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[数据库]Redis(一) 介绍


先说明下,本人是在windows系统下用的。

 

简单介绍一下,是nosql数据库,采用key-value存储方式形式。可用于处理高并发日志、维护top表等。

如果把它完全当初数据库使用,当做小型数据库还可以,因为当key达到一定的数量,性能下降比价明细。

 

读写性能:读110000次/s,写81000次/s

存储方式:采用内存+文件结合的存储方式。这样性能能够保证,而且即使服务器重启,只会丢失少部分数据。

 

安装:需要下载redis服务端,同时安装RedisWather可将Redis添加到系统服务中。(window下:win2003下好像不行,win2008可以)同时建议安装个客户端工具RedisClient

 

配置RedisWather:watcher.conf

# required exepath and exename are combined to form full path

# redis-server.exe路径

exepath D:\redis-2.8.17

exename redis-server.exe

 

# optional fastfailMS is milliseconds after which failure is not failure to start (default 1000)

#fastfailMS 1000

 

# optional fastfailretries is number of times to retry if failure before fastfailMS (default 0)

#fastfailretries 0

 

# for each instance to run, put properties between '{' and '}' lines

# required workingdir is working directory for process - must be unique

# optional runmode may be 'console' or 'hidden'

# optional cmdparms is command line after exename (ex: cmdparms redis.conf)

# optional saveout is '1' or '0'. To save stdout to file use '1'.

{

 #数据库路径

workingdir c:\redis\db1

 runmode hidden

 saveout 1

 #数据库配置文件

cmdparms c:\redis\inst1\redis.conf

}

#{

# workingdir c:\redis\inst2

#runmode hidden

#saveout 1

#cmdparms redis.conf

#}

 

 

 

配置redis服务端:Redis.windows.conf,参数参考下面:

 

# Redis configuration file example

 

# Note on units: when memory size is needed, it is possible to specifiy

# it in the usual form of 1k 5GB 4M and so forth:

#

# 1k => 1000 bytes

# 1kb => 1024 bytes

# 1m => 1000000 bytes

# 1mb => 1024*1024 bytes

# 1g => 1000000000 bytes

# 1gb => 1024*1024*1024 bytes

#

# units are case insensitive so 1GB 1Gb 1gB are all the same.

 

# By default Redis does not run as a daemon. Use 'yes' if you need it.

# Note that Redis will write a pid file in /var/run/redis.pid when daemonized.

daemonize no 

Redis默认不是以守护进程的方式运行,可以通过该配置项修改,使用yes启用守护进程

 

# When running daemonized, Redis writes a pid file in /var/run/redis.pid by

# default. You can specify a custom pid file location here.

pidfile /var/run/redis.pid

当Redis以守护进程方式运行时,Redis默认会把pid写入/var/run/redis.pid文件,可以通过pidfile指定

# Accept connections on the specified port, default is 6379.

# If port 0 is specified Redis will not listen on a TCP socket.

port 6379

指定Redis监听端口,默认端口为6379

# If you want you can bind a single interface, if the bind option is not

# specified all the interfaces will listen for incoming connections.

#

# bind 127.0.0.1

绑定的主机地址

# Specify the path for the unix socket that will be used to listen for

# incoming connections. There is no default, so Redis will not listen

# on a unix socket when not specified.

#

# unixsocket /tmp/redis.sock

# unixsocketperm 755

 

# Close the connection after a client is idle for N seconds (0 to disable)

timeout 0

当 客户端闲置多长时间后关闭连接,如果指定为0,表示关闭该功能

# Set server verbosity to 'debug'

# it can be one of:

# debug (a lot of information, useful for development/testing)

# verbose (many rarely useful info, but not a mess like the debug level)

# notice (moderately verbose, what you want in production probably)

# warning (only very important / critical messages are logged)

loglevel verbose

指定日志记录级别,Redis总共支持四个级别:debug、verbose、notice、warning,默认为verbose

# Specify the log file name. Also 'stdout' can be used to force

# Redis to log on the standard output. Note that if you use standard

# output for logging but daemonize, logs will be sent to /dev/null

logfile stdout

日志记录方式,默认为标准输出,如果配置Redis为守护进程方式运行,而这里又配置为日志记录方式为标准输出,则日志将会发送给/dev/null

# To enable logging to the system logger, just set 'syslog-enabled' to yes,

# and optionally update the other syslog parameters to suit your needs.

# syslog-enabled no

 

# Specify the syslog identity.

# syslog-ident redis

 

# Specify the syslog facility.  Must be USER or between LOCAL0-LOCAL7.

# syslog-facility local0

 

# Set the number of databases. The default database is DB 0, you can select

# a different one on a per-connection basis using SELECT <dbid> where

# dbid is a number between 0 and 'databases'-1

databases 16

设置数据库的数量,默认数据库为0,可以使用SELECT <dbid>命令在连接上指定数据库id

################################ SNAPSHOTTING  #################################

#

# Save the DB on disk:

#

#   save <seconds> <changes>

#

#   Will save the DB if both the given number of seconds and the given

#   number of write operations against the DB occurred.

#

#   In the example below the behaviour will be to save:

#   after 900 sec (15 min) if at least 1 key changed

#   after 300 sec (5 min) if at least 10 keys changed

#   after 60 sec if at least 10000 keys changed

#

#   Note: you can disable saving at all commenting all the "save" lines.

 

save 900 1

save 300 10

save 60 10000

分别表示900秒(15分钟)内有1个更改,300秒(5分钟)内有10个更改以及60秒内有10000个更改。

指定在多长时间内,有多少次更新操作,就将数据同步到数据文件,可以多个条件配合

# Compress string objects using LZF when dump .rdb databases?

# For default that's set to 'yes' as it's almost always a win.

# If you want to save some CPU in the saving child set it to 'no' but

# the dataset will likely be bigger if you have compressible values or keys.

rdbcompression yes

指定存储至本地数据库时是否压缩数据,默认为yes,Redis采用LZF压缩,如果为了节省CPU时间,可以关闭该选项,但会导致数据库文件变的巨大

# The filename where to dump the DB

dbfilename dump.rdb

指定本地数据库文件名,默认值为dump.rdb

# The working directory.

#

# The DB will be written inside this directory, with the filename specified

# above using the 'dbfilename' configuration directive.

#

# Also the Append Only File will be created inside this directory.

#

# Note that you must specify a directory here, not a file name.

dir ./

指定本地数据库存放目录

################################# REPLICATION #################################

 

# Master-Slave replication. Use slaveof to make a Redis instance a copy of

# another Redis server. Note that the configuration is local to the slave

# so for example it is possible to configure the slave to save the DB with a

# different interval, or to listen to another port, and so on.

#

# slaveof <masterip> <masterport>

slaveof <masterip> <masterport> 设置当本机为slav服务时,设置master服务的IP地址及端口,在Redis启动时,它会自动从master进行数据同步

# If the master is password protected (using the "requirepass" configuration

# directive below) it is possible to tell the slave to authenticate before

# starting the replication synchronization process, otherwise the master will

# refuse the slave request.

#

# masterauth <master-password>

masterauth <master-password> 当master服务设置了密码保护时,slav服务连接master的密码

# When a slave lost the connection with the master, or when the replication

# is still in progress, the slave can act in two different ways:

#

# 1) if slave-serve-stale-data is set to 'yes' (the default) the slave will

#    still reply to client requests, possibly with out of data data, or the

#    data set may just be empty if this is the first synchronization.

#

# 2) if slave-serve-stale data is set to 'no' the slave will reply with

#    an error "SYNC with master in progress" to all the kind of commands

#    but to INFO and SLAVEOF.

#

slave-serve-stale-data yes

 

# Slaves send PINGs to server in a predefined interval. It's possible to change

# this interval with the repl_ping_slave_period option. The default value is 10

# seconds.

#

# repl-ping-slave-period 10

 

# The following option sets a timeout for both Bulk transfer I/O timeout and

# master data or ping response timeout. The default value is 60 seconds.

#

# It is important to make sure that this value is greater than the value

# specified for repl-ping-slave-period otherwise a timeout will be detected

# every time there is low traffic between the master and the slave.

#

# repl-timeout 60

 

################################## SECURITY ###################################

 

# Require clients to issue AUTH <PASSWORD> before processing any other

# commands.  This might be useful in environments in which you do not trust

# others with access to the host running redis-server.

#

# This should stay commented out for backward compatibility and because most

# people do not need auth (e.g. they run their own servers).

#

# Warning: since Redis is pretty fast an outside user can try up to

# 150k passwords per second against a good box. This means that you should

# use a very strong password otherwise it will be very easy to break.

#

# requirepass foobared

 requirepass foobared 设置Redis连接密码,如果配置了连接密码,客户端在连接Redis时需要通过AUTH <password>命令提供密码,默认关闭

# Command renaming.

#

# It is possilbe to change the name of dangerous commands in a shared

# environment. For instance the CONFIG command may be renamed into something

# of hard to guess so that it will be still available for internal-use

# tools but not available for general clients.

#

# Example:

#

# rename-command CONFIG b840fc02d524045429941cc15f59e41cb7be6c52

#

# It is also possilbe to completely kill a command renaming it into

# an empty string:

#

# rename-command CONFIG ""

 

################################### LIMITS ####################################

 

# Set the max number of connected clients at the same time. By default there

# is no limit, and it's up to the number of file descriptors the Redis process

# is able to open. The special value '0' means no limits.

# Once the limit is reached Redis will close all the new connections sending

# an error 'max number of clients reached'.

#

# maxclients 128

maxclients 128 设置同一时间最大客户端连接数,默认无限制,Redis可以同时打开的客户端连接数为Redis进程可以打开的最大文件描述符数,如果设置 maxclients 0,表示不作限制。当客户端连接数到达限制时,Redis会关闭新的连接并向客户端返回max number of clients reached错误信息

# Don't use more memory than the specified amount of bytes.

# When the memory limit is reached Redis will try to remove keys with an

# EXPIRE set. It will try to start freeing keys that are going to expire

# in little time and preserve keys with a longer time to live.

# Redis will also try to remove objects from free lists if possible.

#

# If all this fails, Redis will start to reply with errors to commands

# that will use more memory, like SET, LPUSH, and so on, and will continue

# to reply to most read-only commands like GET.

#

# WARNING: maxmemory can be a good idea mainly if you want to use Redis as a

# 'state' server or cache, not as a real DB. When Redis is used as a real

# database the memory usage will grow over the weeks, it will be obvious if

# it is going to use too much memory in the long run, and you'll have the time

# to upgrade. With maxmemory after the limit is reached you'll start to get

# errors for write operations, and this may even lead to DB inconsistency.

#

# maxmemory <bytes>

 maxmemory <bytes>指定Redis最大内存限制,Redis在启动时会把数据加载到内存中,达到最大内存后,Redis会先尝试清除已到期或即将到期的Key,当此方法处理 后,仍然到达最大内存设置,将无法再进行写入操作,但仍然可以进行读取操作。Redis新的vm机制,会把Key存放内存,Value会存放在swap区

# MAXMEMORY POLICY: how Redis will select what to remove when maxmemory

# is reached? You can select among five behavior:

#

# volatile-lru -> remove the key with an expire set using an LRU algorithm

# allkeys-lru -> remove any key accordingly to the LRU algorithm

# volatile-random -> remove a random key with an expire set

# allkeys->random -> remove a random key, any key

# volatile-ttl -> remove the key with the nearest expire time (minor TTL)

# noeviction -> don't expire at all, just return an error on write operations

#

# Note: with all the kind of policies, Redis will return an error on write

#       operations, when there are not suitable keys for eviction.

#

#       At the date of writing this commands are: set setnx setex append

#       incr decr rpush lpush rpushx lpushx linsert lset rpoplpush sadd

#       sinter sinterstore sunion sunionstore sdiff sdiffstore zadd zincrby

#       zunionstore zinterstore hset hsetnx hmset hincrby incrby decrby

#       getset mset msetnx exec sort

#

# The default is:

#

# maxmemory-policy volatile-lru

 

# LRU and minimal TTL algorithms are not precise algorithms but approximated

# algorithms (in order to save memory), so you can select as well the sample

# size to check. For instance for default Redis will check three keys and

# pick the one that was used less recently, you can change the sample size

# using the following configuration directive.

#

# maxmemory-samples 3

 

############################## APPEND ONLY MODE ###############################

 

# By default Redis asynchronously dumps the dataset on disk. If you can live

# with the idea that the latest records will be lost if something like a crash

# happens this is the preferred way to run Redis. If instead you care a lot

# about your data and don't want to that a single record can get lost you should

# enable the append only mode: when this mode is enabled Redis will append

# every write operation received in the file appendonly.aof. This file will

# be read on startup in order to rebuild the full dataset in memory.

#

# Note that you can have both the async dumps and the append only file if you

# like (you have to comment the "save" statements above to disable the dumps).

# Still if append only mode is enabled Redis will load the data from the

# log file at startup ignoring the dump.rdb file.

#

# IMPORTANT: Check the BGREWRITEAOF to check how to rewrite the append

# log file in background when it gets too big.

 

appendonly no

appendonly no指定是否在每次更新操作后进行日志记录,Redis在默认情况下是异步的把数据写入磁盘,如果不开启,可能会在断电时导致一段时间内的数据丢失。因为 redis本身同步数据文件是按上面save条件来同步的,所以有的数据会在一段时间内只存在于内存中。默认为no

# The name of the append only file (default: "appendonly.aof")

# appendfilename appendonly.aof

 appendfilename appendonly.aof指定更新日志文件名,默认为appendonly.aof

# The fsync() call tells the Operating System to actually write data on disk

# instead to wait for more data in the output buffer. Some OS will really flush

# data on disk, some other OS will just try to do it ASAP.

#

# Redis supports three different modes:

#

# no: don't fsync, just let the OS flush the data when it wants. Faster.

# always: fsync after every write to the append only log . Slow, Safest.

# everysec: fsync only if one second passed since the last fsync. Compromise.

#

# The default is "everysec" that's usually the right compromise between

# speed and data safety. It's up to you to understand if you can relax this to

# "no" that will will let the operating system flush the output buffer when

# it wants, for better performances (but if you can live with the idea of

# some data loss consider the default persistence mode that's snapshotting),

# or on the contrary, use "always" that's very slow but a bit safer than

# everysec.

#

# If unsure, use "everysec".

 

# appendfsync always

appendfsync everysec

# appendfsync no

指定更新日志条件,共有3个可选值:

no:表示等操作系统进行数据缓存同步到磁盘(快)

always:表示每次更新操作后手动调用fsync()将数据写到磁盘(慢,安全)

everysec:表示每秒同步一次(折衷,默认值)

# When the AOF fsync policy is set to always or everysec, and a background

# saving process (a background save or AOF log background rewriting) is

# performing a lot of I/O against the disk, in some Linux configurations

# Redis may block too long on the fsync() call. Note that there is no fix for

# this currently, as even performing fsync in a different thread will block

# our synchronous write(2) call.

#

# In order to mitigate this problem it's possible to use the following option

# that will prevent fsync() from being called in the main process while a

# BGSAVE or BGREWRITEAOF is in progress.

#

# This means that while another child is saving the durability of Redis is

# the same as "appendfsync none", that in pratical terms means that it is

# possible to lost up to 30 seconds of log in the worst scenario (with the

# default Linux settings).

#

# If you have latency problems turn this to "yes". Otherwise leave it as

# "no" that is the safest pick from the point of view of durability.

no-appendfsync-on-rewrite no

 

# Automatic rewrite of the append only file.

# Redis is able to automatically rewrite the log file implicitly calling

# BGREWRITEAOF when the AOF log size will growth by the specified percentage.

#

# This is how it works: Redis remembers the size of the AOF file after the

# latest rewrite (or if no rewrite happened since the restart, the size of

# the AOF at startup is used).

#

# This base size is compared to the current size. If the current size is

# bigger than the specified percentage, the rewrite is triggered. Also

# you need to specify a minimal size for the AOF file to be rewritten, this

# is useful to avoid rewriting the AOF file even if the percentage increase

# is reached but it is still pretty small.

#

# Specify a precentage of zero in order to disable the automatic AOF

# rewrite feature.

 

auto-aof-rewrite-percentage 100

auto-aof-rewrite-min-size 64mb

 

################################## SLOW LOG ###################################

 

# The Redis Slow Log is a system to log queries that exceeded a specified

# execution time. The execution time does not include the I/O operations

# like talking with the client, sending the reply and so forth,

# but just the time needed to actually execute the command (this is the only

# stage of command execution where the thread is blocked and can not serve

# other requests in the meantime).

#

# You can configure the slow log with two parameters: one tells Redis

# what is the execution time, in microseconds, to exceed in order for the

# command to get logged, and the other parameter is the length of the

# slow log. When a new command is logged the oldest one is removed from the

# queue of logged commands.

 

# The following time is expressed in microseconds, so 1000000 is equivalent

# to one second. Note that a negative number disables the slow log, while

# a value of zero forces the logging of every command.

slowlog-log-slower-than 10000

 

# There is no limit to this length. Just be aware that it will consume memory.

# You can reclaim memory used by the slow log with SLOWLOG RESET.

slowlog-max-len 1024

 

################################ VIRTUAL MEMORY ###############################

 

### WARNING! Virtual Memory is deprecated in Redis 2.4

### The use of Virtual Memory is strongly discouraged.

 

### WARNING! Virtual Memory is deprecated in Redis 2.4

### The use of Virtual Memory is strongly discouraged.

 

# Virtual Memory allows Redis to work with datasets bigger than the actual

# amount of RAM needed to hold the whole dataset in memory.

# In order to do so very used keys are taken in memory while the other keys

# are swapped into a swap file, similarly to what operating systems do

# with memory pages.

#

# To enable VM just set 'vm-enabled' to yes, and set the following three

# VM parameters accordingly to your needs.

 

vm-enabled no

指定是否启用虚拟内存机制,默认值为no,简单的介绍一下,VM机制将数据分页存放,由Redis将访问量较少的页即冷数据swap到磁盘上,访问多的页面由磁盘自动换出到内存中(在后面的文章我会仔细分析Redis的VM机制)

# vm-enabled yes

 

# This is the path of the Redis swap file. As you can guess, swap files

# can't be shared by different Redis instances, so make sure to use a swap

# file for every redis process you are running. Redis will complain if the

# swap file is already in use.

#

# The best kind of storage for the Redis swap file (that's accessed at random)

# is a Solid State Disk (SSD).

#

# *** WARNING *** if you are using a shared hosting the default of putting

# the swap file under /tmp is not secure. Create a dir with access granted

# only to Redis user and configure Redis to create the swap file there.

vm-swap-file /tmp/redis.swap

虚拟内存文件路径,默认值为/tmp/redis.swap,不可多个Redis实例共享

# vm-max-memory configures the VM to use at max the specified amount of

# RAM. Everything that deos not fit will be swapped on disk *if* possible, that

# is, if there is still enough contiguous space in the swap file.

#

# With vm-max-memory 0 the system will swap everything it can. Not a good

# default, just specify the max amount of RAM you can in bytes, but it's

# better to leave some margin. For instance specify an amount of RAM

# that's more or less between 60 and 80% of your free RAM.

vm-max-memory 0

将所有大于vm-max-memory的数据存入虚拟内存,无论vm-max-memory设置多小,所有索引数据都是内存存储的(Redis的索引数据 就是keys),也就是说,当vm-max-memory设置为0的时候,其实是所有value都存在于磁盘。默认值为0

# Redis swap files is split into pages. An object can be saved using multiple

# contiguous pages, but pages can't be shared between different objects.

# So if your page is too big, small objects swapped out on disk will waste

# a lot of space. If you page is too small, there is less space in the swap

# file (assuming you configured the same number of total swap file pages).

#

# If you use a lot of small objects, use a page size of 64 or 32 bytes.

# If you use a lot of big objects, use a bigger page size.

# If unsure, use the default :)

vm-page-size 32

Redis swap文件分成了很多的page,一个对象可以保存在多个page上面,但一个page上不能被多个对象共享,vm-page-size是要根据存储的 数据大小来设定的,作者建议如果存储很多小对象,page大小最好设置为32或者64bytes;如果存储很大大对象,则可以使用更大的page,如果不 确定,就使用默认值

# Number of total memory pages in the swap file.

# Given that the page table (a bitmap of free/used pages) is taken in memory,

# every 8 pages on disk will consume 1 byte of RAM.

#

# The total swap size is vm-page-size * vm-pages

#

# With the default of 32-bytes memory pages and 134217728 pages Redis will

# use a 4 GB swap file, that will use 16 MB of RAM for the page table.

#

# It's better to use the smallest acceptable value for your application,

# but the default is large in order to work in most conditions.

vm-pages 134217728

设置swap文件中的page数量,由于页表(一种表示页面空闲或使用的bitmap)是在放在内存中的,,在磁盘上每8个pages将消耗1byte的内存。

# Max number of VM I/O threads running at the same time.

# This threads are used to read/write data from/to swap file, since they

# also encode and decode objects from disk to memory or the reverse, a bigger

# number of threads can help with big objects even if they can't help with

# I/O itself as the physical device may not be able to couple with many

# reads/writes operations at the same time.

#

# The special value of 0 turn off threaded I/O and enables the blocking

# Virtual Memory implementation.

vm-max-threads 4

设置访问swap文件的线程数,最好不要超过机器的核数,如果设置为0,那么所有对swap文件的操作都是串行的,可能会造成比较长时间的延迟。默认值为4

############################### ADVANCED CONFIG ###############################

 

# Hashes are encoded in a special way (much more memory efficient) when they

# have at max a given numer of elements, and the biggest element does not

# exceed a given threshold. You can configure this limits with the following

# configuration directives.

hash-max-zipmap-entries 512

hash-max-zipmap-value 64

指定在超过一定的数量或者最大的元素超过某一临界值时,采用一种特殊的哈希算法

# Similarly to hashes, small lists are also encoded in a special way in order

# to save a lot of space. The special representation is only used when

# you are under the following limits:

list-max-ziplist-entries 512

list-max-ziplist-value 64

 

# Sets have a special encoding in just one case: when a set is composed

# of just strings that happens to be integers in radix 10 in the range

# of 64 bit signed integers.

# The following configuration setting sets the limit in the size of the

# set in order to use this special memory saving encoding.

set-max-intset-entries 512

 

# Similarly to hashes and lists, sorted sets are also specially encoded in

# order to save a lot of space. This encoding is only used when the length and

# elements of a sorted set are below the following limits:

zset-max-ziplist-entries 128

zset-max-ziplist-value 64

 

# Active rehashing uses 1 millisecond every 100 milliseconds of CPU time in

# order to help rehashing the main Redis hash table (the one mapping top-level

# keys to values). The hash table implementation redis uses (see dict.c)

# performs a lazy rehashing: the more operation you run into an hash table

# that is rhashing, the more rehashing "steps" are performed, so if the

# server is idle the rehashing is never complete and some more memory is used

# by the hash table.

#

# The default is to use this millisecond 10 times every second in order to

# active rehashing the main dictionaries, freeing memory when possible.

#

# If unsure:

# use "activerehashing no" if you have hard latency requirements and it is

# not a good thing in your environment that Redis can reply form time to time

# to queries with 2 milliseconds delay.

#

# use "activerehashing yes" if you don't have such hard requirements but

# want to free memory asap when possible.

activerehashing yes

 

################################## INCLUDES ###################################

 

# Include one or more other config files here.  This is useful if you

# have a standard template that goes to all redis server but also need

# to customize a few per-server settings.  Include files can include

# other files, so use this wisely.

#

# include /path/to/local.conf

# include /path/to/other.conf