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[Java教程]Java POI 导出EXCEL经典实现 Java导出Excel


转自http://blog.csdn.net/evangel_z/article/details/7332535

在web开发中,有一个经典的功能,就是数据的导入导出。特别是数据的导出,在生产管理或者财务系统中用的非常普遍,因为这些系统经常要做一些报表打印的工作。而数据导出的格式一般是EXCEL或者PDF,我这里就用两篇文章分别给大家介绍下。(注意,我们这里说的数据导出可不是数据库中的数据导出!么误会啦^_^)

         呵呵,首先我们来导出EXCEL格式的文件吧。现在主流的操作Excel文件的开源工具有很多,用得比较多的就是Apache的POI及JExcelAPI。这里我们用Apache POI!我们先去Apache的大本营下载POI的jar包:http://poi.apache.org/ ,我这里使用的是3.0.2版本。

        将3个jar包导入到classpath下,什么?忘了怎么导包?不会吧!好,我们来写一个导出Excel的实用类(所谓实用,是指基本不用怎么修改就可以在实际项目中直接使用的!)。我一直强调做类也好,做方法也好,一定要通用性和灵活性强。下面这个类就算基本贯彻了我的这种思想。那么,熟悉许老师风格的人应该知道,这时候该要甩出一长串代码了。没错,大伙请看:

 1 import java.util.Date; 2  3 public class Student 4 { 5   private long id; 6   private String name; 7   private int age; 8   private boolean sex; 9   private Date birthday;10 11   public Student()12   {13   }14 15   public Student(long id, String name, int age, boolean sex, Date birthday)16   {17     this.id = id;18     this.name = name;19     this.age = age;20     this.sex = sex;21     this.birthday = birthday;22   }23 24   public long getId()25   {26     return id;27   }28 29   public void setId(long id)30   {31     this.id = id;32   }33 34   public String getName()35   {36     return name;37   }38 39   public void setName(String name)40   {41     this.name = name;42   }43 44   public int getAge()45   {46     return age;47   }48 49   public void setAge(int age)50   {51     this.age = age;52   }53 54   public boolean getSex()55   {56     return sex;57   }58 59   public void setSex(boolean sex)60   {61     this.sex = sex;62   }63 64   public Date getBirthday()65   {66     return birthday;67   }68 69   public void setBirthday(Date birthday)70   {71     this.birthday = birthday;72   }73 74 }

 1 public class Book 2 { 3   private int bookId; 4   private String name; 5   private String author; 6   private float price; 7   private String isbn; 8   private String pubName; 9   private byte[] preface;10 11   public Book()12   {13   }14 15   public Book(int bookId, String name, String author, float price,16       String isbn, String pubName, byte[] preface)17   {18     this.bookId = bookId;19     this.name = name;20     this.author = author;21     this.price = price;22     this.isbn = isbn;23     this.pubName = pubName;24     this.preface = preface;25   }26 27   public int getBookId()28   {29     return bookId;30   }31 32   public void setBookId(int bookId)33   {34     this.bookId = bookId;35   }36 37   public String getName()38   {39     return name;40   }41 42   public void setName(String name)43   {44     this.name = name;45   }46 47   public String getAuthor()48   {49     return author;50   }51 52   public void setAuthor(String author)53   {54     this.author = author;55   }56 57   public float getPrice()58   {59     return price;60   }61 62   public void setPrice(float price)63   {64     this.price = price;65   }66 67   public String getIsbn()68   {69     return isbn;70   }71 72   public void setIsbn(String isbn)73   {74     this.isbn = isbn;75   }76 77   public String getPubName()78   {79     return pubName;80   }81 82   public void setPubName(String pubName)83   {84     this.pubName = pubName;85   }86 87   public byte[] getPreface()88   {89     return preface;90   }91 92   public void setPreface(byte[] preface)93   {94     this.preface = preface;95   }96 }

上面这两个类一目了然,就是两个简单的javabean风格的类。再看下面真正的重点类:

import java.io.BufferedInputStream;import java.io.FileInputStream;import java.io.FileNotFoundException;import java.io.FileOutputStream;import java.io.IOException;import java.io.OutputStream;import java.lang.reflect.Field;import java.lang.reflect.InvocationTargetException;import java.lang.reflect.Method;import java.text.SimpleDateFormat;import java.util.ArrayList;import java.util.Collection;import java.util.Date;import java.util.Iterator;import java.util.List;import java.util.regex.Matcher;import java.util.regex.Pattern;import javax.swing.JOptionPane;import org.apache.poi.hssf.usermodel.HSSFCell;import org.apache.poi.hssf.usermodel.HSSFCellStyle;import org.apache.poi.hssf.usermodel.HSSFClientAnchor;import org.apache.poi.hssf.usermodel.HSSFComment;import org.apache.poi.hssf.usermodel.HSSFFont;import org.apache.poi.hssf.usermodel.HSSFPatriarch;import org.apache.poi.hssf.usermodel.HSSFRichTextString;import org.apache.poi.hssf.usermodel.HSSFRow;import org.apache.poi.hssf.usermodel.HSSFSheet;import org.apache.poi.hssf.usermodel.HSSFWorkbook;import org.apache.poi.hssf.util.HSSFColor;/** * 利用开源组件POI3.0.2动态导出EXCEL文档 转载时请保留以下信息,注明出处! * * @author leno * @version v1.0 * @param <T> *      应用泛型,代表任意一个符合javabean风格的类 *      注意这里为了简单起见,boolean型的属性xxx的get器方式为getXxx(),而不是isXxx() *      byte[]表jpg格式的图片数据 */public class ExportExcel<T>{  public void exportExcel(Collection<T> dataset, OutputStream out)  {    exportExcel("测试POI导出EXCEL文档", null, dataset, out, "yyyy-MM-dd");  }  public void exportExcel(String[] headers, Collection<T> dataset,      OutputStream out)  {    exportExcel("测试POI导出EXCEL文档", headers, dataset, out, "yyyy-MM-dd");  }  public void exportExcel(String[] headers, Collection<T> dataset,      OutputStream out, String pattern)  {    exportExcel("测试POI导出EXCEL文档", headers, dataset, out, pattern);  }  /**   * 这是一个通用的方法,利用了JAVA的反射机制,可以将放置在JAVA集合中并且符号一定条件的数据以EXCEL 的形式输出到指定IO设备上   *   * @param title   *      表格标题名   * @param headers   *      表格属性列名数组   * @param dataset   *      需要显示的数据集合,集合中一定要放置符合javabean风格的类的对象。此方法支持的   *      javabean属性的数据类型有基本数据类型及String,Date,byte[](图片数据)   * @param out   *      与输出设备关联的流对象,可以将EXCEL文档导出到本地文件或者网络中   * @param pattern   *      如果有时间数据,设定输出格式。默认为"yyy-MM-dd"   */  @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")  public void exportExcel(String title, String[] headers,      Collection<T> dataset, OutputStream out, String pattern)  {    // 声明一个工作薄    HSSFWorkbook workbook = new HSSFWorkbook();    // 生成一个表格    HSSFSheet sheet = workbook.createSheet(title);    // 设置表格默认列宽度为15个字节    sheet.setDefaultColumnWidth((short) 15);    // 生成一个样式    HSSFCellStyle style = workbook.createCellStyle();    // 设置这些样式    style.setFillForegroundColor(HSSFColor.SKY_BLUE.index);    style.setFillPattern(HSSFCellStyle.SOLID_FOREGROUND);    style.setBorderBottom(HSSFCellStyle.BORDER_THIN);    style.setBorderLeft(HSSFCellStyle.BORDER_THIN);    style.setBorderRight(HSSFCellStyle.BORDER_THIN);    style.setBorderTop(HSSFCellStyle.BORDER_THIN);    style.setAlignment(HSSFCellStyle.ALIGN_CENTER);    // 生成一个字体    HSSFFont font = workbook.createFont();    font.setColor(HSSFColor.VIOLET.index);    font.setFontHeightInPoints((short) 12);    font.setBoldweight(HSSFFont.BOLDWEIGHT_BOLD);    // 把字体应用到当前的样式    style.setFont(font);    // 生成并设置另一个样式    HSSFCellStyle style2 = workbook.createCellStyle();    style2.setFillForegroundColor(HSSFColor.LIGHT_YELLOW.index);    style2.setFillPattern(HSSFCellStyle.SOLID_FOREGROUND);    style2.setBorderBottom(HSSFCellStyle.BORDER_THIN);    style2.setBorderLeft(HSSFCellStyle.BORDER_THIN);    style2.setBorderRight(HSSFCellStyle.BORDER_THIN);    style2.setBorderTop(HSSFCellStyle.BORDER_THIN);    style2.setAlignment(HSSFCellStyle.ALIGN_CENTER);    style2.setVerticalAlignment(HSSFCellStyle.VERTICAL_CENTER);    // 生成另一个字体    HSSFFont font2 = workbook.createFont();    font2.setBoldweight(HSSFFont.BOLDWEIGHT_NORMAL);    // 把字体应用到当前的样式    style2.setFont(font2);    // 声明一个画图的顶级管理器    HSSFPatriarch patriarch = sheet.createDrawingPatriarch();    // 定义注释的大小和位置,详见文档    HSSFComment comment = patriarch.createComment(new HSSFClientAnchor(0,        0, 0, 0, (short) 4, 2, (short) 6, 5));    // 设置注释内容    comment.setString(new HSSFRichTextString("可以在POI中添加注释!"));    // 设置注释作者,当鼠标移动到单元格上是可以在状态栏中看到该内容.    comment.setAuthor("leno");    // 产生表格标题行    HSSFRow row = sheet.createRow(0);    for (short i = 0; i < headers.length; i++)    {      HSSFCell cell = row.createCell(i);      cell.setCellStyle(style);      HSSFRichTextString text = new HSSFRichTextString(headers[i]);      cell.setCellValue(text);    }    // 遍历集合数据,产生数据行    Iterator<T> it = dataset.iterator();    int index = 0;    while (it.hasNext())    {      index++;      row = sheet.createRow(index);      T t = (T) it.next();      // 利用反射,根据javabean属性的先后顺序,动态调用getXxx()方法得到属性值      Field[] fields = t.getClass().getDeclaredFields();      for (short i = 0; i < fields.length; i++)      {        HSSFCell cell = row.createCell(i);        cell.setCellStyle(style2);        Field field = fields[i];        String fieldName = field.getName();        String getMethodName = "get"            + fieldName.substring(0, 1).toUpperCase()            + fieldName.substring(1);        try        {          Class tCls = t.getClass();          Method getMethod = tCls.getMethod(getMethodName,              new Class[]              {});          Object value = getMethod.invoke(t, new Object[]          {});          // 判断值的类型后进行强制类型转换          String textValue = null;          // if (value instanceof Integer) {          // int intValue = (Integer) value;          // cell.setCellValue(intValue);          // } else if (value instanceof Float) {          // float fValue = (Float) value;          // textValue = new HSSFRichTextString(          // String.valueOf(fValue));          // cell.setCellValue(textValue);          // } else if (value instanceof Double) {          // double dValue = (Double) value;          // textValue = new HSSFRichTextString(          // String.valueOf(dValue));          // cell.setCellValue(textValue);          // } else if (value instanceof Long) {          // long longValue = (Long) value;          // cell.setCellValue(longValue);          // }          if (value instanceof Boolean)          {            boolean bValue = (Boolean) value;            textValue = "男";            if (!bValue)            {              textValue = "女";            }          }          else if (value instanceof Date)          {            Date date = (Date) value;            SimpleDateFormat sdf = new SimpleDateFormat(pattern);            textValue = sdf.format(date);          }          else if (value instanceof byte[])          {            // 有图片时,设置行高为60px;            row.setHeightInPoints(60);            // 设置图片所在列宽度为80px,注意这里单位的一个换算            sheet.setColumnWidth(i, (short) (35.7 * 80));            // sheet.autoSizeColumn(i);            byte[] bsValue = (byte[]) value;            HSSFClientAnchor anchor = new HSSFClientAnchor(0, 0,                1023, 255, (short) 6, index, (short) 6, index);            anchor.setAnchorType(2);            patriarch.createPicture(anchor, workbook.addPicture(                bsValue, HSSFWorkbook.PICTURE_TYPE_JPEG));          }          else          {            // 其它数据类型都当作字符串简单处理            textValue = value.toString();          }          // 如果不是图片数据,就利用正则表达式判断textValue是否全部由数字组成          if (textValue != null)          {            Pattern p = Pattern.compile("^//d+(//.//d+)?$");            Matcher matcher = p.matcher(textValue);            if (matcher.matches())            {              // 是数字当作double处理              cell.setCellValue(Double.parseDouble(textValue));            }            else            {              HSSFRichTextString richString = new HSSFRichTextString(                  textValue);              HSSFFont font3 = workbook.createFont();              font3.setColor(HSSFColor.BLUE.index);              richString.applyFont(font3);              cell.setCellValue(richString);            }          }        }        catch (SecurityException e)        {          e.printStackTrace();        }        catch (NoSuchMethodException e)        {          e.printStackTrace();        }        catch (IllegalArgumentException e)        {          e.printStackTrace();        }        catch (IllegalAccessException e)        {          e.printStackTrace();        }        catch (InvocationTargetException e)        {          e.printStackTrace();        }        finally        {          // 清理资源        }      }    }    try    {      workbook.write(out);    }    catch (IOException e)    {      e.printStackTrace();    }  }  public static void main(String[] args)  {    // 测试学生    ExportExcel<Student> ex = new ExportExcel<Student>();    String[] headers =    { "学号", "姓名", "年龄", "性别", "出生日期" };    List<Student> dataset = new ArrayList<Student>();    dataset.add(new Student(10000001, "张三", 20, true, new Date()));    dataset.add(new Student(20000002, "李四", 24, false, new Date()));    dataset.add(new Student(30000003, "王五", 22, true, new Date()));    // 测试图书    ExportExcel<Book> ex2 = new ExportExcel<Book>();    String[] headers2 =    { "图书编号", "图书名称", "图书作者", "图书价格", "图书ISBN", "图书出版社", "封面图片" };    List<Book> dataset2 = new ArrayList<Book>();    try    {      BufferedInputStream bis = new BufferedInputStream(          new FileInputStream("V://book.bmp"));      byte[] buf = new byte[bis.available()];      while ((bis.read(buf)) != -1)      {        //      }      dataset2.add(new Book(1, "jsp", "leno", 300.33f, "1234567",          "清华出版社", buf));      dataset2.add(new Book(2, "java编程思想", "brucl", 300.33f, "1234567",          "阳光出版社", buf));      dataset2.add(new Book(3, "DOM艺术", "lenotang", 300.33f, "1234567",          "清华出版社", buf));      dataset2.add(new Book(4, "c++经典", "leno", 400.33f, "1234567",          "清华出版社", buf));      dataset2.add(new Book(5, "c#入门", "leno", 300.33f, "1234567",          "汤春秀出版社", buf));      OutputStream out = new FileOutputStream("E://a.xls");      OutputStream out2 = new FileOutputStream("E://b.xls");      ex.exportExcel(headers, dataset, out);      ex2.exportExcel(headers2, dataset2, out2);      out.close();      JOptionPane.showMessageDialog(null, "导出成功!");      System.out.println("excel导出成功!");    }    catch (FileNotFoundException e)    {      e.printStackTrace();    }    catch (IOException e)    {      e.printStackTrace();    }  }}

 写完之后,如果您不是用eclipse工具生成的Servlet,千万别忘了在web.拷贝一张小巧的图书图片命名为book.jpg放置到当前WEB根目录的/WEB-INF/下。部署好web工程,用浏览器访问Servlet看下效果吧!是不是下载成功了。呵呵,您可以将下载到本地的excel报表用打印机打印出来,这样您就大功告成了。完事了我们就思考:我们发现,我们做的方法,不管是本地调用,还是在WEB服务器端用Servlet调用;不管是输出学生列表,还是图书列表信息,代码都几乎一样,而且这些数据我们很容器结合后台的DAO操作数据库动态获取。恩,类和方法的通用性和灵活性开始有点感觉了。好啦,祝您学习愉快!

 

 

简单版 无excel格式样式设置  及excel下载

 1 package com.howbuy.uaa.utils; 2  3 import java.io.BufferedInputStream; 4 import java.io.BufferedOutputStream; 5 import java.io.File; 6 import java.io.FileInputStream; 7 import java.io.IOException; 8 import java.io.InputStream; 9 import java.io.OutputStream; 10 import java.lang.reflect.Field; 11 import java.lang.reflect.InvocationTargetException; 12 import java.lang.reflect.Method; 13 import java.text.SimpleDateFormat; 14 import java.util.Collection; 15 import java.util.Date; 16 import java.util.Iterator; 17 import java.util.regex.Matcher; 18 import java.util.regex.Pattern; 19  20 import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse; 21  22 import org.apache.poi.hssf.usermodel.HSSFCell; 23 import org.apache.poi.hssf.usermodel.HSSFCellStyle; 24 import org.apache.poi.hssf.usermodel.HSSFFont; 25 import org.apache.poi.hssf.usermodel.HSSFRichTextString; 26 import org.apache.poi.hssf.usermodel.HSSFRow; 27 import org.apache.poi.hssf.usermodel.HSSFSheet; 28 import org.apache.poi.hssf.usermodel.HSSFWorkbook; 29  30  31 public class ExportExcel<T> { 32   public void exportExcel(String title,Collection<T> dataset, OutputStream out) { 33     exportExcel(title, null, dataset, out, "yyyy-MM-dd"); 34   } 35  36   public void exportExcel(String title,String[] headers, Collection<T> dataset, 37       OutputStream out) { 38     exportExcel(title, headers, dataset, out, "yyyy-MM-dd"); 39   } 40    41   @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") 42   public void exportExcel(String title, String[] headers,Collection<T> dataset, OutputStream out, String pattern) { 43     // 声明一个工作薄 44     HSSFWorkbook workbook = new HSSFWorkbook(); 45     // 生成一个表格 46     HSSFSheet sheet = workbook.createSheet(title); 47     // 设置表格默认列宽度为15个字节 48     sheet.setDefaultColumnWidth((short) 15); 49     // 生成一个样式 50     HSSFCellStyle style = workbook.createCellStyle(); 51     // 生成一个字体 52     HSSFFont font = workbook.createFont(); 53     font.setFontHeightInPoints((short) 12); 54     // 把字体应用到当前的样式 55     style.setFont(font); 56     // 产生表格标题行 57     HSSFRow row = sheet.createRow(0); 58     for (short i = 0; i < headers.length; i++) { 59       HSSFCell cell = row.createCell(i); 60       cell.setCellStyle(style); 61       HSSFRichTextString text = new HSSFRichTextString(headers[i]); 62       cell.setCellValue(text); 63     } 64     // 遍历集合数据,产生数据行 65     Iterator<T> it = dataset.iterator(); 66     int index = 0; 67     while (it.hasNext()) { 68       index++; 69       row = sheet.createRow(index); 70       T t = (T) it.next(); 71       // 利用反射,根据javabean属性的先后顺序,动态调用getXxx()方法得到属性值 72       Field[] fields = t.getClass().getDeclaredFields(); 73       for (short i = 0; i < fields.length; i++) { 74         HSSFCell cell = row.createCell(i); 75         cell.setCellStyle(style); 76         Field field = fields[i]; 77         String fieldName = field.getName(); 78         String getMethodName = "get" 79             + fieldName.substring(0, 1).toUpperCase() 80             + fieldName.substring(1); 81         try { 82           Class tCls = t.getClass(); 83           Method getMethod = tCls.getMethod(getMethodName, 84               new Class[] {}); 85           Object value = getMethod.invoke(t, new Object[] {}); 86           // 判断值的类型后进行强制类型转换 87           String textValue = null; 88           if (value instanceof Integer) { 89             int intValue = (Integer) value; 90              cell.setCellValue(intValue); 91            } 92           else if (value instanceof Long) { 93             long longValue = (Long) value; 94              cell.setCellValue(longValue); 95            } 96           else if (value instanceof Boolean) { 97             boolean bValue = (Boolean) value; 98             textValue = "1"; 99             if (!bValue) {100               textValue = "0";101             }102           } else if (value instanceof Date) {103             Date date = (Date) value;104             SimpleDateFormat sdf = new SimpleDateFormat(pattern);105             textValue = sdf.format(date);106           } else {107             // 其它数据类型都当作字符串简单处理108             if(value == null)109             {110               textValue = "";111             }112             else {113               textValue = value.toString();114             }115               116           }117           118           if (textValue != null) {119             Pattern p = Pattern.compile("^//d+(//.//d+)?$");120             Matcher matcher = p.matcher(textValue);121             if (matcher.matches()) {122               // 是数字当作double处理123               cell.setCellValue(Double.parseDouble(textValue));124             } else {125               HSSFRichTextString richString = new HSSFRichTextString(126                   textValue);127               richString.applyFont(font);128               cell.setCellValue(richString);129             }130           }131         } catch (SecurityException e) {132           e.printStackTrace();133         } catch (NoSuchMethodException e) {134           e.printStackTrace();135         } catch (IllegalArgumentException e) {136           e.printStackTrace();137         } catch (IllegalAccessException e) {138           e.printStackTrace();139         } catch (InvocationTargetException e) {140           e.printStackTrace();141         } finally {142           // 清理资源143         }144       }145 146     }147     try {148       workbook.write(out);149     } catch (IOException e) {150       e.printStackTrace();151     }152   }153   154   public void downloadExcel(String path, HttpServletResponse response) {155     try {156       // path是指欲下载的文件的路径。157       File file = new File(path);158       String name = file.getName();159       // 取得文件名。160       String filename = java.net.URLEncoder.encode(name,"utf-8");161       // 清空response162       response.reset();163       // 设置response的Header164       response.addHeader("Content-Disposition", "attachment;filename="165           + new String(filename.getBytes()));166       response.addHeader("Content-Length", "" + file.length());167       OutputStream toClient = new BufferedOutputStream(168           response.getOutputStream());169       response.setContentType("application/ms-excel;charset=gb2312");170       // 以流的形式下载文件。171       InputStream fis = new BufferedInputStream(new FileInputStream(path));172       byte[] buffer = new byte[fis.available()];173       fis.read(buffer);174       fis.close();175       toClient.write(buffer);176       toClient.flush();177       toClient.close();178     } catch (IOException ex) {179       ex.printStackTrace();180     }181   }182 }