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[数据库]常用SQL语句大全总结


SQL是(Structured Query Language)结构化查询语言的简称,下面赵一鸣随笔博客从基础知识、判断对象和应用技巧等方面,介绍了SQL的应用方法。

基础

创建数据库

创建之前判断该数据库是否存在
if exists (select * from sysdatabases where name='databaseName')
drop database databaseName
go
Create DATABASE database-name

删除数据库

drop database dbname

备份sql server

— 创建 备份数据的 device
USE master
EXEC sp_addumpdevice 'disk', 'testBack', 'c:\mssql7backup\MyNwind_1.dat'
— 开始 备份
BACKUP DATABASE pubs TO testBack

创建新表

create table tabname(col1 type1 [not null] [primary key],col2 type2 [not null],..)
根据已有的表创建新表:
A:go
use 原数据库名
go
select * into 目的数据库名.dbo.目的表名 from 原表名(使用旧表创建新表)
B:create table tab_new as select col1,col2… from tab_old definition only

创建序列

create sequence SIMON_SEQUENCE
minvalue 1 — 最小值
maxvalue 999999999999999999999999999 最大值
start with 1 开始值
increment by 1 每次加几
cache 20;

删除新表

drop table tabname

增加一个列

Alter table tabname add column col type
注:列增加后将不能删除。DB2中列加上后数据类型也不能改变,唯一能改变的是增加varchar类型的长度。

添加主键

Alter table tabname add primary key(col)
说明:删除主键: Alter table tabname drop primary key(col)

创建索引

create [unique] index idxname on tabname(col….)
删除索引:drop index idxname on tabname
注:索引是不可更改的,想更改必须删除重新建。

创建视图

create view viewname as select statement
删除视图:drop view viewname

几个简单的基本的sql语句

选择:select * from table1 where 范围
插入:insert into table1(field1,field2) values(value1,value2)
删除:delete from table1 where 范围
更新:update table1 set field1=value1 where 范围
查找:select * from table1 where field1 like ’%value1%’ (所有包含‘value1’这个模式的字符串)—like的语法很精妙,查资料!
排序:select * from table1 order by field1,field2 [desc]
总数:select count(*) as totalcount from table1
求和:select sum(field1) as sumvalue from table1
平均:select avg(field1) as avgvalue from table1
最大:select max(field1) as maxvalue from table1
最小:select min(field1) as minvalue from table1[separator]

几个高级查询运算词

A: UNION 运算符
UNION 运算符通过组合其他两个结果表(例如 TABLE1 和 TABLE2)并消去表中任何重复行而派生出一个结果表。当 ALL 随 UNION 一起使用时(即 UNION ALL),不消除重复行。两种情况下,派生表的每一行不是来自 TABLE1 就是来自 TABLE2。
B: EXCEPT 运算符
EXCEPT 运算符通过包括所有在 TABLE1 中但不在 TABLE2 中的行并消除所有重复行而派生出一个结果表。当 ALL 随 EXCEPT 一起使用时 (EXCEPT ALL),不消除重复行。
C: INTERSECT 运算符
INTERSECT 运算符通过只包括 TABLE1 和 TABLE2 中都有的行并消除所有重复行而派生出一个结果表。当 ALL 随 INTERSECT 一起使用时 (INTERSECT ALL),不消除重复行。
注:使用运算词的几个查询结果行必须是一致的。

使用外连接

A、left outer join:
左外连接(左连接):结果集既包括连接表的匹配行,也包括左连接表的所有行。
SQL: select a.a, a.b, a.c, b.c, b.d, b.f from a LEFT OUT JOIN b ON a.a = b.c
B:right outer join:
右外连接(右连接):结果集既包括连接表的匹配连接行,也包括右连接表的所有行。
C:full outer join:
全外连接:不仅包括符号连接表的匹配行,还包括两个连接表中的所有记录。

判断对象是否存在

判断数据库是否存在

if exists (select * from sys.databases where name = ‘数据库名’)
drop database [数据库名]

判断表是否存在

if not exists (select * from sysobjects where [name] = ‘表名’ and xtype=’U’)
begin
–这里创建表
end

判断存储过程是否存在

if exists (select * from sysobjects where id = object_id(N'[存储过程名]’) and OBJECTPROPERTY(id, N’IsProcedure’) = 1)
drop procedure [存储过程名]

判断临时表是否存在

if object_id(‘tempdb..#临时表名’) is not null
drop table #临时表名

判断视图是否存在

–SQL Server 2000
IF EXISTS (SELECT * FROM sysviews WHERE object_id = ‘[dbo].[视图名]’
–SQL Server 2005
IF EXISTS (SELECT * FROM sys.views WHERE object_id = ‘[dbo].[视图名]’

判断函数是否存在

if exists (select * from dbo.sysobjects where id = object_id(N'[dbo].[函数名]’) and xtype in (N’FN’, N’IF’, N’TF’))
drop function [dbo].[函数名]

获取用户创建的对象信息

SELECT [name],[id],crdate FROM sysobjects where xtype=’U’
/*
xtype 的表示参数类型,通常包括如下这些 C = CHECK 约束 D = 默认值或 DEFAULT 约束 F = FOREIGN KEY 约束 L = 日志 FN = 标量函数 IF = 内嵌表函数 P = 存储过程 PK = PRIMARY KEY 约束(类型是 K) RF = 复制筛选存储过程 S = 系统表 TF = 表函数 TR = 触发器 U = 用户表 UQ = UNIQUE 约束(类型是 K) V = 视图 X = 扩展存储过程 */

判断列是否存在

if exists(select * from syscolumns where id=object_id(‘表名’) and name=’列名’)
alter table 表名 drop column 列名

判断列是否自增列

if columnproperty(object_id(‘table’),’col’,’IsIdentity’)=1
print ‘自增列’
else
print ‘不是自增列’
SELECT * FROM sys.columns WHERE object_id=OBJECT_ID(‘表名’)
AND is_identity=1

判断表中是否存在索引

if exists(select * from sysindexes where id=object_id(‘表名’) and name=’索引名’)
print ‘存在’
else
print ‘不存在

查看数据库中对象

SELECT * FROM sys.sysobjects WHERE name=’对象名’

提升

复制表

(只复制结构,源表名:a 新表名:b) (Access可用)
法一:select * into b from a where 1<>1
法二:select top 0 * into b from a

拷贝表

(拷贝数据,源表名:a 目标表名:b) (Access可用)
insert into b(a, b, c) select d,e,f from b;

跨数据库之间表的拷贝

(具体数据使用绝对路径) (Access可用)
insert into b(a, b, c) select d,e,f from b in ‘具体数据库’ where 条件
例子:..from b in ‘”&Server.MapPath(“.”&”\data.mdb” &”‘ where..

子查询

(表名1:a 表名2:b)
select a,b,c from a where a IN (select d from b 或者: select a,b,c from a where a IN (1,2,3)

显示文章、提交人和最后回复时间

select a.title,a.username,b.adddate from table a,(select max(adddate) adddate from table where table.title=a.title) b

外连接查询

(表名1:a 表名2:b)
select a.a, a.b, a.c, b.c, b.d, b.f from a LEFT OUT JOIN b ON a.a = b.c

在线视图查询

(表名1:a
select * from (Select a,b,c FROM a) T where t.a > 1;

between的用法

between限制查询数据范围时包括了边界值,not between不包括
select * from table1 where time between time1 and time2
select a,b,c, from table1 where a not between 数值1 and 数值2

in 的使用方法

select * from table1 where a [not] in (‘值1’,’值2’,’值4’,’值6’)

删除主表中已经在副表中没有的信息

两张关联表delete from table1 where not exists ( select * from table2 where table1.field1=table2.field1

四表联查问题

select * from a left inner join b on a.a=b.b right inner join c on a.a=c.c inner join d on a.a=d.d where …..

日程安排提前五分钟提醒

SQL: select * from 日程安排 where datediff(‘minute’,f开始时间,getdate())>5

一条sql 语句搞定数据库分页

select top 10 b.* from (select top 20 主键字段,排序字段 from 表名 order by 排序字段 desc) a,表名 b where b.主键字段 = a.主键字段 order by a.排序字段

前10条记录

select top 10 * form table1 where 范围

选择排名

选择在每一组b值相同的数据中对应的a最大的记录的所有信息(类似这样的用法可以用于论坛每月排行榜,每月热销产品分析,按科目成绩排名,等等.)
select a,b,c from tablename ta where a=(select max(a) from tablename tb where tb.b=ta.b)

派生结果表

包括所有在 TableA 中但不在 TableB和TableC 中的行并消除所有重复行而派生出一个结果表
(select a from tableA except (select a from tableB) except (select a from tableC)

随机取出10条数据

select top 10 * from tablename order by newid()

随机选择记录

select newid()

删除重复记录

Delete from tablename where id not in (select max(id) from tablename group by col1,col2,…)

列出数据库里所有的表名

select name from sysobjects where type=’U’

列出表里的所有的

select name from syscolumns where id=object_id(‘TableName’)

列示排列

列示type、vender、pcs字段,以type字段排列,case可以方便地实现多重选择,类似select 中的case。
select type,sum(case vender when ‘A’ then pcs else 0 end),sum(case vender when ‘C’ then pcs else 0 end),sum(case vender when ‘B’ then pcs else 0 end) FROM tablename group by type
显示结果:
type vender pcs
电脑 A 1
电脑 A 1
光盘 B 2
光盘 A 2
手机 B 3
手机 C 3

初始化表table1

TRUNCATE TABLE table1

选择从10到15的记录

select top 5 * from (select top 15 * from table order by id asc) table_别名 order by id desc

数据类型转换

declare @numid int
declare @id varchar(50)
set @numid=2005
set @id=convert(varchar,@numid)
通过上述语句完成数据类型Int转换成varchar,其他转换类似,可参看convert函数

技巧

1=1,1=2的使用

在SQL语句组合时用的较多
“where 1=1” 是表示选择全部 “where 1=2”全部不选,
如:
if @strWhere !=’
begin
set @strSQL = ‘select count(*) as Total from [‘ + @tblName + ‘] where ‘ + @strWhere
end
else
begin
set @strSQL = ‘select count(*) as Total from [‘ + @tblName + ‘]’
end
我们可以直接写成
set @strSQL = ‘select count(*) as Total from [‘ + @tblName + ‘] where 1=1 and ‘+ @strWhere

收缩数据库

–重建索引
DBCC REINDEX
DBCC INDEXDEFRAG
–收缩数据和日志
DBCC SHRINKDB
DBCC SHRINKFILE

压缩数据库

dbcc shrinkdatabase(dbname)
转移数据库给新用户以已存在用户权限
exec sp_change_users_login ‘update_one’,’newname’,’oldname’
go

检查备份集

RESTORE VERIFYONLY from disk=’E:\dvbbs.bak’

修复数据库

Alter DATABASE [dvbbs] SET SINGLE_USER
GO
DBCC CHECKDB(‘dvbbs’,repair_allow_data_loss) WITH TABLOCK
GO
Alter DATABASE [dvbbs] SET MULTI_USER
GO

日志清除

SET NOCOUNT ON
DECLARE @LogicalFileName sysname,
@MaxMinutes INT,
@NewSize INT
USE tablename — 要操作的数据库名
Select @LogicalFileName = ‘tablename_log’, — 日志文件名
@MaxMinutes = 10, — Limit on time allowed to wrap log.
@NewSize = 1 — 你想设定的日志文件的大小(M)
— Setup / initialize
DECLARE @OriginalSize int
Select @OriginalSize = size
FROM sysfiles
Where name = @LogicalFileName
Select ‘Original Size of ‘ + db_name() + ‘ LOG is ‘ +
CONVERT(VARCHAR(30),@OriginalSize) + ‘ 8K pages or ‘ +
CONVERT(VARCHAR(30),(@OriginalSize*8/1024)) + ‘MB’
FROM sysfiles
Where name = @LogicalFileName
Create TABLE DummyTrans
(DummyColumn char (8000) not null)
DECLARE @Counter INT,
@StartTime DATETIME,
@TruncLog VARCHAR(255)
Select @StartTime = GETDATE(),
@TruncLog = ‘BACKUP LOG ‘ + db_name() + ‘ WITH TRUNCATE_ONLY’
DBCC SHRINKFILE (@LogicalFileName, @NewSize)
EXEC (@TruncLog)
— Wrap the log if necessary.
WHILE @MaxMinutes > DATEDIFF (mi, @StartTime, GETDATE()) — time has not expired
AND @OriginalSize = (Select size FROM sysfiles Where name = @LogicalFileName)
AND (@OriginalSize * 8 /1024) > @NewSize
BEGIN — Outer loop.
Select @Counter = 0
WHILE ((@Counter < @OriginalSize / 16) AND (@Counter < 50000))
BEGIN — update
Insert DummyTrans VALUES (‘Fill Log’)
Delete DummyTrans
Select @Counter = @Counter + 1
END
EXEC (@TruncLog)
END
Select ‘Final Size of ‘ + db_name() + ‘ LOG is ‘ +
CONVERT(VARCHAR(30),size) + ‘ 8K pages or ‘ +
CONVERT(VARCHAR(30),(size*8/1024)) + ‘MB’
FROM sysfiles
Where name = @LogicalFileName
Drop TABLE DummyTrans
SET NOCOUNT OFF

更改某个表

exec sp_changeobjectowner ‘tablename’,’dbo’

存储更改全部表

Create PROCEDURE dbo.User_ChangeObjectOwnerBatch
@OldOwner as NVARCHAR(128),
@NewOwner as NVARCHAR(128)
AS
DECLARE @Name as NVARCHAR(128)
DECLARE @Owner as NVARCHAR(128)
DECLARE @OwnerName as NVARCHAR(128)
DECLARE curObject CURSOR FOR
select 'Name' = name,
'Owner' = user_name(uid)
from sysobjects
where user_name(uid)=@OldOwner
order by name
OPEN curObject
FETCH NEXT FROM curObject INTO @Name, @Owner
WHILE(@@FETCH_STATUS=0)
BEGIN
if @Owner=@OldOwner
begin
set @OwnerName = @OldOwner + '.' + rtrim(@Name)
exec sp_changeobjectowner @OwnerName, @NewOwner
end– select @name,@NewOwner,@OldOwner
FETCH NEXT FROM curObject INTO @Name, @Owner
END
close curObject
deallocate curObject
GO

SQL SERVER中直接循环写入数据

declare @i int
set @i=1
while @i<30
begin
insert into test (userid) values(@i)
set @i=@i+1
end

 

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