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[操作系统]初探iOS网络开发,数据解析。


  通过大众点评平台开发来简单了解一下,oc的网络编程和数据解析(json)

 

首先我们需要到大大众点评开发者平台申请一个key。http://developer.dianping.com/app/tech/api这个网站有api文档。

本文没有使用第三方库,网络其请求使用NSURLConnection类,json数据解析使用NSJSONSerialization。这个例子是根据条件获取商户信息。

1.定义常量

#define kSearchResto @"v1/business/find_businesses"#define kDPDomain @"http://api.dianping.com/"#define kDPAppKey @"。。。"#define kDPAppSecret @"。。。"#define kWFRequestimeOutInterval 60.0#define kHttpMethodGET @"GET"#define kHttpMethodPOST @"POST"

 2.创建数据类,包含商户信息

//// WFBusiness.h// WFSearch//// Created by ForrestWoo on 14-9-5.// Copyright (c) 2014年 ForrestWoo. All rights reserved.//#import <Foundation/Foundation.h>#import "WFRootModel.h"@interface WFBusiness : WFRootModel@property (nonatomic, assign) int business_id;@property (nonatomic, strong) NSString *name;@property (nonatomic, strong) NSString *branch_name;@property (nonatomic, strong) NSString *address;@property (nonatomic, strong) NSString *telephone;@property (nonatomic, strong) NSString *city;//星级图片链接。@property (nonatomic, strong) NSString *rating_img_url;@property (nonatomic, strong) NSString *rating_s_img_url;@property (nonatomic, strong) NSArray *regions;@property (nonatomic, strong) NSArray *categories;//经纬度信息@property (nonatomic, assign) float latitude;@property (nonatomic, assign) float longitude;@property (nonatomic, assign) float avg_rating;@property (nonatomic, assign) float product_score;@property (nonatomic, assign) float decoration_score;@property (nonatomic, assign) float service_score;//评价 分五种。1:一般,2:尚可,3:好,4:很好,5:非常好@property (nonatomic, assign) int product_grade;@property (nonatomic, assign) int decoration_grade;@property (nonatomic, assign) int service_grade;//人均消费。@property (nonatomic, assign) int avg_price;//点评。@property (nonatomic, assign) int review_count;@property (nonatomic, strong) NSArray *review_list_url;@property (nonatomic, assign) int distance;@property (nonatomic, strong) NSString *business_url;//图片@property (nonatomic, strong) NSString *photo_url;@property (nonatomic, strong) NSString *s_photo_url;@property (nonatomic, assign) int photo_count;@property (nonatomic, strong) NSArray *photo_list_url;//优惠券。@property (nonatomic, assign) int has_coupon;@property (nonatomic, assign) int coupon_id;@property (nonatomic, strong) NSString *coupon_description;@property (nonatomic, strong) NSString *coupon_url;//团购信息。@property (nonatomic, assign) int has_deal;@property (nonatomic, assign) int deal_count;@property (nonatomic, strong) NSArray *deals;@property (nonatomic, strong) NSString *deals_id;@property (nonatomic, strong) NSString *deals_description;@property (nonatomic, strong) NSString *deals_url;@property (nonatomic, assign) int has_online_reservation;@property (nonatomic, strong) NSString *online_reservation_url;- (id)initWithJson:(NSDictionary *)jsonData;@end

 这里的属性名字并不是随便定义的,而是根据服务器端返回的字段名称定义的,它与返回的名称是一致的,目的是方便以后通过反射对类的属性赋值,这样我们不需要一一赋值,详情请继续

3.WFRootModel

#import <Foundation/Foundation.h>//根类,定义一些通用的属性和消息@interface WFRootModel : NSObject//获取类的属性名称,以通过反射对对象的属性赋值。- (NSArray *)PropertyKeys;@end#import "WFRootModel.h"#import <objc/runtime.h>@implementation WFRootModel- (NSArray *)PropertyKeys{  unsigned int outCount,i;  objc_property_t *pp = class_copyPropertyList([self class], &outCount);  NSMutableArray *keys = [[NSMutableArray alloc] initWithCapacity:0];  for (i = 0; i < outCount; i++)  {    objc_property_t property = pp[i];    NSString *propertyName = [[NSString alloc] initWithCString:property_getName(property) encoding:NSUTF8StringEncoding];    [keys addObject:propertyName];  }    return keys;}@end

  此类赋予了它的子类一个重要行为,它只包含一个消息[- (NSArray *)PropertyKeys],它的作用是子类能够获取自己包含的所有属性。反射中会使用这些属性。

4.创建请求url

  大众点评请求使用SHA加密。

[1]SHA加密类SHA1,需要引入

CommonDigest.h
@interface SHA1 : NSObject+ (NSString *)getSHAString:(NSData *)aStringbytes;@end#import <CommonCrypto/CommonDigest.h>#import "SHA1.h"@implementation SHA1+ (NSString *)getSHAString:(NSData *)aStringbytes{  unsigned char digest[CC_SHA1_DIGEST_LENGTH];    if (CC_SHA1([aStringbytes bytes], [aStringbytes length], digest))  {    NSMutableString *digestString = [NSMutableString stringWithCapacity:CC_SHA1_DIGEST_LENGTH];    for (int i = 0; i < CC_SHA1_DIGEST_LENGTH; i++)    {      unsigned char aChar = digest[i];      [digestString appendFormat:@"%02x",aChar];    }    return digestString;  }  else  {    return nil;  }}@end

 由于我对加密了解很少,所以就不做介绍了,只给出一个方法,供大家参考。

[2]返回根url,因为根url会常用到,我们就将它封装起来,以便后用

- (NSString *)getRootURL{  return kDPDomain;}

 [3]返回合法的url

- (NSString *)serializeURL:(NSString *)aBaseURL params:(NSDictionary *)aParams{	NSURL* parsedURL = [NSURL URLWithString:[aBaseURL stringByAddingPercentEscapesUsingEncoding:NSUTF8StringEncoding]];	NSMutableDictionary *paramsDic = [NSMutableDictionary dictionaryWithDictionary:[self parseQueryString:[parsedURL query]]];	if (aParams) {		[paramsDic setValuesForKeysWithDictionary:aParams];	}		NSMutableString *signString = [NSMutableString stringWithString:kDPAppKey];	NSMutableString *paramsString = [NSMutableString stringWithFormat:@"appkey=%@", kDPAppKey];	NSArray *sortedKeys = [[paramsDic allKeys] sortedArrayUsingSelector: @selector(compare:)];	for (NSString *key in sortedKeys) {		[signString appendFormat:@"%@%@", key, [paramsDic objectForKey:key]];		[paramsString appendFormat:@"&%@=%@", key, [paramsDic objectForKey:key]];	}  NSString *str = kDPAppSecret;	[signString appendString:str];	NSData *stringBytes = [signString dataUsingEncoding: NSUTF8StringEncoding];  NSString *digestString = [SHA1 getSHAString:stringBytes];  if (digestString)  {    [paramsString appendFormat:@"&sign=%@", [digestString uppercaseString]];    NSLog(@"...%@...", [NSString stringWithFormat:@"%@://%@%@?%@", [parsedURL scheme], [parsedURL host], [parsedURL path], [paramsString stringByAddingPercentEscapesUsingEncoding:NSUTF8StringEncoding]]);		return [NSString stringWithFormat:@"%@://%@%@?%@", [parsedURL scheme], [parsedURL host], [parsedURL path], [paramsString stringByAddingPercentEscapesUsingEncoding:NSUTF8StringEncoding]];  }  else  {    return nil;  }}

 5.创建网络连接,发送请求

使用NSURLConnection来完成网络连接

- (void)createConnectionWithUrl:(NSString *)urlString params:(NSDictionary *)aParams delegate:(id<WFRequestDelegate>)aDelegate{  NSString *urlStr = [self serializeURL:[self generateFullURL:urlString] params:aParams];  NSMutableURLRequest *request = [NSMutableURLRequest requestWithURL:[NSURL URLWithString:urlStr] cachePolicy:NSURLRequestReloadIgnoringCacheData timeoutInterval:kWFRequestimeOutInterval];    [request setHTTPMethod:kHttpMethodGET];  NSURLConnection *conn = [[NSURLConnection alloc] initWithRequest:request delegate:self startImmediately:YES];  self.delegate = aDelegate;//  [[[self class] sharedInstance] setConnections:conn];}

 6.返回结果以及数据解析

- (void)connection:(NSURLConnection *)connection didReceiveResponse:(NSURLResponse *)response{  _responseData = [[NSMutableData alloc] init];}- (void)connection:(NSURLConnection *)connection didReceiveData:(NSData *)data{  [_responseData appendData:data];}- (void)connectionDidFinishLoading:(NSURLConnection *)connection{  NSError *error = nil;  id result= [NSJSONSerialization JSONObjectWithData:_responseData options:NSJSONReadingAllowFragments error:&error];  if (!result)  {    NSDictionary *userInfo = [NSDictionary dictionaryWithObjectsAndKeys:error,@"error", nil];    NSError *err = [NSError errorWithDomain:@"domain is error" code:-1 userInfo:userInfo];    if ([self.delegate respondsToSelector:@selector(request:didfailWithError:)])    {      [self.delegate request:self didfailWithError:err];    }  }  else  {    NSString *status = 0;    if ([result isKindOfClass:[NSDictionary class]])    {      status = [result objectForKey:@"status"];    }        if ([status isEqualToString:@"OK"])    {      if ([self.delegate respondsToSelector:@selector(request:didfinishloadingWithResult:)])      {        [self.delegate request:self didfinishloadingWithResult:result == nil ?                 _responseData : result];      }    }    else    {      if ([status isEqualToString:@"ERROR"])      {        //TODO:错误处理代码。      }    }  }//  NSString *str = [[NSString alloc] initWithData:_responseData encoding:NSUTF8StringEncoding];//  NSLog(@"_responseData:%@", str);  //  [self clearData];}- (void)connection:(NSURLConnection *)connection didFailWithError:(NSError *)error{  NSLog(@"ERROR!%@", error.description);}

 返回的数据存储在一个WFFindBusinessesResult的实例中。

//super class for result.@interface WFUrlResult : NSObject@property (nonatomic, strong) NSString *status;@property (nonatomic, assign) NSInteger total_count;@property (nonatomic, assign) NSInteger count;- (id)initWithJson:(NSDictionary *)jsonData;@end@interface WFFindBusinessesResult : WFUrlResult@property (nonatomic, strong) NSArray *businesses;@end

 对对象赋值非常简单

@implementation WFFindBusinessesResult- (id)initWithJson:(NSDictionary *)jsonData{    self.status = [jsonData objectForKey:@"status"];  self.count = [[jsonData objectForKey:@"count"] integerValue];  self.total_count = [[jsonData objectForKey:@"total_count"] integerValue];  NSArray *arr = nil;  NSMutableArray *businessArr = [[NSMutableArray alloc] initWithCapacity:0];    if ([jsonData isKindOfClass:[NSDictionary class]])  {    arr = [jsonData objectForKey:@"businesses"];
    //赋值,通过反射赋值,根本不需要一一对字段赋值。 for (id obj in arr) { WFBusiness *bus = [[WFBusiness alloc] init]; NSArray *propertyList = [[[WFBusiness alloc] init] PropertyKeys]; for (NSString *key in propertyList) { [bus setValue:[obj objectForKey:key] forKey:key]; } [businessArr addObject:bus]; NSLog(@"photo is %@", [bus categories]); } } NSLog(@"businessArr count is %lu", [businessArr count]); self.Businesses = businessArr; return self;}@end

 完整的封装类WFHTTPRequest。它用于创建一个连接,并发送请求,管理整个应用出现的网络连接,创建一个单例,全局唯一。

//// WFRequest.h// WFSearch//// Created by ForrestWoo on 14-8-30.// Copyright (c) 2014年 ForrestWoo. All rights reserved.//#import <Foundation/Foundation.h>@class WFHTTPRequest;@protocol WFRequestDelegate <NSObject>@optional- (void)request:(WFHTTPRequest *)request didfinishloadingWithResult:(id)aResult;- (void)request:(WFHTTPRequest *)request didfailWithError:(NSError *)aError;@end@interface WFHTTPRequest : NSObject@property (nonatomic, unsafe_unretained) id<WFRequestDelegate> delegate;@property (nonatomic, strong) NSString *aUrl;@property (nonatomic, strong) NSDictionary *aParams;@property (nonatomic, strong) NSArray *connections;+ (WFHTTPRequest *)sharedInstance;- (void)createConnectionWithUrl:(NSString *)urlString params:(NSDictionary *)aParams delegate:(id<WFRequestDelegate>)aDelegate;- (void) cancel;- (NSString *)getRootURL;//api- (void)findBusinessesWithParams:(NSDictionary *)aParams delegate:(id<WFRequestDelegate>)aDelegate;- (void)findCityWithDelegate:(id<WFRequestDelegate>)aDelegate;- (void)getCategoriesForBusinessesWithDelegate:(id<WFRequestDelegate>)aDelegate;@end

 

//// WFRequest.m// WFSearch//// Created by ForrestWoo on 14-8-30.// Copyright (c) 2014年 ForrestWoo. All rights reserved.//#import "WFHTTPRequest.h"#import "WFConstants.h"#import "SHA1.h"@interface WFHTTPRequest () <NSURLConnectionDataDelegate>//- (void)appendUTF8Body:(NSMutableData *)aBody dataString:(NSString *)aDataString;//- (NSDictionary *)parseQueryString:(NSString *)query;////- (void)handleResponseData:(NSData *)data;//- (NSString *)generateFullURL:(NSString *)url;////- (void)addConnection;//- (NSString *)serializeURL:(NSString *)aBaseURL params:(NSDictionary *)aParams;@endstatic WFHTTPRequest *sharedObj = nil;@implementation WFHTTPRequest{  NSURLConnection *_connection;  NSMutableData *_responseData;}- (NSString *)getRootURL{  return kDPDomain;}- (NSString *)generateFullURL:(NSString *)url{  NSMutableString *str = [[NSMutableString alloc] initWithCapacity:0];    [str appendString:[self getRootURL]];  [str appendString:url];  return str;}+ (WFHTTPRequest *)sharedInstance{  static dispatch_once_t pred = 0;    dispatch_once(&pred, ^{    sharedObj = [[super allocWithZone:NULL] init];  });  return sharedObj;}+ (id)allocWithZone:(struct _NSZone *)zone{  return [self sharedInstance];}- (void)createConnectionWithUrl:(NSString *)urlString params:(NSDictionary *)aParams delegate:(id<WFRequestDelegate>)aDelegate{  NSString *urlStr = [self serializeURL:[self generateFullURL:urlString] params:aParams];  NSMutableURLRequest *request = [NSMutableURLRequest requestWithURL:[NSURL URLWithString:urlStr] cachePolicy:NSURLRequestReloadIgnoringCacheData timeoutInterval:kWFRequestimeOutInterval];    [request setHTTPMethod:kHttpMethodGET];  NSURLConnection *conn = [[NSURLConnection alloc] initWithRequest:request delegate:self startImmediately:YES];  self.delegate = aDelegate;//  [[[self class] sharedInstance] setConnections:conn];}- (void)findBusinessesWithParams:(NSDictionary *)aParams delegate:(id<WFRequestDelegate>)aDelegate{  [self createConnectionWithUrl:kSearchResto params:aParams delegate:aDelegate];}- (void)findCityWithDelegate:(id<WFRequestDelegate>)aDelegate{  [self createConnectionWithUrl:kSearchCity params:nil delegate:aDelegate];}- (void)getCategoriesForBusinessesWithDelegate:(id<WFRequestDelegate>)aDelegate{  [self createConnectionWithUrl:kCategoriesWithBusinesses params:nil delegate:aDelegate];}//- (void)appendUTF8Body:(NSMutableData *)aBody dataString:(NSString *)aDataString//{//  [aBody appendData:[aDataString dataUsingEncoding:NSUTF8StringEncoding]];//}- (NSDictionary *)parseQueryString:(NSString *)query{  NSMutableDictionary *paramDict = [[NSMutableDictionary alloc] initWithDictionary:0];    NSArray *paramArr = [query componentsSeparatedByString:@"&"];  for (NSString *param in paramArr)  {    NSArray * elements = [param componentsSeparatedByString:@"="];    if ([elements count] <= 1)    {      return nil;    }        NSString *key = [[elements objectAtIndex:0] stringByReplacingPercentEscapesUsingEncoding:NSUTF8StringEncoding];    NSString *value = [[elements objectAtIndex:1] stringByReplacingPercentEscapesUsingEncoding:NSUTF8StringEncoding];        [paramDict setObject:value forKey:key];  }    return paramDict;}- (NSString *)serializeURL:(NSString *)aBaseURL params:(NSDictionary *)aParams{	NSURL* parsedURL = [NSURL URLWithString:[aBaseURL stringByAddingPercentEscapesUsingEncoding:NSUTF8StringEncoding]];	NSMutableDictionary *paramsDic = [NSMutableDictionary dictionaryWithDictionary:[self parseQueryString:[parsedURL query]]];	if (aParams) {		[paramsDic setValuesForKeysWithDictionary:aParams];	}		NSMutableString *signString = [NSMutableString stringWithString:kDPAppKey];	NSMutableString *paramsString = [NSMutableString stringWithFormat:@"appkey=%@", kDPAppKey];	NSArray *sortedKeys = [[paramsDic allKeys] sortedArrayUsingSelector: @selector(compare:)];	for (NSString *key in sortedKeys) {		[signString appendFormat:@"%@%@", key, [paramsDic objectForKey:key]];		[paramsString appendFormat:@"&%@=%@", key, [paramsDic objectForKey:key]];	}  NSString *str = kDPAppSecret;	[signString appendString:str];	NSData *stringBytes = [signString dataUsingEncoding: NSUTF8StringEncoding];  NSString *digestString = [SHA1 getSHAString:stringBytes];  if (digestString)  {    [paramsString appendFormat:@"&sign=%@", [digestString uppercaseString]];    NSLog(@"...%@...", [NSString stringWithFormat:@"%@://%@%@?%@", [parsedURL scheme], [parsedURL host], [parsedURL path], [paramsString stringByAddingPercentEscapesUsingEncoding:NSUTF8StringEncoding]]);		return [NSString stringWithFormat:@"%@://%@%@?%@", [parsedURL scheme], [parsedURL host], [parsedURL path], [paramsString stringByAddingPercentEscapesUsingEncoding:NSUTF8StringEncoding]];  }  else  {    return nil;  }}- (void) cancel{  [_connection cancel];}+ (NSString *)getParamValueFromURL:(NSString *)aURl paramName:(NSString *)aParamName{  return nil;}#pragma mark - NSURLConnection Delegate Methods- (void)connection:(NSURLConnection *)connection didReceiveResponse:(NSURLResponse *)response{  _responseData = [[NSMutableData alloc] init];}- (void)connection:(NSURLConnection *)connection didReceiveData:(NSData *)data{  [_responseData appendData:data];}- (void)connectionDidFinishLoading:(NSURLConnection *)connection{  NSError *error = nil;  id result= [NSJSONSerialization JSONObjectWithData:_responseData options:NSJSONReadingAllowFragments error:&error];  if (!result)  {    NSDictionary *userInfo = [NSDictionary dictionaryWithObjectsAndKeys:error,@"error", nil];    NSError *err = [NSError errorWithDomain:@"domain is error" code:-1 userInfo:userInfo];    if ([self.delegate respondsToSelector:@selector(request:didfailWithError:)])    {      [self.delegate request:self didfailWithError:err];    }  }  else  {    NSString *status = 0;    if ([result isKindOfClass:[NSDictionary class]])    {      status = [result objectForKey:@"status"];    }        if ([status isEqualToString:@"OK"])    {      if ([self.delegate respondsToSelector:@selector(request:didfinishloadingWithResult:)])      {        [self.delegate request:self didfinishloadingWithResult:result == nil ?                 _responseData : result];      }    }    else    {      if ([status isEqualToString:@"ERROR"])      {        //TODO:错误处理代码。      }    }  }//  NSString *str = [[NSString alloc] initWithData:_responseData encoding:NSUTF8StringEncoding];//  NSLog(@"_responseData:%@", str);  //  [self clearData];}- (void)connection:(NSURLConnection *)connection didFailWithError:(NSError *)error{  NSLog(@"ERROR!%@", error.description);}- (void)clearData{  _responseData = nil;  [_connection cancel];  _connection = nil;}@end

 代码下载。下节详细介绍数据解析和网络编程,反射(运行时)