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[操作系统]KVC与setValue:forUndefinedKey:方法


在实际开发及应用过程中,经常会遇到通过外部数据构造的字典的键要多于自定义数据模型中属性的个数的情况。

例如:从外部获得JSON格式的数据包含5个键,如下所示:

{  "cityname" : "beijing",  "state1" : "0",  "state2" : "1",  "tem1" : "25",  "tem2" : "14",}

而与之对应的模型只包含3个属性:

/** 城市名 */@property (copy, nonatomic) NSString *cityname;/** 最低温度 */@property (copy, nonatomic) NSNumber *tem1;/** 最高温度 */@property (copy, nonatomic) NSNumber *tem2;

整个示例程序的代码如下:

控制器ViewController.m:

#import "ViewController.h"#import "Weather.h"@interface ViewController ()@end@implementation ViewController- (void)viewDidLoad {  [super viewDidLoad];    // 读取JSON格式的外部数据  NSURL *url = [[NSBundle mainBundle] URLForResource:@"weather" withExtension:@"json"];  NSData *data = [NSData dataWithContentsOfURL:url];  NSDictionary *dict = [NSJSONSerialization JSONObjectWithData:data options:NSJSONReadingMutableContainers error:NULL];  // 数据模型实例  Weather *w = [Weather weatherWithDictionary:dict];  NSLog(@"%@", w);}@end

模型类Weather.h:

#import <Foundation/Foundation.h>@interface Weather : NSObject/** 城市名 */@property (copy, nonatomic) NSString *cityname;/** 最低温度 */@property (copy, nonatomic) NSNumber *tem1;/** 最高温度 */@property (copy, nonatomic) NSNumber *tem2;- (instancetype)initWithDictionary:(NSDictionary *)dict;+ (instancetype)weatherWithDictionary:(NSDictionary *)dict;@end

模型类Weather.m:

#import "Weather.h"@implementation Weather- (instancetype)initWithDictionary:(NSDictionary *)dict {  self = [super init];  if (nil != self) {    [self setValuesForKeysWithDictionary:dict];  }  return self;}+ (instancetype)weatherWithDictionary:(NSDictionary *)dict {  return [[self alloc] initWithDictionary:dict];}- (NSString *)description {  return [NSString stringWithFormat:@"[cityname, tem1, tem2] = [%@, %@, %@]", self.cityname, self.tem1, self.tem2];}@end

此时,如果运行程序,会报告以下错误信息:

*** Terminating app due to uncaught exception 'NSUnknownKeyException', reason: '[ setValue:forUndefinedKey:]: this class is not key value coding-compliant for the key state1.'*** First throw call stack:(	0  CoreFoundation           0x000000010e158c65 __exceptionPreprocess + 165	1  libobjc.A.dylib           0x000000010ddefbb7 objc_exception_throw + 45	2  CoreFoundation           0x000000010e1588a9 -[NSException raise] + 9	3  Foundation             0x000000010d984b53 -[NSObject(NSKeyValueCoding) setValue:forKey:] + 259	4  Foundation             0x000000010d9c6fad -[NSObject(NSKeyValueCoding) setValuesForKeysWithDictionary:] + 261	5  2015-05-05-setValueforUndefinedKey 0x000000010d8b94bd -[Weather initWithDictionary:] + 141	6  2015-05-05-setValueforUndefinedKey 0x000000010d8b9557 +[Weather weatherWithDictionary:] + 87	7  2015-05-05-setValueforUndefinedKey 0x000000010d8b9925 -[ViewController viewDidLoad] + 277	8  UIKit                0x000000010e683210 -[UIViewController loadViewIfRequired] + 738	9  UIKit                0x000000010e68340e -[UIViewController view] + 27	10 UIKit                0x000000010e59e2c9 -[UIWindow addRootViewControllerViewIfPossible] + 58	11 UIKit                0x000000010e59e68f -[UIWindow _setHidden:forced:] + 247	12 UIKit                0x000000011bb4a175 -[UIWindowAccessibility _orderFrontWithoutMakingKey] + 68	13 UIKit                0x000000010e5aae21 -[UIWindow makeKeyAndVisible] + 42	14 UIKit                0x000000010e54e457 -[UIApplication _callInitializationDelegatesForMainScene:transitionContext:] + 2732	15 UIKit                0x000000010e5511de -[UIApplication _runWithMainScene:transitionContext:completion:] + 1349	16 UIKit                0x000000010e5500d5 -[UIApplication workspaceDidEndTransaction:] + 179	17 FrontBoardServices         0x0000000110d575e5 __31-[FBSSerialQueue performAsync:]_block_invoke_2 + 21	18 CoreFoundation           0x000000010e08c41c __CFRUNLOOP_IS_CALLING_OUT_TO_A_BLOCK__ + 12	19 CoreFoundation           0x000000010e082165 __CFRunLoopDoBlocks + 341	20 CoreFoundation           0x000000010e081f25 __CFRunLoopRun + 2389	21 CoreFoundation           0x000000010e081366 CFRunLoopRunSpecific + 470	22 UIKit                0x000000010e54fb42 -[UIApplication _run] + 413	23 UIKit                0x000000010e552900 UIApplicationMain + 1282	24 2015-05-05-setValueforUndefinedKey 0x000000010d8b9c7f main + 111	25 libdyld.dylib            0x0000000110727145 start + 1	26 ???                 0x0000000000000001 0x0 + 1)libc++abi.dylib: terminating with uncaught exception of type NSException

当使用setValuesForKeysWithDictionary:方法时,对于数据模型中缺少的、不能与任何键配对的属性的时候,系统会自动调用setValue:forUndefinedKey:这个方法,该方法默认的实现会引发一个NSUndefinedKeyExceptiony异常。

如果想要程序在运行过程中不引发任何异常信息且正常工作,可以让数据模型类重写setValue:forUndefinedKey:方法以覆盖默认实现,而且可以通过这个方法的两个参数获得无法配对键值。

修改后的模型Weather.m:

#import "Weather.h"@implementation Weather- (instancetype)initWithDictionary:(NSDictionary *)dict {  self = [super init];  if (nil != self) {    [self setValuesForKeysWithDictionary:dict];  }  return self;}// 重写setValue:forUndefinedKey:方法- (void)setValue:(id)value forUndefinedKey:(NSString *)key {  NSLog(@"key = %@, value = %@", key, value);}+ (instancetype)weatherWithDictionary:(NSDictionary *)dict {  return [[self alloc] initWithDictionary:dict];}- (NSString *)description {  return [NSString stringWithFormat:@"[cityname, tem1, tem2] = [%@, %@, %@]", self.cityname, self.tem1, self.tem2];}@end

本例中,重写setValue:forUndefinedKey:方法但不对任何未能配对的键值做任何实质性操作以忽略它们。当然,也可以在方法体中对键值进行处理。

修改完毕后,运行程序输出如下:

key = state1, value = 0key = state2, value = 1[cityname, tem1, tem2] = [beijing, 25, 14]