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[Java教程]史上最全最强SpringMVC详细示例实战教程


SpringMVC学习笔记----

一、SpringMVC基础入门,创建一个HelloWorld程序

1.首先,导入SpringMVC需要的jar包。


2.添加Web.
 <!--configure the setting of springmvcDispatcherServlet and configure the mapping--> <servlet>   <servlet-name>springmvc</servlet-name>   <servlet-class>org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet</servlet-class>   <init-param>      <param-name>contextConfigLocation</param-name>      <param-value>classpath:springmvc-servlet.</param-value>    </init-param>    <!-- <load-on-startup>1</load-on-startup> --> </servlet> <servlet-mapping>   <servlet-name>springmvc</servlet-name>   <url-pattern>/</url-pattern> </servlet-mapping>

3.在src下添加springmvc-servlet.

<??><beans ="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"  ="http://www.w3.org/2001/  ="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"  ="http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc"  xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd    http://www.springframework.org/schema/context http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context-4.1.xsd    http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc/spring-mvc-4.1.xsd">            <!-- scan the package and the sub package -->  <context:component-scan base-package="test.SpringMVC"/>  <!-- don't handle the static resource -->  <mvc:default-servlet-handler />  <!-- if you use annotation you must configure following setting -->  <mvc:annotation-driven />    <!-- configure the InternalResourceViewResolver -->  <bean class="org.springframework.web.servlet.view.InternalResourceViewResolver"       id="internalResourceViewResolver">    <!-- 前缀 -->    <property name="prefix" value="/WEB-INF/jsp/" />    <!-- 后缀 -->    <property name="suffix" value=".jsp" />  </bean></beans>

4.在WEB-INF文件夹下创建名为jsp的文件夹,用来存放jsp视图。创建一个hello.jsp,在body中添加“Hello World”。

5.建立包及Controller,如下所示

6.编写Controller代码

@Controller@RequestMapping("/mvc")public class mvcController {  @RequestMapping("/hello")  public String hello(){        return "hello";  }}

7.启动服务器,键入 http://localhost:8080/项目名/mvc/hello

二、配置解析


1.Dispatcherservlet

  DispatcherServlet是前置控制器,配置在web.

2.InternalResourceViewResolver

  视图名称解析器

3.以上出现的注解

@Controller 负责注册一个bean 到spring 上下文中

@RequestMapping 注解为控制器指定可以处理哪些 URL 请求

三、SpringMVC常用注解

@Controller

  负责注册一个bean 到spring 上下文中
@RequestMapping

  注解为控制器指定可以处理哪些 URL 请求
@RequestBody

  该注解用于读取Request请求的body部分数据,使用系统默认配置的HttpMessageConverter进行解析,然后把相应的数据绑定到要返回的对象上 ,再把HttpMessageConverter返回的对象数据绑定到 controller中方法的参数上

@ResponseBody

   该注解用于将Controller的方法返回的对象,通过适当的HttpMessageConverter转换为指定格式后,写入到Response对象的body数据区

@ModelAttribute    

  在方法定义上使用 @ModelAttribute 注解:Spring MVC 在调用目标处理方法前,会先逐个调用在方法级上标注了@ModelAttribute 的方法

  在方法的入参前使用 @ModelAttribute 注解:可以从隐含对象中获取隐含的模型数据中获取对象,再将请求参数 –绑定到对象中,再传入入参将方法入参对象添加到模型中 

@RequestParam 

  在处理方法入参处使用 @RequestParam 可以把请求参 数传递给请求方法

@PathVariable

  绑定 URL 占位符到入参
@ExceptionHandler

  注解到方法上,出现异常时会执行该方法
@ControllerAdvice

  使一个Contoller成为全局的异常处理类,类中用@ExceptionHandler方法注解的方法可以处理所有Controller发生的异常

四、自动匹配参数

  //match automatically  @RequestMapping("/person")  public String toPerson(String name,double age){    System.out.println(name+" "+age);    return "hello";  }

五、自动装箱

1.编写一个Person实体类

package test.SpringMVC.model;public class Person {  public String getName() {    return name;  }  public void setName(String name) {    this.name = name;  }  public int getAge() {    return age;  }  public void setAge(int age) {    this.age = age;  }  private String name;  private int age;  }

2.在Controller里编写方法

  //boxing automatically  @RequestMapping("/person1")  public String toPerson(Person p){    System.out.println(p.getName()+" "+p.getAge());    return "hello";  }

六、使用InitBinder来处理Date类型的参数

  //the parameter was converted in initBinder  @RequestMapping("/date")  public String date(Date date){    System.out.println(date);    return "hello";  }    //At the time of initialization,convert the type "String" to type "date"  @InitBinder  public void initBinder(ServletRequestDataBinder binder){    binder.registerCustomEditor(Date.class, new CustomDateEditor(new SimpleDateFormat("yyyy-MM-dd"),        true));  }

七、向前台传递参数

  //pass the parameters to front-end  @RequestMapping("/show")  public String showPerson(Map<String,Object> map){    Person p =new Person();    map.put("p", p);    p.setAge(20);    p.setName("jayjay");    return "show";  }

前台可在Request域中取到"p"

八、使用Ajax调用

  //pass the parameters to front-end using ajax  @RequestMapping("/getPerson")  public void getPerson(String name,PrintWriter pw){    pw.write("hello,"+name);      }  @RequestMapping("/name")  public String sayHello(){    return "name";  }

前台用下面的Jquery代码调用

     $(function(){       $("#btn").click(function(){         $.post("mvc/getPerson",{name:$("#name").val()},function(data){           alert(data);         });       });     });

九、在Controller中使用redirect方式处理请求

  //redirect   @RequestMapping("/redirect")  public String redirect(){    return "redirect:hello";  }

十、文件上传

1.需要导入两个jar包

2.在SpringMVC配置文件中加入

  <!-- upload settings -->  <bean id="multipartResolver" class="org.springframework.web.multipart.commons.CommonsMultipartResolver">    <property name="maxUploadSize" value="102400000"></property>  </bean>

3.方法代码

  @RequestMapping(value="/upload",method=RequestMethod.POST)  public String upload(HttpServletRequest req) throws Exception{    MultipartHttpServletRequest mreq = (MultipartHttpServletRequest)req;    MultipartFile file = mreq.getFile("file");    String fileName = file.getOriginalFilename();    SimpleDateFormat sdf = new SimpleDateFormat("yyyyMMddHHmmss");        FileOutputStream fos = new FileOutputStream(req.getSession().getServletContext().getRealPath("/")+        "upload/"+sdf.format(new Date())+fileName.substring(fileName.lastIndexOf('.')));    fos.write(file.getBytes());    fos.flush();    fos.close();        return "hello";  }

4.前台form表单

   <form action="mvc/upload" method="post" enctype="multipart/form-data">     <input type="file" name="file"><br>     <input type="submit" value="submit">   </form>

十一、使用@RequestParam注解指定参数的name

@Controller@RequestMapping("/test")public class mvcController1 {  @RequestMapping(value="/param")  public String testRequestParam(@RequestParam(value="id") Integer id,      @RequestParam(value="name")String name){    System.out.println(id+" "+name);    return "/hello";  }  }

十二、RESTFul风格的SringMVC

1.RestController

@Controller@RequestMapping("/rest")public class RestController {  @RequestMapping(value="/user/{id}",method=RequestMethod.GET)  public String get(@PathVariable("id") Integer id){    System.out.println("get"+id);    return "/hello";  }    @RequestMapping(value="/user/{id}",method=RequestMethod.POST)  public String post(@PathVariable("id") Integer id){    System.out.println("post"+id);    return "/hello";  }    @RequestMapping(value="/user/{id}",method=RequestMethod.PUT)  public String put(@PathVariable("id") Integer id){    System.out.println("put"+id);    return "/hello";  }    @RequestMapping(value="/user/{id}",method=RequestMethod.DELETE)  public String delete(@PathVariable("id") Integer id){    System.out.println("delete"+id);    return "/hello";  }  }

2.form表单发送put和delete请求

在web.

 <!-- configure the HiddenHttpMethodFilter,convert the post method to put or delete --> <filter>   <filter-name>HiddenHttpMethodFilter</filter-name>   <filter-class>org.springframework.web.filter.HiddenHttpMethodFilter</filter-class> </filter> <filter-mapping>   <filter-name>HiddenHttpMethodFilter</filter-name>   <url-pattern>/*</url-pattern> </filter-mapping>

在前台可以用以下代码产生请求

  <form action="rest/user/1" method="post">    <input type="hidden" name="_method" value="PUT">    <input type="submit" value="put">  </form>    <form action="rest/user/1" method="post">    <input type="submit" value="post">  </form>    <form action="rest/user/1" method="get">    <input type="submit" value="get">  </form>    <form action="rest/user/1" method="post">    <input type="hidden" name="_method" value="DELETE">    <input type="submit" value="delete">  </form>

十三、返回json格式的字符串

1.导入以下jar包

2.方法代码

@Controller@RequestMapping("/json")public class jsonController {    @ResponseBody  @RequestMapping("/user")  public User get(){    User u = new User();    u.setId(1);    u.setName("jayjay");    u.setBirth(new Date());    return u;  }}

十四、异常的处理

1.处理局部异常(Controller内)

  @ExceptionHandler  public ModelAndView exceptionHandler(Exception ex){    ModelAndView mv = new ModelAndView("error");    mv.addObject("exception", ex);    System.out.println("in testExceptionHandler");    return mv;  }    @RequestMapping("/error")  public String error(){    int i = 5/0;    return "hello";  }

2.处理全局异常(所有Controller)

@ControllerAdvicepublic class testControllerAdvice {  @ExceptionHandler  public ModelAndView exceptionHandler(Exception ex){    ModelAndView mv = new ModelAndView("error");    mv.addObject("exception", ex);    System.out.println("in testControllerAdvice");    return mv;  }}

3.另一种处理全局异常的方法

在SpringMVC配置文件中配置

  <!-- configure SimpleMappingExceptionResolver -->  <bean class="org.springframework.web.servlet.handler.SimpleMappingExceptionResolver">    <property name="exceptionMappings">      <props>        <prop key="java.lang.ArithmeticException">error</prop>      </props>    </property>  </bean>

error是出错页面

十五、设置一个自定义拦截器

1.创建一个MyInterceptor类,并实现HandlerInterceptor接口

public class MyInterceptor implements HandlerInterceptor {  @Override  public void afterCompletion(HttpServletRequest arg0,      HttpServletResponse arg1, Object arg2, Exception arg3)      throws Exception {    System.out.println("afterCompletion");  }  @Override  public void postHandle(HttpServletRequest arg0, HttpServletResponse arg1,      Object arg2, ModelAndView arg3) throws Exception {    System.out.println("postHandle");  }  @Override  public boolean preHandle(HttpServletRequest arg0, HttpServletResponse arg1,      Object arg2) throws Exception {    System.out.println("preHandle");    return true;  }}

2.在SpringMVC的配置文件中配置

  <!-- interceptor setting -->  <mvc:interceptors>    <mvc:interceptor>      <mvc:mapping path="/mvc/**"/>      <bean class="test.SpringMVC.Interceptor.MyInterceptor"></bean>    </mvc:interceptor>      </mvc:interceptors>

3.拦截器执行顺序

十六、表单的验证(使用Hibernate-validate)及国际化

1.导入Hibernate-validate需要的jar包

(未选中不用导入)

2.编写实体类User并加上验证注解

public class User {  public int getId() {    return id;  }  public void setId(int id) {    this.id = id;  }  public String getName() {    return name;  }  public void setName(String name) {    this.name = name;  }  public Date getBirth() {    return birth;  }  public void setBirth(Date birth) {    this.birth = birth;  }  @Override  public String toString() {    return "User [id=" + id + ", name=" + name + ", birth=" + birth + "]";  }    private int id;  @NotEmpty  private String name;  @Past  @DateTimeFormat(pattern="yyyy-MM-dd")  private Date birth;}

ps:@Past表示时间必须是一个过去值

3.在jsp中使用SpringMVC的form表单

  <form:form action="form/add" method="post" modelAttribute="user">    id:<form:input path="id"/><form:errors path="id"/><br>    name:<form:input path="name"/><form:errors path="name"/><br>    birth:<form:input path="birth"/><form:errors path="birth"/>    <input type="submit" value="submit">  </form:form> 

ps:path对应name

4.Controller中代码

@Controller@RequestMapping("/form")public class formController {  @RequestMapping(value="/add",method=RequestMethod.POST)    public String add(@Valid User u,BindingResult br){    if(br.getErrorCount()>0){            return "addUser";    }    return "showUser";  }    @RequestMapping(value="/add",method=RequestMethod.GET)  public String add(Map<String,Object> map){    map.put("user",new User());    return "addUser";  }}

ps:

  1.因为jsp中使用了modelAttribute属性,所以必须在request域中有一个"user".

  2.@Valid 表示按照在实体上标记的注解验证参数

  3.返回到原页面错误信息回回显,表单也会回显

5.错误信息自定义

在src目录下添加locale.properties

NotEmpty.user.name=name can't not be emptyPast.user.birth=birth should be a past valueDateTimeFormat.user.birth=the format of input is wrongtypeMismatch.user.birth=the format of input is wrongtypeMismatch.user.id=the format of input is wrong

在SpringMVC配置文件中配置

  <!-- configure the locale resource -->  <bean id="messageSource" class="org.springframework.context.support.ResourceBundleMessageSource">    <property name="basename" value="locale"></property>  </bean>

6.国际化显示

在src下添加locale_zh_CN.properties

username=账号password=密码

locale.properties中添加

username=user namepassword=password

创建一个locale.jsp

 <body>  <fmt:message key="username"></fmt:message>  <fmt:message key="password"></fmt:message> </body>

在SpringMVC中配置

  <!-- make the jsp page can be visited -->  <mvc:view-controller path="/locale" view-name="locale"/>

让locale.jsp在WEB-INF下也能直接访问

最后,访问locale.jsp,切换浏览器语言,能看到账号和密码的语言也切换了

十七、压轴大戏--整合SpringIOC和SpringMVC

1.创建一个test.SpringMVC.integrate的包用来演示整合,并创建各类

2.User实体类

public class User {  public int getId() {    return id;  }  public void setId(int id) {    this.id = id;  }  public String getName() {    return name;  }  public void setName(String name) {    this.name = name;  }  public Date getBirth() {    return birth;  }  public void setBirth(Date birth) {    this.birth = birth;  }  @Override  public String toString() {    return "User [id=" + id + ", name=" + name + ", birth=" + birth + "]";  }    private int id;  @NotEmpty  private String name;  @Past  @DateTimeFormat(pattern="yyyy-MM-dd")  private Date birth;}

3.UserService类

@Component
public class UserService { public UserService(){ System.out.println("UserService Constructor...\n\n\n\n\n\n"); } public void save(){ System.out.println("save"); }}

4.UserController

@Controller@RequestMapping("/integrate")public class UserController {  @Autowired  private UserService userService;    @RequestMapping("/user")  public String saveUser(@RequestBody @ModelAttribute User u){    System.out.println(u);    userService.save();    return "hello";  }}

5.Spring配置文件

在src目录下创建SpringIOC的配置文件applicationContext.

<??><beans ="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"  ="http://www.w3.org/2001/  xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans     http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd     http://www.springframework.org/schema/util     http://www.springframework.org/schema/util/spring-util-4.0.xsd    http://www.springframework.org/schema/context    http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context.xsd    "    ="http://www.springframework.org/schema/util"    ="http://www.springframework.org/schema/p"    ="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"      >  <context:component-scan base-package="test.SpringMVC.integrate">    <context:exclude-filter type="annotation"       expression="org.springframework.stereotype.Controller"/>    <context:exclude-filter type="annotation"       expression="org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.ControllerAdvice"/>      </context:component-scan>  </beans>

在Web.

 <!-- configure the springIOC --> <listener>   <listener-class>org.springframework.web.context.ContextLoaderListener</listener-class> </listener> <context-param>   <param-name>contextConfigLocation</param-name>   <param-value>classpath:applicationContext.</param-value> </context-param>

6.在SpringMVC中进行一些配置,防止SpringMVC和SpringIOC对同一个对象的管理重合

<!-- scan the package and the sub package -->  <context:component-scan base-package="test.SpringMVC.integrate">    <context:include-filter type="annotation"       expression="org.springframework.stereotype.Controller"/>    <context:include-filter type="annotation"       expression="org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.ControllerAdvice"/>  </context:component-scan>

 

十八、SpringMVC详细运行流程图