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[操作系统]Linux如何查找大文件或目录总结


    在Windows系统中,我们可以使用TreeSize工具查找一些大文件或文件夹,非常的方便高效,在Linux系统中,如何去搜索一些比较大的文件呢?下面我整理了一下在Linux系统中如何查找大文件或文件夹的方法。

 

1: 如何查找大文件?

其实很多时候,你需要了解当前系统下有哪些大文件,比如文件大小超过100M或1G(阀值视具体情况而定)。那么如何把这些大文件搜索出来呢?例如我要搜索当前目录下,超过800M大小的文件

[root@getlnx01 u03]# pwd
/u03
[root@getlnx01 u03]# find . -type f -size +800M
./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873519197_s46815_s1
./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873523646_s46822_s1
./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873521714_s46818_s1
./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873522876_s46820_s1
./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873517396_s46813_s1
./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873523321_s46821_s1
./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873515765_s46811_s1
./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873520789_s46817_s1
./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873524162_s46823_s1
./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873518302_s46814_s1
./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873519953_s46816_s1
./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873516500_s46812_s1
./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873513413_s46809_s1
./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873514789_s46810_s1
./oradata/epps/invsubmat_d08.dbf
./oradata/epps/gmtinv_d08.dbf
./oradata/epps/gmtinv_x01.dbf
./oradata/epps/undotbs02.dbf
./oradata/epps/gmtinv_d07.dbf
./oradata/epps/undotbs01.dbf
./oradata/epps/gmtinv_x02.dbf


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如上命令所示,我们仅仅能看到超过800M大小的文件的文件名称,但是对文件的信息(例如,文件大小、文件属性)一无所知,那么能否更详细显示一些文件属性或信息呢,当然可以,如下所示

[root@getlnx01 u03]# find . -type f -size +800M  -print0 | xargs -0 ls -l
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 2782846976 Mar  6 11:51 ./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873513413_s46809_s1
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 1878433792 Mar  6 11:53 ./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873514789_s46810_s1
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 1378492416 Mar  6 11:54 ./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873515765_s46811_s1
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 1641381888 Mar  6 11:56 ./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873516500_s46812_s1
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 1564065792 Mar  6 11:58 ./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873517396_s46813_s1
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 1663492096 Mar  6 12:00 ./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873518302_s46814_s1
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 1368244224 Mar  6 12:02 ./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873519197_s46815_s1
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 1629069312 Mar  6 12:04 ./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873519953_s46816_s1
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 1629954048 Mar  6 12:06 ./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873520789_s46817_s1
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 1202192384 Mar  6 12:07 ./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873521714_s46818_s1
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 1189388288 Mar  6 12:10 ./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873522876_s46820_s1
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 1089257472 Mar  6 12:11 ./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873523321_s46821_s1
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 1097687040 Mar  6 12:12 ./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873523646_s46822_s1
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 1051009024 Mar  6 12:13 ./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873524162_s46823_s1
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 4294975488 Apr  3 15:07 ./oradata/epps/gmtinv_d07.dbf
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 4194312192 Apr  1 22:36 ./oradata/epps/gmtinv_d08.dbf
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 4294975488 Apr  3 15:54 ./oradata/epps/gmtinv_x01.dbf
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 4294975488 Apr  3 15:57 ./oradata/epps/gmtinv_x02.dbf
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 4294975488 Apr  1 22:35 ./oradata/epps/invsubmat_d08.dbf
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 8589942784 Apr  4 09:55 ./oradata/epps/undotbs01.dbf
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 8589942784 Apr  4 09:15 ./oradata/epps/undotbs02.dbf


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当我们只需要查找超过800M大小文件,并显示查找出来文件的具体大小,可以使用下面命令

[root@getlnx01 u03]# find . -type f -size +800M  -print0 | xargs -0 du -h
1.3G    ./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873519197_s46815_s1
1.1G    ./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873523646_s46822_s1
1.2G    ./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873521714_s46818_s1
1.2G    ./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873522876_s46820_s1
1.5G    ./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873517396_s46813_s1
1.1G    ./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873523321_s46821_s1
1.3G    ./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873515765_s46811_s1
1.6G    ./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873520789_s46817_s1
1004M   ./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873524162_s46823_s1
1.6G    ./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873518302_s46814_s1
1.6G    ./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873519953_s46816_s1
1.6G    ./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873516500_s46812_s1
2.6G    ./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873513413_s46809_s1
1.8G    ./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873514789_s46810_s1
4.1G    ./oradata/epps/invsubmat_d08.dbf
4.0G    ./oradata/epps/gmtinv_d08.dbf
4.1G    ./oradata/epps/gmtinv_x01.dbf
8.1G    ./oradata/epps/undotbs02.dbf
4.1G    ./oradata/epps/gmtinv_d07.dbf
8.1G    ./oradata/epps/undotbs01.dbf
4.1G    ./oradata/epps/gmtinv_x02.dbf


clip_image003

 

如果你还需要对查找结果按照文件大小做一个排序,那么可以使用下面命令

[root@getlnx01 u03]# find . -type f -size +800M  -print0 | xargs -0 du -h | sort -nr
1004M   ./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873524162_s46823_s1
8.1G    ./oradata/epps/undotbs02.dbf
8.1G    ./oradata/epps/undotbs01.dbf
4.1G    ./oradata/epps/invsubmat_d08.dbf
4.1G    ./oradata/epps/gmtinv_x02.dbf
4.1G    ./oradata/epps/gmtinv_x01.dbf
4.1G    ./oradata/epps/gmtinv_d07.dbf
4.0G    ./oradata/epps/gmtinv_d08.dbf
2.6G    ./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873513413_s46809_s1
1.8G    ./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873514789_s46810_s1
1.6G    ./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873520789_s46817_s1
1.6G    ./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873519953_s46816_s1
1.6G    ./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873518302_s46814_s1
1.6G    ./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873516500_s46812_s1
1.5G    ./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873517396_s46813_s1
1.3G    ./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873519197_s46815_s1
1.3G    ./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873515765_s46811_s1
1.2G    ./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873522876_s46820_s1
1.2G    ./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873521714_s46818_s1
1.1G    ./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873523646_s46822_s1
1.1G    ./flash_recovery_area/backup/backupsets/ora_df873523321_s46821_s1


clip_image004

不过如上截图所示,有时候排列的顺序并不完全是按大小一致,这个是因为du命令的参数h所致,你可以统一使用使用MB来显示,这样就能解决这个问题。到这里,这个在Linux系统查找大文件的命令已经非常完美了,当然如果你还有很多的需求,那么可以在这个命令上做修改、调整.

clip_image005

 

2: 如何查找Linux下的大目录

譬如有时候磁盘空间告警了,而你平时又疏于管理、监控文件的增长,那么我需要快速的了解哪些目录变得比较大,那么此时我们可以借助du命令来帮我们解决这个问题。

[root@getlnx01 u03]# du -h --max-depth=1
16K     ./lost+found
33G     ./flash_recovery_area
37G     ./oradata
70G     .


如果你想知道flash_recovery_area目录下面有哪些大文件夹,那么可以将参数max-depth=2 ,如果你想对搜索出来的结果进行排序,那么可以借助于sort命令。如下所示

[root@getlnx01 u03]# du -h --max-depth=2 | sort -n
3.5G    ./flash_recovery_area/EPPS
16K     ./lost+found
29G     ./flash_recovery_area/backup
33G     ./flash_recovery_area
37G     ./oradata
37G     ./oradata/epps
70G     .
[root@getlnx01 u03]# du -hm --max-depth=2 | sort -n
1       ./lost+found
3527    ./flash_recovery_area/EPPS
29544   ./flash_recovery_area/backup
33070   ./flash_recovery_area
37705   ./oradata
37705   ./oradata/epps
70775   .


clip_image006

[root@getlnx01 u03]# cd /

[root@getlnx01 /]# du -hm --max-depth=2 | sort -n

有时候搜索出来的结果太多了(譬如,我从根目录开始搜索),一直在刷屏,如果我只想查出最大的12个文件夹,怎么办呢?此时就要借助head命令来显示了

[root@getlnx01 /]# du -hm --max-depth=2 | sort -nr | head -12
407480  .
167880  ./u04
158685  ./u02/oradata
158685  ./u02
152118  ./u04/oradata
70775   ./u03
37705   ./u03/oradata
33070   ./u03/flash_recovery_area
5995    ./u01/app
5995    ./u01
3551    ./usr
1558    ./usr/share
[root@getlnx01 /]# 


clip_image007

 

参考资料:

http://linuxandfriends.com/how-to-find-large-files-in-linux-using-command-line/

http://www.docin.com/p-563963500.html