_tab.dumpJob "OPS$SYWU"."SYS_EXPORT_TABLE_01" successfully completed at 17:09:32

或者通过rownum限定行的方式导出数据(注意字符转义)

 expdp userid='ops$sywu/sywu' tables=tb01 query=tb01:\"where rownum\<10\" dumpfile=query_tab.dump directory=pump_dir Export: Release 11.2.0.3.0 - Production on Tue Jun 2 17:14:28 2015Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.Connected to: Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.3.0 - 64bit ProductionWith the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing optionsStarting "OPS$SYWU"."SYS_EXPORT_TABLE_01": userid=ops$sywu/******** tables=tb01 query=tb01:"where rownum<10" dumpfile=query_tab.dump directory=pump_dir Estimate in progress using BLOCKS method...Processing object type TABLE_EXPORT/TABLE/TABLE_DATATotal estimation using BLOCKS method: 88 MBProcessing object type TABLE_EXPORT/TABLE/TABLEProcessing object type TABLE_EXPORT/TABLE/STATISTICS/TABLE_STATISTICS. . exported "OPS$SYWU"."TB01"              11.41 KB    9 rowsMaster table "OPS$SYWU"."SYS_EXPORT_TABLE_01" successfully loaded/unloaded******************************************************************************Dump file set for OPS$SYWU.SYS_EXPORT_TABLE_01 is: /u01/backup/query_tab.dumpJob "OPS$SYWU"."SYS_EXPORT_TABLE_01" successfully completed at 17:14:36

有些情况下,为了满足测试要求,我们可能需要整库导出或整个schema下的数据导出,但又不需要所有数据,so 同样可以使用限定行数的方式限定所有表数据行导出数据

expdp userid='ops$sywu/sywu' SCHEMAS='ops$sywu' query=\"where rownum\<10\" dumpfile=schema_sywu.dump directory=pump_dirExport: Release 11.2.0.3.0 - Production on Tue Jun 2 17:18:34 2015Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.Connected to: Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.3.0 - 64bit ProductionWith the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing optionsStarting "OPS$SYWU"."SYS_EXPORT_SCHEMA_01": userid=ops$sywu/******** SCHEMAS=ops$sywu query="where rownum<10" dumpfile=schema_sywu.dump directory=pump_dir Estimate in progress using BLOCKS method...Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/TABLE_DATATotal estimation using BLOCKS method: 104 MBProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/PRE_SCHEMA/PROCACT_SCHEMAProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/TABLEProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/COMMENTProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/PACKAGE/PACKAGE_SPECProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/PACKAGE/COMPILE_PACKAGE/PACKAGE_SPEC/ALTER_PACKAGE_SPECProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/INDEX/INDEXProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/CONSTRAINT/CONSTRAINTProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/INDEX/STATISTICS/INDEX_STATISTICSProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/PACKAGE/PACKAGE_BODYProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/STATISTICS/TABLE_STATISTICS. . exported "OPS$SYWU"."TB01"              11.41 KB    9 rows. . exported "OPS$SYWU"."TB02"              6.015 KB    9 rows. . exported "OPS$SYWU"."T_EXCE"             5.820 KB    2 rowsMaster table "OPS$SYWU"."SYS_EXPORT_SCHEMA_01" successfully loaded/unloaded******************************************************************************Dump file set for OPS$SYWU.SYS_EXPORT_SCHEMA_01 is: /u01/backup/schema_sywu.dumpJob "OPS$SYWU"."SYS_EXPORT_SCHEMA_01" successfully completed at 17:18:55

有些情况下,导出的数据需要通过网络或通过媒介传输到其它目的地,考虑媒介的大小和网络情况,每次只能限定传输,为了达到这个目的可以将数据导出到多个文件,然后再分批或独立发送;比如评估的数据大小是80M,我想把文件导出为4个文件,每个文件的大小为20M,so 我像这样导出数据:

expdp userid='ops$sywu/sywu' job_name=exporttb_bysize SCHEMAS='ops$sywu' filesize=20971520 dumpfile=size_each_sywu.dump,file02.dmp,file03.dmp,file04.dmp directory=pump_dir logfile=exportt01.logExport: Release 11.2.0.3.0 - Production on Tue Jun 2 18:03:03 2015Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.Connected to: Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.3.0 - 64bit ProductionWith the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing optionsStarting "OPS$SYWU"."EXPORTTB_BYSIZE": userid=ops$sywu/******** job_name=exporttb_bysize SCHEMAS=ops$sywu filesize=20971520 dumpfile=size_each_sywu.dump,file02.dmp,file03.dmp,file04.dmp directory=pump_dir logfile=exportt01.log Estimate in progress using BLOCKS method...Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/TABLE_DATATotal estimation using BLOCKS method: 104 MBProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/PRE_SCHEMA/PROCACT_SCHEMAProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/TABLEProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/COMMENTProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/PACKAGE/PACKAGE_SPECProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/PACKAGE/COMPILE_PACKAGE/PACKAGE_SPEC/ALTER_PACKAGE_SPECProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/INDEX/INDEXProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/CONSTRAINT/CONSTRAINTProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/INDEX/STATISTICS/INDEX_STATISTICSProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/PACKAGE/PACKAGE_BODYProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/STATISTICS/TABLE_STATISTICS. . exported "OPS$SYWU"."TB01"              74.64 MB 844416 rows. . exported "OPS$SYWU"."TB02"              452.3 KB  13448 rows. . exported "OPS$SYWU"."T_EXCE"             5.820 KB    2 rowsMaster table "OPS$SYWU"."EXPORTTB_BYSIZE" successfully loaded/unloaded******************************************************************************Dump file set for OPS$SYWU.EXPORTTB_BYSIZE is: /u01/backup/size_each_sywu.dump /u01/backup/file02.dmp /u01/backup/file03.dmp /u01/backup/file04.dmpJob "OPS$SYWU"."EXPORTTB_BYSIZE" successfully completed at 18:03:24

filesize 表示每个文件的大小,单位为:bytes
dumpfile 表示导出的4个dump文件名,如果实际导出数据大小大于指定的文件数据(dumpfile)乘以每个文件大小(filesize)之合,则导出停止并报错
ORA-39095: Dump file space has been exhausted: Unable to allocate 4096 bytesJob "OPS$SYWU"."SYS_EXPORT_SCHEMA_07" stopped due to fatal error at 17:57:31
有个地方要注意:在导出数据时,数据库会在导数用户下根据job_name名称创建一张表,比如job_name=exporttb_bysize,在导数过程中数据库创建一张名EXPORTTB_BYSIZE的表,该表记录了导数的信息,导数成功完成后自动删除,如果导数未成功,比如空间不足或实际大小大于指定大小,则job停止,该表不会自动删除。
为了说明问题,我将filesize改为每个文件10m模拟错误发生,最后观察状态,然后解决错误;

 expdp userid='ops$sywu/sywu' job_name=exporttb_bysize SCHEMAS='ops$sywu' filesize=10485760 dumpfile=size_each_sywu.dump,file02.dmp,file03.dmp,file04.dmp directory=pump_dir logfile=exportt01.logExport: Release 11.2.0.3.0 - Production on Tue Jun 2 18:21:07 2015Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.Connected to: Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.3.0 - 64bit ProductionWith the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing optionsStarting "OPS$SYWU"."EXPORTTB_BYSIZE": userid=ops$sywu/******** job_name=exporttb_bysize SCHEMAS=ops$sywu filesize=10485760 dumpfile=size_each_sywu.dump,file02.dmp,file03.dmp,file04.dmp directory=pump_dir logfile=exportt01.log Estimate in progress using BLOCKS method...Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/TABLE_DATATotal estimation using BLOCKS method: 104 MBProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/PRE_SCHEMA/PROCACT_SCHEMAProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/TABLEProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/COMMENTProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/PACKAGE/PACKAGE_SPECProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/PACKAGE/COMPILE_PACKAGE/PACKAGE_SPEC/ALTER_PACKAGE_SPECProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/INDEX/INDEXProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/CONSTRAINT/CONSTRAINTProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/INDEX/STATISTICS/INDEX_STATISTICSProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/PACKAGE/PACKAGE_BODYProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/STATISTICS/TABLE_STATISTICSORA-39095: Dump file space has been exhausted: Unable to allocate 4096 bytesJob "OPS$SYWU"."EXPORTTB_BYSIZE" stopped due to fatal error at 18:21:26

指定文件大小乘以文件个数小于实际数据量大小,导出报错停止,仅仅是停止;

ls -lh /u01/backup-rw-r--r--. 1 oracle asmadmin 1.8K Jun 2 17:18 export.log-rw-r--r--. 1 oracle asmadmin 1.5K Jun 2 18:21 exportt01.log-rw-r-----. 1 oracle asmadmin 10M Jun 2 18:21 file02.dmp-rw-r-----. 1 oracle asmadmin 10M Jun 2 18:21 file03.dmp-rw-r-----. 1 oracle asmadmin 10M Jun 2 18:21 file04.dmp-rw-r-----. 1 oracle asmadmin 10M Jun 2 18:21 size_each_sywu.dump

此时查看数据库,发现一张于job_name名称相同的表EXPORTTB_BYSIZE,表中记录了导数时的信息;查询job的状态为:NOT RUNING;

select * from tab;TNAME             TABTYPE CLUSTERID------------------------------ ------- ----------EXPORTTB_BYSIZE        TABLETB01              TABLETB02              TABLET_EXCE             TABLEselect job_name,state from dba_datapump_jobs;JOB_NAME            STATE------------------------------ ------------------------------EXPORTTB_BYSIZE        NOT RUNNING

继续完成导数可以通过添加dump文件或使用系统默认的文件

expdp userid='ops$sywu/sywu' attach=EXPORTTB_BYSIZEExport: Release 11.2.0.3.0 - Production on Tue Jun 2 22:28:37 2015Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.Connected to: Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.3.0 - 64bit ProductionWith the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing optionsJob: EXPORTTB_BYSIZE Owner: OPS$SYWU             Operation: EXPORT              Creator Privs: FALSE              GUID: 178798A215814641E053FE1813ACD41C Start Time: Tuesday, 02 June, 2015 22:28:38 Mode: SCHEMA              Instance: sydb Max Parallelism: 1 EXPORT Job Parameters: Parameter Name   Parameter Value:   CLIENT_COMMAND    userid=ops$sywu/******** job_name=exporttb_bysize SCHEMAS=ops$sywu filesize=10485760 dumpfile=size_each_sywu.dump,file02.dmp,file03.dmp,file04.dmp directory=pump_dir logfile=exportt01.log  State: IDLING              Bytes Processed: 0 Current Parallelism: 1 Job Error Count: 0 Dump File: /u01/backup/size_each_sywu.dump  size: 10,485,760  bytes written: 10,485,760 Dump File: /u01/backup/file02.dmp  size: 10,485,760  bytes written: 10,485,760 Dump File: /u01/backup/file03.dmp  size: 10,485,760  bytes written: 10,485,760 Dump File: /u01/backup/file04.dmp  size: 10,485,760  bytes written: 10,485,760Worker 1 Status: Process Name: DW00 State: UNDEFINED            Object Schema: OPS$SYWU Object Name: TB01 Object Type: SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/TABLE_DATA Completed Objects: 1 Total Objects: 3 Completed Bytes: 41,844,736 Percent Done: 45 Worker Parallelism: 1Export> add_file=file05.dmpExport> start_job

开始任务后,导数继续执行

select job_name,state from dba_datapump_jobs;JOB_NAME            STATE------------------------------ ------------------------------EXPORTTB_BYSIZE        EXECUTINGselect job_name,state from dba_datapump_jobs;JOB_NAME            STATE------------------------------ ------------------------------EXPORTTB_BYSIZE        COMPLETING

在添加dump file(add_file)时,添加的文件最终大小取决于添加了多少dump file,在上例中仅添加了一个file05.dmp,so 剩余的数据量将全部归纳到该文件中;如果未添加文件oracle会自己分配和创建一个dump文件;

[oracle@sywu backup]$ ls -ltrh-rw-r-----. 1 oracle asmadmin 10M Jun 2 22:30 file02.dmp-rw-r-----. 1 oracle asmadmin 10M Jun 2 22:30 file03.dmp-rw-r-----. 1 oracle asmadmin 10M Jun 2 22:30 file04.dmp-rw-r-----. 1 oracle asmadmin 10M Jun 2 22:30 size_each_sywu.dump-rw-r-----. 1 oracle asmadmin 36M Jun 2 22:30 file05.dmp-rw-r--r--. 1 oracle asmadmin 2.4K Jun 2 22:30 exportt01.log[oracle@sywu backup]$ cat exportt01.log Export: Release 11.2.0.3.0 - Production on Tue Jun 2 18:42:17 2015Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.;;; Connected to: Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.3.0 - 64bit ProductionWith the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing optionsStarting "OPS$SYWU"."EXPORTTB_BYSIZE": userid=ops$sywu/******** job_name=exporttb_bysize SCHEMAS=ops$sywu filesize=10485760 dumpfile=size_each_sywu.dump,file02.dmp,file03.dmp,file04.dmp directory=pump_dir logfile=exportt01.log Estimate in progress using BLOCKS method...Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/TABLE_DATATotal estimation using BLOCKS method: 104 MBProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/PRE_SCHEMA/PROCACT_SCHEMAProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/TABLEProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/COMMENTProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/PACKAGE/PACKAGE_SPECProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/PACKAGE/COMPILE_PACKAGE/PACKAGE_SPEC/ALTER_PACKAGE_SPECProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/INDEX/INDEXProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/CONSTRAINT/CONSTRAINTProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/INDEX/STATISTICS/INDEX_STATISTICSProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/PACKAGE/PACKAGE_BODYProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/STATISTICS/TABLE_STATISTICSORA-39095: Dump file space has been exhausted: Unable to allocate 4096 bytesJob "OPS$SYWU"."EXPORTTB_BYSIZE" stopped due to fatal error at 18:42:36Job EXPORTTB_BYSIZE has been reopened at Tuesday, 02 June, 2015 22:28 Restarting "OPS$SYWU"."EXPORTTB_BYSIZE": userid=ops$sywu/******** job_name=exporttb_bysize SCHEMAS=ops$sywu filesize=10485760 dumpfile=size_each_sywu.dump,file02.dmp,file03.dmp,file04.dmp directory=pump_dir logfile=exportt01.log . . exported "OPS$SYWU"."TB01"              74.64 MB 844416 rows. . exported "OPS$SYWU"."TB02"              452.3 KB  13448 rows. . exported "OPS$SYWU"."T_EXCE"             5.820 KB    2 rowsMaster table "OPS$SYWU"."EXPORTTB_BYSIZE" successfully loaded/unloaded******************************************************************************Dump file set for OPS$SYWU.EXPORTTB_BYSIZE is: /u01/backup/size_each_sywu.dump /u01/backup/file02.dmp /u01/backup/file03.dmp /u01/backup/file04.dmp /u01/backup/file05.dmpJob "OPS$SYWU"."EXPORTTB_BYSIZE" completed with 1 error(s) at 22:30:38

1.3导出某个schema下的数据

  对于导出schema下的数据,建议使用sysdba用户导出,因为随着系统的复杂和环境不一,某些时候依赖的包、对象、存储过程可能是属于另一个用户的,导出时被导出schema未必具有完全的权限,同时还要考虑导入的目的地环境;当然万事没有绝对,完全取决于应用;

expdp userid='sys/oracle as sysdba' job_name=export_schema SCHEMAS='ops$sywu' directory=pump_dir dumpfile=schema_sywu.dmp logfile=schema_sywu.log

1.4整库导出

  整库导出必须使用sysdba权限;

expdp userid='sys/oracle as sysdba' job_name=export_schema FULL=Y directory=pump_dir dumpfile=full_dbexport.dmp logfile=full_dbexport.log

1.5查询导数job状态

column username format a10 column opname format a20 column units format a10 select  round(sofar/totalwork*100,2) percent_completed,  t.sid,t.SERIAL#,t.USERNAME,t.OPNAME,t.TOTALWORK,t.UNITS,t.START_TIME,t.MESSAGE from  v$session_longops t where sofar <> totalwork order by target,sid;PERCENT_COMPLETED    SID  SERIAL# USERNAME  OPNAME        TOTALWORK UNITS   START_TIME   MESSAGE----------------- ---------- ---------- ---------- -------------------- ---------- ---------- -------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------      70.88    128   17213 FRDC    Table Scan       2533381 Blocks   02-6月 -15   Table Scan: FRDC.H_BASE_MAIN05_T: 1795601 out of 2533381 Blocks done      12.58    128   17213 FRDC    Table Scan       2533381 Blocks   02-6月 -15   Table Scan: FRDC.H_BASE_MAIN05_T: 318705 out of 2533381 Blocks done      70.74    128   17213 FRDC    Table Scan       2533381 Blocks   02-6月 -15   Table Scan: FRDC.H_BASE_MAIN05_T: 1792046 out of 2533381 Blocks done      29.06     4   57701 FRDC    Index Fast Full Scan    2127 Blocks   13-5月 -15   Index Fast Full Scan: FRDC.O_BASE_DW: 618 out of 2127 Blocks done        0     5    280 SYS    Rowid Range Scan   4294967296 Blocks   02-6月 -15   Rowid Range Scan: FRDC.O_BASE_DW_T: 22055 out of 0 Blocks done        0    427   54951 FRDC    EXPORT_TB         7900 MB     02-6月 -15   EXPORT_TB: EXPORT : 0 out of 7900 MB done

2数据导入

2.1基本语法

$ impdp userid='uname/pwd' directory=pump_dir dumpfile=file01.dmp job_name='' log_file='' remap_schema='scott:sywu' remap_table='tb01:tb02' remap_tablespace='tbs01:ts01' tables='' schemas='' table_exists_action='' tablespaces='' exclude='' sqlfile=''

上面有的参数这里就不重复了,因为dump方式导出数据使用了remap_schema 表示重新定义schema,将旧的schema定义为新的schema,格式old:new,old:new....;
remap_table 表示重新定义表名,格式oldtbname:newtbname,....;
remap_tablespace 表示重新定义表空间名,格式old:new....;
tables 表示要导入的表名,如果未指定则导入dumpfile里的所有表;
schemas 表示要导入的schema对象,如果未指定并且操作用户有权限则导入dumpfile里的所有schema;
table_exists_action 表示当导入表时如果表已经存在时的操作,参数值可以为:append(追加)、replace(替换数据库中存在的)、truncate(删除已经存在的数据,导入dumpfile里面的数据)、skip(不做任何操作);
tablespaces 表示导入的表空间名;
exclude 表示导入排除的对象,DATABASE_EXPORT_OBJECTS表中记录所有的(数据库级别)排除模式,SCHEMA_EXPORT_OBJECTS表中记录schema级别排除对象模式,TABLE_EXPORT_OBJECTS表中记录table级别排除对象模式;
sqlfile 表示不导入数据仅生成导数ddl语句记录在该文件中;

2.2导入数据

导入数据时要确认导入的用户是否存在,是否有权限访问表空间、是否具有读写directory的权限;

$ impdp userid='ops$sywu/sywu' schemas='ops$sywu' directory=pump_dir job_name=import_opssywu dumpfile=export_opssywu.dmpImport: Release 11.2.0.3.0 - Production on Sat Jun 6 13:39:43 2015Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.Connected to: Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.3.0 - 64bit ProductionWith the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing optionsMaster table "OPS$SYWU"."IMPORT_OPSSYWU" successfully loaded/unloadedStarting "OPS$SYWU"."IMPORT_OPSSYWU": userid=ops$sywu/******** schemas=ops$sywu directory=pump_dir job_name=import_opssywu dumpfile=export_opssywu.dmp Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/PRE_SCHEMA/PROCACT_SCHEMAProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/TABLEProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/TABLE_DATA. . imported "OPS$SYWU"."TB01"              74.64 MB 844416 rows. . imported "OPS$SYWU"."TB02"              452.3 KB  13448 rows. . imported "OPS$SYWU"."T_EXCE"             5.820 KB    2 rowsProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/PACKAGE/PACKAGE_SPECProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/PACKAGE/COMPILE_PACKAGE/PACKAGE_SPEC/ALTER_PACKAGE_SPECProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/CONSTRAINT/CONSTRAINTProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/INDEX/STATISTICS/INDEX_STATISTICSProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/PACKAGE/PACKAGE_BODYProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/STATISTICS/TABLE_STATISTICSJob "OPS$SYWU"."IMPORT_OPSSYWU" successfully completed at 13:39:55

导入数据时重定义schema和tablespaces,重定义schema建议使用sysdba权限导入数据:

create tablespace tbs02 datafile '/u01/oradata/sydb/tbs02.dbf' size 10m autoextend on uniform size 4m;create user sywu identified by sywu default tablespace tbs02 quota unlimited on tbs02;grant create session,resource to sywu;grant read,write on directory pump_dir to sywu;exit;$ impdp userid="'sys/oracle as sysdba'" remap_schema='ops$sywu:sywu' remap_tablespace=tbs01:tbs02 directory=pump_dir job_name=import_opssywu dumpfile=export_opssywu.dmpImport: Release 11.2.0.3.0 - Production on Sat Jun 6 13:51:48 2015Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.Connected to: Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.3.0 - 64bit ProductionWith the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing optionsMaster table "SYS"."IMPORT_OPSSYWU" successfully loaded/unloadedStarting "SYS"."IMPORT_OPSSYWU": userid="sys/******** AS SYSDBA" remap_schema=ops$sywu:sywu remap_tablespace=tbs01:tbs02 directory=pump_dir job_name=import_opssywu dumpfile=export_opssywu.dmp Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/PRE_SCHEMA/PROCACT_SCHEMAProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/TABLEProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/TABLE_DATA. . imported "SYWU"."TB01"                74.64 MB 844416 rows. . imported "SYWU"."TB02"                452.3 KB  13448 rows. . imported "SYWU"."T_EXCE"               5.820 KB    2 rowsProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/PACKAGE/PACKAGE_SPECProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/PACKAGE/COMPILE_PACKAGE/PACKAGE_SPEC/ALTER_PACKAGE_SPECProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/CONSTRAINT/CONSTRAINTProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/INDEX/STATISTICS/INDEX_STATISTICSProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/PACKAGE/PACKAGE_BODYProcessing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/STATISTICS/TABLE_STATISTICSJob "SYS"."IMPORT_OPSSYWU" successfully completed at 13:52:08

其它还有限定行数的操作,操作类似上面导出操作;
The end(2015-06-06)